1Traditional Medicine Research
is an international peer-reviewed, Open Access journal. It is dedicated to report the research progress in clinical efficacy, action mechanism and theoretical research on traditional medicine, including traditional Chinese medicine, traditional Indian medicine, Persian medicine and other traditional medicine around the world. In addition to the editorial, review, basic research and clinical research, letters, news and comment, the following topics are also welcome: comparative research, academic hypothesis, methodological research, traditional literature research, annual advances, standard and guideline. Researches of traditional medicine which have definite historical records, ethnic feature, and regional distribution are welcome especially. In order to focus on breakthrough research in a field, TMR insist on publishing special issues around a topic related to traditional medicine.
On September 27, 2019,
the Palace Museum and China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences held a signing
ceremony of strategic cooperation at Jingsheng Zhai (The studio of esteemed
excellence) in the garden of Jianfu Gong (The palace of established happiness)
at the Palace Museum.
This cooperation will focus on the vast collection of cultural
relics on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in the Palace Museum and
represents a joint venture into the scientific study of TCM cultural relics
from the court of the Qing dynasty of China (1636 C.E.-1912 C.E.) .
Tai Yi Ling (Chief imperial physician) was recorded in the Records
of Shiji (the Grand Historian) (Figure 1a) [2, 3]. The famous doctor Bian Que died in 310 B.C.E, who’s exact death
details are unclear until now. But there is a thought that he was assassinated
by Li Xi, who was a chief imperial physician in the state of Qin, and the
reason of the murder was jealousy  .
The name of the Tai Yi Yuan (Imperial medical academy)
originated from the Jin dynasty of China (1115 C.E.-1234 C.E.), and was
inherited from the Tai Yi Shu (Imperial medical office) and Tai Yi Ju (Imperial medical bureau) of the Tang (618 C.E.-907 C.E.) and Song dynasties of
China (960 C.E.-1279 C.E.). Between 1078 C.E. and 1085 C.E. of the Song
dynasty, the imperial medical bureau collated and published its formula
blueprints under the title Taiyiju Fang (Formulary of the imperial medical
bureau). After several rounds of revision and supplementation, the text was
eventually finalized after final additions were made between 1225 C.E. and 1227
C.E. as well as 1241 C.E. and 1252 C.E., becoming the current popularized
version known as Taiping Huimin Hejiju Fang (Formulary to benefit the
people from the pharmaceutical
bureau of the Taiping reign) (Figure
1b) . The medical classics named Yuyaoyuan Fang (Formulary of
the imperial pharmacy) of the Yuan dynasty (1279 C.E.-1368 C.E.) was revised
and edited by Xu Guozhen and others using Yuyaoyuan Fang (Formulary of
the imperial pharmacy) (Figure 1c) of the Jin dynasty as base text. It was finalized in 1267 C.E. and
is an important material for studying the medical formulae of the courts of the
Jin and Yuan dynasties (1271
C.E.-1368 C.E.) .
Imperial medical academies
were established in all subsequent dynasties . The Imperial medical
academy of the Ming dynasty of China (1368 C.E.-1644 C.E.) was a central
institution that managed the diagnosis and pharmacy services of the court and
nobility . Li Shizhen, a famous medical scientist in
ancient China, was appointed an official at the imperial medical academy in
Beijing at 27 years old. In 1549 C.E., the 28th year of Jiajing emperor
of the Ming dyansty, Li Shizhen resigned from his position at the imperial medical
academy at the age of 32 and returned to Ganzhou city of China. He wrote the
medical classics named Bencao Gangmu (Compendium of materia medica) in
his later years (Figure 1d) .
This study demonstrated that a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula, Jian-Gan-Xiao-Zhi (JGXZ) decoction, improved liver function and reduced steatosis of the hepatocytes in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) model rats. Moreover, JGXZ improved insulin resistance in NAFLD model rats. The possible mechanism underlying the effects of JGXZ on NAFLD and IR is the modulation of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway.
