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Advances in research on relationship between tumor immune escape and tumor microenvironment
Jin-Feng Liu
93Tumor Microenvironment Research    2020, 2 (1): 7-15.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMER201900007
Abstract PDF (1062KB)  
Tumor immune escape is an important way for tumor cells to evade surveillance and attack by host immune system and promote tumor survival and proliferation. Immunotherapy for immune escape has made significant progress in recent years. Immunotherapy involves multiple factors and pathways, and is associated with changes in tumor cells themselves and tumor microenvironments, and the mechanisms are complex. At present, there are still many challenges in the clinical practice process. Starting from the tumor microenvironment, the article describes the role of various cells in the tumor microenvironment on tumor cell immune escape.
Interaction between LCSCs and lung cancer microenvironment and TCM intervention
Xiao-Di Liu, Shan-Qi Guo, Rui-Yu Mou, Ming-Xin Wu, Xiao-Jiang Li
93Tumor Microenvironment Research    2020, 2 (1): 16-22.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMER201900008
Abstract PDF (987KB)  
Lung cancer has become a leading cause of cancer-related death because of its high morbidity and mortality. Although some progress has been made in the diagnosis, surgery, chemoradiotherapy, and other aspects of lung cancer in the last decade, actually there is no substantial breakthrough for the 5-year survival rate of patients has no significant improvement and is still below 15%. Plenty of evidence suggests that malignant tumors including lung cancer have a unique subgroup of cells featured with self-renewal and multidirectional differentiation potential. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are the root of tumor growth and metastasis, and the characteristic changes of malignant phenotype (such as recurrence, invasion and metastasis, and drug resistance) are closely linked with CSCs. This paper explored the possible correlated mechanism of the complex interaction between lung cancer stem cells (LCSCs) and lung cancer microenvironment, to provide ideas for the R&D of relevant treatment technologies, the promotion of the progress in traditional medical technology, and the breakthrough of the bottleneck of long-term effect of lung cancer.
Research progress on fluorescence analysis of antitumor Chinese medicine components
Xiao-Ting Ma, Jing-Na Zhou
93Tumor Microenvironment Research    2020, 2 (1): 23-28.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMER201900009
Abstract PDF (1008KB)  
This paper classifies the anti-tumor traditional Chinese medicine's fluorescence analysis and finds that its research content mainly includes two aspects: the application of fluorescence analysis in the determination of the effective component content of anti-tumor traditional Chinese medicine; the study of the combined use of fluorescence imaging technology and the drug. According to literature analysis, it is found that although the research on the fluorescence analysis of anti-tumor Chinese medicine components is in a good state of development, it still needs to explore further in the identification of unknown components and deeper research on known components. Therefore, it can provide a certain basis for clinical guidance of tumor patients.
Research progress on the role of cancer-associated fibroblasts in tumorigenesis and development
Xiao-Hui Liu, Xiong-Zhi Wu
93Tumor Microenvironment Research    2020, 2 (1): 29-33.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMER201900010
Abstract PDF (906KB)  
Tumor microenvironment plays a very important role in the growth, invasion and metastasis of tumor cells. The tumor interstitial microenvironment is an important part of the tumor microenvironment, which includes two parts: the non-cellular and cellular components of the tumor interstitium, specifically including the extracellular matrix, blood vessels, and interstitial cells. Among them, activated interstitial fibroblasts, namely cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), are the main components of tumor interstitial cells, which are most closely related to tumor interstitial fibrosis and tumor progress, and are expected to become a new target for cancer treatment.
Biomechanics mechanism of the anti-tumor effects of sulfated polysaccharide and sulfated glycopeptide
Xiong-Zhi Wu, Jin-Feng Liu
93Tumor Microenvironment Research    2020, 2 (1): 1-6.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMER201900005
Abstract PDF (1073KB)  
There are also a variety of cytokines in the tumor microenvironment, which are involved in the change in the hardness of the tumor, thereby affecting the invasion and metastasis of tumor cells. As traditional Chinese medicines, drugs of softening and dissipating firm knot contains different kinds of sulfated polysaccharide and sulfated glycopeptide. By inhibiting the function of cancer-associated fibroblasts, they reduce interstitial fibrosis, thereby reducing the hardness of the tumor and exerting an anti-tumor effect.
Identification of key pathways and genes from gastric precancerous lesions to gastric cancer by integrated bioinformatics analysis
Liang-Jun Yang, Jing Li, Chi Zhang, Yue-Jun Li
93TMR Cancer    2020, 3 (1): 32-43.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMRC201800066
Abstract HTML PDF (1732KB)  

Highlights

This study explored possible changes in gene expression during the transition from precancerous lesions to gastric cancer. Until now, the underlining mechanisms of precancerous lesions to cancer transition remain unclear. Bioinformatics analysis may find out genes that are differentially expressed in this process, and provide ideas for studying the transformation of precancerous lesions into cancer.

