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Pseudo-hyperaldosteronism caused by compound glycyrrhizin tablets: a case report
Jing Lai, Yun-Ying Zhang, Qi Zhang
8Asian Toxicology Research    2020, 2 (2): 81-84.   https://doi.org/10.12032/ATR20200426
Abstract PDF (331KB)  
Compound glycyrrhizin tablets (CGT) is a glycyrrhizin-containing preparation for the treatment of chronic hepatic diseases, it contained Glycyrrhizin, Monoammonium Glycyrrhizinate, Aminoacetic Acid and Methionine. CGT has been shown to have anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and anti-viral effects. Although pseudo-hyperaldosteronism was reported as its important side effects, the frequency was unknown. A 59-year-old male patient with tuberculous pleurisy received CGT to prevent impairment in liver function which was caused by antituberculosis drugs. After more than one month, it appeared edema in the lower extremity, blood pressure increased, serum potassium lowed, serum sodium raised at the normal high limit. Finally, it was improved by suspending the CGT and diuretic treatment.
Research Progress of TCM Tongue Diagnosis in Spleen and Stomach Disease
Feng-Xian Bai, Ya-Hui Huang
92Psychosomatic Medicine Research    2020, 2 (1): 19-24.   https://doi.org/10.12032/psmr2020-0320-019
Abstract PDF (230KB)  
According to the theory of traditional Chinese medicine, the tongue is thought to be an outer manifestation of the status of the viscera. It can be divided to spleen–stomach area, liver–gall area, kidney area, and heart–lung area. The tongue coating is formed by stomach-Qi. the tongue, especially spleen–stomach area, and the tongue coating may reflect the status of the spleen and stomach. This article summarizes the research overview of TCM tongue diagnosis in spleen and stomach disease.
Traditional Chinese Medicine for Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: The Road Towards Internationalization
Li Li , Xiao-Jun Wang , Xiu-Hui Li
Gastroenterology & Hepatology Research    2019, 1 (1): 2-6.   https://doi.org/10.12032/ghr2019-12-002
Abstract PDF (252KB)  
Liver cancer is the sixth most common cancer and the fourth leading cause of cancer-related
deaths worldwide. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of liver cancer. Despite the
remarkable progress in the management of HCC over the last several decades, the long-term outcome of
these patients is still dismal. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) could exert beneficial effects on patients
with HCC in combination with modern medical methods. Although there is growing body of evidence in
clinical practice in China, the internationalization of TCM remains a great challenge. In this review, we
summarized the current evidence on herbs’ therapeutic effects on HCC and illustrated the road towards
TCM internationalization based on the example of YIV-906 (PHY906), which originated from ancient
formulas.

Preliminary Study on Clinical Features of Cryptogenic Liver Cancer Based on Clinical Data of 128 Patients with Primary Liver Cancer
Yuan-Hong Zhao, Mao-Yan Chen, Rui-Xue Yang, Qiang Lv
Gastroenterology & Hepatology Research    2019, 1 (1): 11-17.   https://doi.org/10.12032/ghr2019-12-004
Abstract PDF (261KB)  
Background: To compare the clinical features of viral and cryptogenic liver cancer and to provide evidence of or reference the clinical identification of cryptogenic liver cancer and diagnosis and treatment using Chinese and Western medicine. Methods: A retrospective analysis of the clinical data (general conditions, laboratory indicators, initial symptoms, and Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndrome types) of 92 cases of viral liver cancer (VLC) and 36 cases of cryptogenic liver cancer (CLC) was performed by using SPSS version 20.0 statistical software. Results: There were significant differences in triglyceride, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, and alkaline phosphatase levels, liver fibrosis index (Fibrosis 4 Score, APRI), and initial symptoms (P < 0.05) between VLC and CLC. However, there was no statistical difference in TCM syndrome types. Among the 128 patients with primary liver cancer, there was a high proportion of women with cryptogenic liver cancer. Compared to the VLC group, the CLC group was older, had a lower incidence of cirrhosis, and had a higher proportion of surgical resection. Conclusions: Although the number of research cases was limited, the occurrence of cryptogenic liver cancer was more likely to be associated with abnormal metabolic factors. Cryptogenic liver cancer should be considered in the differential diagnosis when liver fibrosis indicators are detected. 
Experience in Treatment of Hepatitis B-related Nephritis with Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine
Ying Qian
Gastroenterology & Hepatology Research    2019, 1 (1): 7-10.   https://doi.org/10.12032/ghr2019-12-003
Abstract PDF (246KB)  
The traditional Chinese medicine treatment of hepatitis B-related nephritis should adhere to the concept of “concurrent treatment of liver and kidneys,” with “reinforcing kidneys and regulating the liver” as the main strategy and “detoxification and collateral dredging” as the auxiliary strategy. Clinicians must also pay much attention to and prevent the occurrence of “guan (urinary obstruction)” and “ge (vomiting)” in patients. Modern medical treatment should keep the hepatitis B virus under control to avoid further damage to the liver and kidneys. In addition, avoiding drugs and behaviors that may damage the liver and kidneys should not be neglected. 