Jian-Gan-Xiao-Zhi decoction (JGXZ) is a formula of TCM established by Dr. Wen Weibo in the Yunnan Provincial Hospital of TCM, China. It is an adaptation of a classical prescription of TCM, Jiajian Huangqin decoction, which is recorded in the ancient book of TCM named Make Huoren, written by Yuqiong Xie in 1748 C.E. (Qing dynasty of China).
Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) can cause insulin resistance (IR) and diabetes. Our previous studies have demonstrated that Jian-Gan-Xiao-Zhi decoction (JGXZ) could be effective for the treatment of NAFLD and IR. However, the possible mechanism underlying the effects of JGXZ on NAFLD and IR remains unknown. Methods: Fifty rats received a high-fat high-carbohydrate (HFHC) diet for 12 weeks to induce NAFLD. After 4 weeks of HFHC treatment, rats were orally treated with JGXZ (8, 16, and 32 g/kg weight) for 8 weeks. Ten rats in the control group received standard chow. In the positive control group, rats were orally treated with metformin (90 mg/kg weight) for 8 weeks. After JGXZ and metformin treatment, H&E staining was conducted on rat livers and serum biochemical markers, including alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), triglyceride (TG), and total cholesterol (TC), were measured using test kits. Moreover, a fasting blood glucose test and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were conducted. Serum levels of insulin were determined using ELISA kit, and the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated. The levels of total insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS1), AMP-activated protein kinase-α (AMPKα) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) as well as the levels of phosphorylation of IRS1 (p-IRS1), phosphorylation of AMPK (p-AMPK) and phosphorylation of JNK (p-JNK) were measured using western blotting. Results: The body weights in JGXZ low-, middle-, and high-dose groups were lower than those in the model group (P < 0.05, P < 0.01, P < 0.01, respectively). The serum levels of AST (P < 0.05 in JGXZ middle- and high-dose groups), ALT (P < 0.01 in JGXZ middle-dose group and P < 0.05 in JGXZ high-dose group), TG (P < 0.01 in JGXZ middle- and high-dose groups), and TC (P < 0.01) upon JGXZ treatment were lower those than in NAFLD model rats. H&E staining showed that JGXZ treatment reduced steatosis of the hepatocytes in NAFLD model rats. JGXZ decreased the levels of fasting blood glucose (P < 0.01), HOMA-IR (P < 0.01), AUC (area under the curve) of the OGTT (P < 0.05) and p-IRS1 (P < 0.01 in JGXZ middle- and high-dose groups, P < 0.05 in JGXZ low-dose groups). Moreover, JGXZ regulated the hepatic AMPKα/JNK pathway in NAFLD model rats, which reflected the induction of p-AMPKα and inhibition of p-JNK. Conclusion: This study showed that JGXZ improved liver function and reduced steatosis of the hepatocytes in NAFLD model rats. Moreover, JGXZ improved IR in NAFLD model rats. The possible mechanism underlying the effects of JGXZ on NAFLD and IR involves the modulation of the AMPK/JNK pathway.
In the current systematic review on acupuncture and/or moxibustion for lumbar disc herniation (LDH), the methodology and quality of evidence and reports were evaluated via AMSTAR list, GRADE system and PRISMA statement and conclusion is that acupuncture and/or moxibustion have some advantages in terms of efficacy and safety with regard to LDH treatment.
LDH belongs to the category of low back pain (LBP) in Chinese medicine theory. LBP was recorded in the earliest Chinese medical classic Huangdi Neijing published in Qinhan period of China (the time of writing is unknown). Subsequently, evidence on the use acupuncture for the treatment of LBP by a large number of scholars of Ming dynasty of China was recorded in Jingyue Quanshu, Zhenjiu Dacheng, and other ancient books on acupuncture. With the development of modern medicine, National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence guidelines published in 2012 highlighted the need for a treatment course of acupuncture of up to 10 sessions over 12 weeks for patients with LBP.