Abstract

Objective: This work aimed to illuminate the potential key genes and pathways in GC tumorigenesis based on bioinformatics analysis. Methods: The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between GPL tissue samples and GC tissue samples were investigated using the GSE55696 and GSE87666 microarray data from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. DEGs were identified by an empirical Bayes method based on the Limma R package. Then, KEGG and GO enrichment analyses of DEGs were performed followed by protein-protein interaction (PPI) network construction. Finally, the overall survival (OS) analysis of key genes was performed by the Kaplan-Meier plotter online tool. Results: A total of 250 DEGs were obtained, of which 216 were up-regulated and 34 were down-regulated. KEGG pathways analysis showed that the up-regulated DEGs were enriched in cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, chemokine signaling pathway, metabolic pathways, PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, NF-kappa B signaling pathway, and other signaling pathways about cancer, while no down-regulated pathways were enriched. A PPI network of DEGs was constructed with 117 nodes and 660 edges, and 20 genes were selected as hub genes owing to high degrees in the network. According to the Kaplan-Meier analysis, 6 out of 20 hub genes including CCR7, FPR1, C3, CXCR5, GNB4, and PPBP with high mRNA expression were associated with poor OS for GC patients. Conclusion: The results of this study provide possible factors for the occurrence of GC, and the identification of the genes and pathways associated with the progression from GPL to GC provides valuable data for investigating the pathogenesis in future studies.

Should Crab Heals Cancer Humans?
Salman Sahab Atshan, Salwa A. Abduljaleel, Hussein S. Alessa
93TMR Cancer    2020, 3 (1): 28-31.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMRC201800065
Abstract HTML PDF (834KB)  

Highlights

Crab product in the Al-doweb village may have the effect on promote cancer patients healing. Many traditional or regional characteristics medicine may have anti-cancer effects. However, the name of the medicine and the underlining anti-cancer mechanisms remains unclear. This study provid us a product made by crabs that may have effect on promoting cancer patients recovery.

Abstract

Background Despite pharmacological interventions, cancer therapy still remain a challenge, and develop new therapies is still required for treating the cancer. The goal of this study was to assess the crab product in healing cancer patients. Methods This study was conducted using previous Imam Jaafar Al-Sadiq traditional described method. Results The cure rate was 85% among cancer patients treated with crab product, the majority of cases positively healing in 1-2 month after regular use of the crab product, and the other cases need a full year for the recovery. Conclusions the crab as one of the complementary medicine treatment available can contribute greatly to eliminate cancer in ancient and modern times.

The effect of Cordyceps Sinensis in the prognosis on patients receiving chemotherapy with malignant tumors: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Yi-Dan Sun, Ying Zhang, Pei-Ying Yang, Ying-Jie Jia
93TMR Cancer    2020, 3 (1): 19-27.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMRC201800064
Abstract HTML PDF (1582KB)  

Highlights

The combination therapy of Cordyceps Sinensis (CS) and chemotherapeutic drugs can reduce the inhibitory effect of bone marrow induced by chemotherapeutic drugs. CS can prevent leukocytes and white blood cells from decreasing in cancer patients during chemotherapy and radiotherapy. However, the prognostic role of CS in patients with malignant tumors after chemotherapy is still not clear. The mechanism of Chinese medicine treatment of tumor is a promising direction.

Abstract

Objective: The efficacy of Cordyceps Sinensis (CS) on malignant tumors remains controversial. We undertook a systematic meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical studies on this issue. Method: A comprehensive literature search (by the end of Sep. 31, 2017) was conducted in following electronic databases: China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), VIP database, Wan fang database (VIP), PubMed, Medline, and EMBASE. Relevant studies were included according to inclusion criteria. Pooled relative risk was estimated by using the fixed effects model or random effects model according to heterogeneity. Data were extracted independently and the standardized mean deviation (SMD) of the calculated results was obtained. Result: After selection, 8 of 729 studies were included. The result showed that CS combined with chemotherapeutic drugs was favorable for the treatment of malignant tumor. The amount of CD3+ T cells in the experimental group was significantly higher than that in the control group (SMD = 0.86; 95% CI = 0.02, 1.70; P < 0.01; I2 = 91%). The amount of CD4+ T cells in the experimental group was significantly higher than that in the control group (SMD = 0.95; 95% CI = 0.22, 1.68; P < 0.01; I2 = 88%). The amount of CD8+ T cells in the experimental group was significantly higher than that in the control group (SMD = -0.07; 95% CI= -0.30, 0.17; P = 0.32; I2 = 14%). The rate of CD4+/CD8+ T cells in the experimental group was higher than that in the control group (SMD = 27.76; 95% CI = 25.25, 30.28; P = 0.39; I2 = 0%). And CS may retard the declining trend of KPS functional status evaluation (RR = 0.46, 95% CI = 0.2780, 0.7350; P < 0.01), thus improving the patients’ life quality. Conclusion: The current evidence suggested that CS is favorable to improve the efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs in patients with malignant tumors, probably by improving immune system function.

