Pretreatment levels of circulating endothelial cells on efficacy of first-line therapy in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer
TMR Cancer. 2020, 3 (4): 137-143.
Background: Elevated levels of circulating endothelial cells might reflect significant vascular damage and dysfunction. Recent studies have shown that circulating endothelial cells levels are related to therapeutic responses of tumors, and thus, could be used as an indicator to predict the efficacy of tumor treatments. The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation and impact of endothelial cells with and on the efficacy of first-line therapy (platinum-based or tyrosine kinase inhibitor drugs treatments) for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. Methods: We analyzed 45 inpatients who met the inclusion criteria of diagnosis with inoperable non-small-cell lung cancer stages III and IV, in the People’s Hospital of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region from January 2019 to January 2020. The flow cytometry technique was adopted to detect pretreatment levels of circulating endothelial cells in peripheral blood of patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. The pretreatment peripheral blood was collected to analyze the relations of circulating endothelial cells with different clinical characteristics and efficacy. Results: The level of pretreatment circulating endothelial cells was significantly correlated with the efficacy of treatment ( P < 0.05) but irrelevant to the patient’s physical conditions, pathological type, tumor stage, and pretreatment serum carcinoembryonic antigen ( P > 0.05). The comparison between the groups of response (complete response + partial response) and nonresponse (stable disease + progressive disease) showed a significant difference in circulating endothelial cells count. Compared with low levels of circulating endothelial cells, a high level of circulating endothelial cells led to a poor efficacy ( P < 0.05). Conclusion: The level of pretreatment circulating endothelial cells significantly correlated with the efficiency of first-line therapy for non-small-cell lung cancer. Compared with low level of circulating endothelial cells, high level of circulating endothelial cells lead to poor efficacy. Therefore, circulating endothelial cell is indeed an effective indicator for predicting the efficacy of first-line therapy for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer.
Thick tongue coating: diagnostic markers for metastatic colorectal cancer?
TMR Cancer. 2020, 3 (4): 144-152.
Background: According to World Health Organization, colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer in the world. The prognosis assessment and condition judgment of the colorectal cancer remains a challenge clinically. Therefore, identification of diagnostic markers to evaluate the prognosis of colorectal cancer clinically should be urgently developed. We have observed that a lot of cancer patients had thick tongue clinically, but what is the relationship between tongue coating and the tumor? Methods: Seventy-four patients with colorectal carcinoma were collected through the outpatients of Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital from May 2010 to September 2011, in which there were 49 patients confirmed with recurrence or metastasis. All photos of patients’ tongue were taken with a SONY camera in the same room and under constant conditions such as brightness or distance. Regression equation predicting thickness of tongue coating was constructed using binary logistic regression analysis. The optimal cut off of probabilities to diagnosis thick tongue coating was determined by receiver operating curve analysis. χ2 test for paired data and kappa test were used to determine the diagnostic value for recurrence and/or metastasis in colorectal cancer patients. Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to determine the distribution of ALT, AST, ALP ALB, TP, GLO, TBIL, DBIL, GGT, LDH, GLU, UA, CA724，CA199，CA242 and CEA. Data with the skewed distribution were presented as median (quartile interval). The association between the thickness of tongue coating and clinical-pathological character was evaluated by chi square test and two-independent-sample test. The two-independent-samples χ2 was used to determine whether there were significant differences in the thin coating and thick coating between patients with recurrence and/or metastasis and patients without recurrence and/or metastasis. Kaplan-Meier method was used to analyze survival time. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS (version 16.0). Results: Through retrospective clinical study we found that overall survival of colorectal cancer patients with thick greasy tongue coating is less than the patients with less tongue coating. What’s more, the risk for recurrence or/and metastasis overall survival in thick coating group was higher than thin coating group. In addition, the histological staining of the tongue slices of rats showed that EGFR receptors in the tongue root were the most among whole tongue surface. Tongue thick coating may be due to tumor patients with high levels of serum EGF which results in significantly increasing tongue coating. This finding suggested that the tongue coating of cancer patients may reflect the level of serum EGF levels in patients which may be related to shorter survival time. In addition, another study showed that serum lactic dehydrogenase level in patients with thick tongue coating is higher than patients with thin tongue coating. Conclusions: These studies suggest that tongue coating is likely to reflect some of the growth factor and enzyme levels. By observing the tongue coating we could predict the prognosis of patients and the characteristics of tongue coating may be used as new diagnostic markers to patients with colorectal carcinoma.