Role of Autophagy in Liver Fibrosis with Qi Deficiency and Blood Stasis Via the Nrf2-Keap1-Are Signaling Pathway
Yuan Ouyang, Ke-Yang Xu, Xiao-Qian Shu, Jian-Feng Bao
Gastroenterology & Hepatology Research    2019, 1 (1): 18-24.   https://doi.org/10.12032/ghr2019-12-005
Abstract PDF (488KB)  
Background: To investigate the mechanism underlying the role of the Nrf2-Keap1-Are oxidative stress pathway in liver fibrosis related to qi deficiency and blood stasis. Methods: A total of 30 Sprague–Dawley rats were randomly divided into a normal group, a qi deficiency and blood stasis group, and a Fuzheng Huayu treatment group. After death, body weights and liver wet weights were measured and liver sections were stained with Sirius red. RT-PCR was used to detect the mRNA expression levels of α-SMA, Nrf2, Keap1, and β-actin, and western blotting was used to detect the protein expression levels of α-SMA, LC3II, P62, and LC3II. Results: The Ishak score for liver fibrosis in the qi deficiency and blood stasis group was higher than that in the liver fibrosis group (P < 0.05) and decreased significantly following Fuzheng Huayu therapy (P < 0.05). As determined by PCR, α-SMA mRNA levels were highest in the qi deficiency and blood stasis group and were significantly higher than those in the treatment group (P < 0.05). Nrf2 and Keap1 mRNA expression levels were lowest in the qi deficiency and blood stasis group but increased significantly after treatment (P < 0.05). Western blotting showed that α-SMA and LC3II levels were highest in the qi deficiency and blood stasis group (P < 0.05) and decreased significantly after treatment (P < 0.05). The expression levels of P62, Nrf2, and Nqo1 were lowest in the qi deficiency and blood stasis group and increased significantly after treatment (P < 0.05). Conclusion: LC3II can down-regulate the expression of P62 in liver tissues of rats with qi deficiency and blood stasis, thereby inhibiting the activation of the Nrf2-Keap1-Are antioxidant stress pathway and aggravating liver fibrosis. However, this process can be reversed by strengthening qi and activating blood circulation to alleviate blood stasis. 
Network Pharmacology Analysis of the Mechanism of Action of Paederia scandens in the Treatment of NAFLD
Hui Zhu, Ming-Zhong Xiao, Xiao-Dong Li
Gastroenterology & Hepatology Research    2019, 1 (1): 25-31.   https://doi.org/10.12032/ghr2019-12-006
Abstract PDF (1106KB)  
Objective: This study aimed to elucidate the mechanism of action of Paederia scandens in the treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Methods: The Tcmsp database was used as a search platform for main chemical components of Paederia scandens and screening for their target sites. NAFLD-related genes were obtained from the GeneCards and OMIM databases. Common target genes of the disease and drugs were mapped using the UniProt database, and the compound-target network of Paederia scandens and NAFLD was construct using the Cytoscape software. The string database was used to construct the protein interaction network to screen for core genes. Finally, the Gene Ontology functional enrichment analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analysis were carried out using the DAVID database to elucidate the possible mechanism of action of Paederia scandens. Results: Based on the analyses, 57 target genes, seven common molecules, and four signaling pathways were found to be associated with the treatment of NAFLD with Paederia scandens. The data suggested that the mechanism of action of Paederia scandens might be related to insulin resistance and oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of NAFLD and might involve genes encoding important targets, such as AKT1, IL10, CYP1A2, CYP1A1, and CYP3A4. Conclusion: Through network pharmacology, the mechanism of action of Paederia scandens in the treatment of NAFLD was elucidated, and the data provide new ideas for the use of Paederia scandens in the treatment of metabolic disorders. 
Gastroenterology & Hepatology Research (GHR) Foreword
Xiuhui Li
Gastroenterology & Hepatology Research    2019, 1 (1): 1-1.   https://doi.org/10.12032/ghr2019-12-001
Abstract PDF (149KB)  
Role of apoptosis in the pathogenesis of primary biliary cholangitis
Bu-kun Zhu , Wei Zhang
Gastroenterology & Hepatology Research    2020, 2 (1): 1-4.   https://doi.org/10.12032/ghr2020-03-007
Abstract PDF (231KB)  
Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is a chronic cholestatic liver disease associated with autoimmune phenomena. PBC is characterized by high serum levels of anti-mitochondrial antibodies (AMA) and progressive non-suppurative inflammation of small and medium-sized intrahepatic bile ducts, which could lead to cholestasis, liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, and ultimately liver failure. Apoptosis is the main mechanism of programmed cell death and is an important mechanism to regulate and maintain tissue growth and homeostasis. The clearance of apoptotic cells is a highly regulated process, which is essential to avoid the cell contents from flowing out and to limit the immune response to the generated antigens. Here, we provide a brief overview of the role of apoptosis in the pathogenesis of PBC.
Preliminary study on Xiaoliusan-induced inhibition of hepatocellular carcinoma using gene chip analysis
Mei Wu, Kun-Lun Wu, Chao-Feng Zhang
Gastroenterology & Hepatology Research    2020, 2 (1): 5-11.   https://doi.org/10.12032/ghr2020-03-008
Abstract PDF (893KB)  
Objective: We explored inhibiting effects of Xiaoliusan (XLS) on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell growth by examining differential gene expression in HepG2 cells after XLS treatments.
Methods: HepG2 cells were treated for 24 h with either XLS (‘treatment’) or with PBS (‘control’) for 24 h to assess the effects of XLS on HepG2 proliferation. Differential gene expression was examined using a gene chip, and GO enrichment, KEGG pathway enrichment, and protein interaction network analyses were performed.
Results: XLS inhibited HepG2 proliferation in a dose-dependent manner, with an IC50 of 1.45 mg/mL. The whole-genome ChIP test of XLS-treated cells showed differential expression of 802 genes, 283 of which were up-regulated and 519 were down-regulated, compared with control cells. Using inductive analysis, we found that differentially expressed genes were mainly genes associated with the extracellular matrix (COL1A1, COL1A2, and ECM-receptor interaction pathway, among others) and with cell differentiation and proliferation (RAC1, MYC, and PI3KAkt signaling pathway, among others).
Conclusions: XLS inhibited HCC cell growth by targeting extracellular matrix genes in the tumor microenvironment and tumor growth, however, further research would be needed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms
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