Breast cancer among Iraqi female in their fifth decade: a retrospective study
Dhuha Mohammed Kasib, Manwar Abdulelah Al-Naqqash, Ahmed Salih Alshewered
93TMR Cancer    2020, 3 (1): 1-8.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMRC201800060
Abstract HTML PDF (1142KB)  

Highlights

This study assessed the clinical profiles of female Iraqi breast cancer patients in their fifth decade. The most common diagnosis was stage II breast cancer of the luminal A molecular subtype in Iraqi. Breast cancer incidence increases with age, and this is an important factor for the management of this disease. This article describes breast cancer incidence, survival, and breast cancer types in Iraqi women, providing an important complement to global data.

Abstract

Background: Breast cancer is a major public health concern for women around the world. Breast cancer incidence increases with age, and this is an important factor for the management of this disease. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical profiles of female Iraqi breast cancer patients in their fifth decade, and to evaluate patients’ molecular profiles and 5-year disease-free survival (DFS). Methods: A retrospective study was conducted at Baghdad Oncology Teaching Hospital between 1 January 2012 and 12 December 2016. Of 979 individuals seen, 285 were aged between 40 and 49 years. Results: The median age at diagnosis was 45 years. The highest incidence of breast cancer occurred among women in their fifth (40-49 years old) and sixth (50-59 years old) decades of life (29% and 28%, respectively). The most common stages at diagnosis were stages II and III, with 40.8% and 39.5%, respectively. Luminal A-like cancers were seen in 124 women (58.5%) and 29 women (13.7%) presented with triple-negative cancers. De novo metastatic disease comprised just 6.7% of the group studied. The median DFS was 48 months (95% CI: 41.4-54.5 months). Conclusions: The highest incidence of breast cancer occurred among women in their fifth and sixth decades of life. The most common diagnosis was stage II breast cancer of the luminal A molecular subtype. HER-2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) overexpression and triple-negative were the least common subtypes. The median DFS was 48 months.

Efficacy and safety of radiotherapy combined with zoledronic acid in the treatment of lung cancer with bone metastasis: a meta-analysis
Xun Liu, Zhu Yang, Feng-Xi Long, Jin-Lin Wu, Dong-Xin Tang
93TMR Cancer    2020, 3 (1): 9-18.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMRC201800061
Abstract HTML PDF (1337KB)  

Highlights

Zoledronic acid is the only bisphosphonate that is effective for all bone metastases. The combination of zoledronic acid with radiotherapy may improve the curative effect of lung cancer patients with bone metastasis. Traditional Chinese medicine plays an essential role in the treatment of cancer and now it has been treated as an adjuvant therapy. Western medicine has limited treatment for tumors that have distant metastasis. Traditional Chinese medicine adjuvant therapy may be a new way to treat advanced tumors.

Abstract

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of radiotherapy combined with zoledronic acid for the treatment of bone metastases. Methods: Use Pubmed, Cochrane Library, Embase, CBM, CNKI, Wanfang, Weipu tools to search-related databases at home and abroad. From 2013.1 to March 2019, radiotherapy combined with zoledronic acid and radiotherapy alone for bone metastasis of lung cancer were collected. Experimental studies; quality evaluation and data extraction for each of the included studies, and Cochrane risk bias assessment tools for quality evaluation of the literature. Data processing was performed using RevMan 5.3 and Stata 15.0 software, including risk ratio (OR), 95% CI, I2, and P values. Line sensitivity test, publication bias evaluation is using Egger's, Bgge's method quantitative calculation using Revman 5.3 and Stata 15.0 software for statistical analysis. Results: The total of 8 articles was included, and the number of cases was 703. The results of the meta-analysis showed that the radiotherapy, combined with the zoledronic acid group was effective in the treatment of lung cancer with bone metastasis. The meta-analysis was Z = 6.31 (P < 0.00001), OR (95% CI = 3.57, (2.41, 5.30)), the difference was statistically significant. The combined effect of bone metastases was better than that of the single-stage group. The meta-analysis results were Z = 3.18 (P = 0.001) and OR (95% CI = 3.21, (1.57, 6.59)), indicating the therapeutic effect of the two groups in the treatment of bone metastases. The difference is statistically significant. Adverse reactions include: (1) bone marrow suppression, blood toxicity; (2) fever and rash; (3) nausea, vomiting, and fatigue; (4) liver damage and loss of appetite, meta-analysis results are: bone marrow suppression, blood toxicity: Z = 0.73 ( P = 0.47), OR (95% CI = 0.58 (0.13, 2.54)); fever, rash: Z = 0.36 (P = 0.36), OR (95% CI = 1.3 (0.31, 5.38)); nausea, vomiting, Weakness: Z = 0.29 (P = 0.77), OR (95% CI = 0.85 (0.27, 2.62)); liver function damage and loss of appetite: Z = 0.00 (P = 1.00), OR (95% CI = 1.00 (0.17, 6.00)). The P values of the four meta-analyses were all greater than 0.05, and the difference was not statistically significant, indicating that the addition of zoledronic acid to the bone metastasis of lung cancer did not aggravate the changes of the above four adverse reactions. Conclusion: Radiotherapy combined with the zoledronic acid group is better than the single radiotherapy group in treating pain caused by bone metastasis. It can effectively treat bone metastasis and will not aggravate the occurrence of adverse reactions.

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