Analysis of cancer incidence and mortality in Heilongjiang cancer registries, 2016
TMR Cancer. 2020, 3 (4): 153-160.
Background: Cancer incidence rate has been increasing in recent years, and it has improved people’s living and financial burden. The incidence and mortality of malignant tumors in the Heilongjiang cancer registry area in 2016 were analyzed, which provided a scientific basis for the prevention and treatment of malignant tumors in Heilongjiang. Methods: The incidence and death data of tumors were collected from 10 tumor registration areas in Heilongjiang Province in 2016. According to the stratification of urban and rural areas and gender, the crude rate, standard rate, accumulative rates (0–74 years old) were calculated. The China 2000 population census data and Segi’s standard population were used for calculating age-standardized rates. Results: The incidence rate of malignant tumors in the Heilongjiang cancer registry area was 286.05/100,000 in 2016, age-standardized incidence rates by standard Chinese population and by standard world population were 168.11/100,000 and 164.69/100,000 with the cumulative incidence rate (0–74 years old) of 18.55%. The incidence of malignant tumors in urban areas was 313.60/100,000, and that in rural areas was 212.26/100,000. The frequency of malignant tumors in males was 295.94/100,000, higher than that in females (276.40/100,000). Lung cancer had the highest incidence followed by breast cancer, colorectal cancer, liver cancer and thyroid cancer. The mortality rate of malignant tumors in Heilongjiang cancer registration areas was 183.56/100,000, age-standardized mortality rates by standard Chinese population and by standard world population were 99.89/100,000 and 99.78/100,000 with the cumulative mortality rate (0–74 years old) of 10.95%. The mortality rate of malignant tumors in urban areas was 194.69/100,000, and that in rural areas was 153.73/100,000. The mortality rate of the male malignant tumor was 222.55/100,000, higher than that of a female malignant tumor (145.51/100,000). Lung cancer had the highest mortality followed by liver cancer, colorectal cancer, gastric cancer and breast cancer. Conclusion: Lung cancer, liver cancer, breast cancer and colorectal cancer were the most common cancers in Heilongjiang Province, which should be taken as the key cancer species for prevention and treatment. The incidence of thyroid cancer is higher in Heilongjiang Province, but the mortality rate is lower, which also needs attention.
Clinical Research progress of traditional Chinese medicine in treating esophageal cancer
TMR Cancer. 2020, 3 (4): 161-168.
Esophageal cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors in the world. In recent years, the incidence and mortality of esophageal cancer have increased year by year, which has seriously threatened human health. Surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, as the primary treatments of Western medicine, have achieved specific results in the clinic, but each has its limitations, this is mainly related to their side effects. The diversified treatment methods of traditional Chinese medicine have visible clinical effects, especially in terms of reducing toxicity and increasing efficiency. This present review reviews the research progress of esophageal cancer in terms of traditional Chinese medicine treatment, including the application of Chinese medicine extract, Chinese herbal compound, Chinese patent medicine and TCM external treatment in clinical practice, may provide valuable information for the adjuvant treatment of esophageal cancer with traditional Chinese medicine.
Anti-cancer drugs targeting using nanocarriers; niosomes-a review
TMR Cancer. 2020, 3 (4): 169-174.
Background: In the last few decades numbers of review and research articles have been published on niosomes. This shows the relevant interest of academias & researchers in niosomes because of the advantages sponsored by them over other colloidal drug delivery systems. Niosomes formation occurs when non-ionic surfactant vesicles assemble themselves. Various antineoplastic agents are used in chemotherapy, but they have some drawbacks that these agents cause cell death in normal tissues as well. Methods : So, there are two approaches to overcome this limitation. First, to modify the structure of existing drugs, but this will not possible because it changes the properties of drugs. Second, the development of nano-carriers like liposomes, dendrimers, nanoparticles, niosomes et al. Results: Among all, niosomes (non-ionic surfactant vesicles) have more advantages besides all nano-carriers. Conclusion: Drugs either hydrophilic in nature or hydrophobic in nature, both can be incorporated in niosomes. And by embedding specific ligands over vesicular surface enables us to target the drug to specific cancer cells.