Objective: In the current systematic review on acupuncture and/or moxibustion for lumbar disc herniation (LDH), we evaluated the methodology and quality of evidence and reports to provide necessary information for accurate clinical decision-making regarding acupuncture and/or moxibustion for LDH. Methods: From databases such as CBM (Chinese biomedical literature database), VIP (China science and technology journal database), CNKI (China national knowledge infrastructure), WF (Wanfang database), Web of Science, Embase, Medline, and Cochrane Library, systematic reviews on acupuncture and/or moxibustion for LDH were retrieved, and the methodological quality of the literature was evaluated according to the assessment of multiple systematic reviews (AMSTAR) list. Furthermore, the grading of recommendations assessment, development and evaluation (GRADE) system was used to grade the quality of evidence and the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) statement to evaluate the quality of the report. Results: A total of 18 systematic reviews were included, and the conclusion is that acupuncture and/or moxibustion have some advantages in terms of efficacy and safety with regard to LDH treatment. According to the AMSTAR score, there were 4 high-quality studies, 13 moderate-quality studies, and 1 low-quality study. GRADE showed that quality of evidence such as total effective rate of LDH and VAS was low and that of other forms of evidence was lower. The PRISMA statement showed that 8 articles were in line with 20 or more of the 27 items, and 10 articles were in line with 10-19 of the 27 items. Conclusion: At present, acupuncture and/or moxibustion for LDH has a good curative effect. More importantly, its methodological quality was of moderate level and the report quality was generally good and relatively complete. However, the poor quality of the original research results was reflected in the quality of evidence. More studies are needed to make sure whether acupuncture is more effective than other treatment methods.
The identification of syndrome conditions had different impacts on CRC prognosis, and which may be related with different mRNA expression levels. Our results prelimitarily uncovered that some oncogenes and pro-inflammatory cytokines were highly expressed in Dampness Heat group but not other syndrome types and CRC patients with Dampness Heat syndrome may might have a poor prognosis.
TCM Syndrome syndrome is a kind of pathological profiles that reflect signs and symptoms at a certain stage of a disease, which is the most essential guidelines for the prescription of Chinese herbal formulae and also an important classification for CRC TCM therapy. A clear understanding biological basis of TCM syndrome will help the clinical diagnosis and the treatment for CRC patients hopefully.
Background: Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndrome, also named syndrome, are comprehensive and integral analyses of clinical information which helps to guide different individualized treatment prescriptions. Methods: Thirty healthy controls and 80 colorectal cancer (CRC) patients (including 33 Spleen Qi Deficiency syndrome, 23 Dampness heat Heat syndrome, 17 Blood stasis Stasis syndrome and 7 other syndrome) were enrolled into this study. Human mRNAs were extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The gene expression for CRC patients with different TCM syndrome was determined by microarray and qRT-PCR. Results: Spleen Qi Deficiency, Dampness Heat and Blood Stasis were the most common syndromes in CRC patients. There is a significant difference was found in mRNA expression levels (especially for PIK3CA, STAT3, SOX9 and KDM5C) among Spleen Qi Deficiency, Dampness Heat and Blood Stasis syndrome groups. The higher mRNA levels of JNK1, TP53, MLH1, MSH6, PMS2, SOCS3, TCF7L2, FAM123B, PSAP, FBXW7, SALL4 and the lower expression of inflammatory cytokine IL-6 were found in Spleen Qi Deficiency group but not other syndrome types. The higher mRNA levels of KRAS, MUC16, EGFR, GRASP65, PIK3CA, MAPK7, CD24, STAT3, SLC11A1, Bcl-2, TXNDC17 and some inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-23, TNF-a, CXCR4) were found in Dampness Heat group but not other syndrome types. Blood Stasis syndrome showed higher expression of SOX9, MLH1, MSH6, KDM5C, PCDH11X, PSAP and SALL4, and lower mRNA levels of PIK3CA, CD24, STAT3, CXCR4, TXNDC17 and TP53. The CRC patients with Dampness Heat syndrome may might have a poor prognosis than other syndrome types. Conclusion: The identification of syndrome conditions had different impacts on CRC prognosis, and which may might be related with different mRNA expression levels. Some oncogenes and pro-inflammatory cytokines were highly expressed in Dampness Heat group but not other syndrome types, suggesting that the CRC patients with Dampness Heat syndrome may might have a poor prognosis. Our results prelimitarily uncovered the molecular basis of syndrome differences in CRC prognosis, a better understanding for TCM treatment of CRC.