Regional ethnic medicine (REM) and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) have unique experience in the treatment of cancer pain.
There are many different aspects of the treatment of cancer pain in REM and TCM.
TCM and REM are important cancer-assisted treatments in China. Especially for the treatment of cancer pain, TCM and REM are important alternatives.
REM and TCMare both important parts of traditional medicine in China, and they have their own characteristics in the understanding and prevention of diseases. This article compares the understanding, the theoretical prevention and treatment guidance and the clinical application of the REM and TCMon the cancer pain.
Gastric cancer is a malignant tumor that originates in the gastric mucosa. Due to various factors, the treatment effect of gastric cancer patients is not ideal and appears younger. Gastric cancer immunotherapy refers to the use of biotechnology to mobilize immune functions so that people have natural anti-cancer capabilities. This article summarizes the research progress of biological immunotherapy for gastric cancer.
Gastric cancer immunotherapy refers to the use of biological technology to mobilize the immune function so that the body has a natural anti-cancer ability. It can be induced in vitro by collecting immune cells and cancer cells from patients with gastric cancer to form specific immune cell groups. Besides, a large number of these immune cell groups are cultured, separated, and then reinfused into patients, to achieve high efficiency, eliminate tumors and mobilize immune mechanisms in patients. In theory, this method can cure tumors because the principle of immunotherapy is to stimulate the body's autoimmune response. However, for some special populations, there may be more severe side effects. At present, the prediction, prevention, and treatment of this severe side effect are not complete. The immunotherapy of gastric cancer has not yet reached the full promotion, but it is a good treatment direction. It can be used clinically with chemotherapy and radiotherapy, surgery and traditional Chinese medicine cooperate, thereby achieving significant curative effects, and even curing gastric cancer.
Gastric cancer is a common gastrointestinal malignant tumor, accounting for the fourth place in the global incidence of malignant tumors, and the third place in cancer mortality. Although chemotherapy is the main treatment for patients with advanced gastric cancer, adverse reactions are more prominent. With the deepening of scientific research, there are more and more targeted therapies for gastric cancer. The author introduces the relevant targets and targeted drugs for targeted treatment of advanced gastric cancer, hoping to provide a reference for clinically targeted treatment of advanced gastric cancer.
The incidence of gastric cancer ranks 4th in malignant tumors, and the mortality rate ranks 3rd in malignant tumors. Most patients with gastric cancer are already at the advanced stage when diagnosed. Although chemotherapy is the main treatment for patients with advanced gastric cancer, it can extend the overall survival. But adverse reactions are more prominent. With the rise of targeted therapy, the molecular mechanism of gastric cancer occurrence and development continues to develop, and molecular targeted therapy of gastric cancer has gradually emerged. The current targets for gastric cancer mainly include endothelial growth factor receptor, HER2, vascular endothelium growth factor, vascular endothelium growth factor receptor, mammalian rapamycin receptor, hepatocellular growth factor, et al., but the clinical efficacy is still not satisfactory. At present, most of the studies on molecular targeted drugs for gastric cancer have ended in failure. The heterogeneity between patients and the prognosis of tumors in different parts may be different. It is suggested that screening targeted drugs according to the patient's pathological characteristics and molecular typing, and individualized treatment is the inevitable way of targeted treatment of gastric cancer.
Gastrointestinal stromal tumor is one of the most common mesenchymal tumors of the digestive tract. Due to too many factors related to gastrointestinal stromal tumors, there is no uniform prognostic standard. From the perspective of molecular biology, the author summarizes the recent advances in the diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal stromal tumors. To provide normative ideas for clinical treatment of gastrointestinal stromal tumors.
Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is a type of tumor that originates from the mesenchymal tissue of the digestive tract and accounts for most interstitial tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. Present studies demonstrate that GIST is mainly driven by a mutated c-KIT or platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha gene. Histologically, GIST is usually composed of spindle cells, epithelioid cells, or pleomorphic cells in a bundle or diffuse pattern. GIST cells are generally immunohistochemically positive for CD34, CD117, or DOG-1 expression. GIST is similar to interstitial cells of Cajal around the myenteric plexus of the gastrointestinal tract, and both have a positive c-KIT gene, CD117, and CD34 expression. At present, gastroscopy, colonoscopy, computed tomography, nuclear magnetic resonance and other means are the primary means to diagnosis GIST. At the same time, for unidentified GIST, biopsy is also a necessary means of examination. However, for the treatment of gastrointestinal stromal tumors, oral Gleevec and surgery are present primary treatment methods, which is still limited. However, not all patients are suitable for Gleevec. For some gene mutated sites, Gleevec treatment is ineffective. With the increase of cases of gastrointestinal stromal tumors, targeted therapies for GISTs with different gene loci mutations are urgently needed.
The combination therapy of Cordyceps Sinensis (CS) and chemotherapeutic drugs can reduce the inhibitory effect of bone marrow induced by chemotherapeutic drugs. CS can prevent leukocytes and white blood cells from decreasing in cancer patients during chemotherapy and radiotherapy. However, the prognostic role of CS in patients with malignant tumors after chemotherapy is still not clear. The mechanism of Chinese medicine treatment of tumor is a promising direction.
Objective: The efficacy of Cordyceps Sinensis (CS) on malignant tumors remains controversial. We undertook a systematic meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical studies on this issue. Method: A comprehensive literature search (by the end of Sep. 31, 2017) was conducted in following electronic databases: China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), VIP database, Wan fang database (VIP), PubMed, Medline, and EMBASE. Relevant studies were included according to inclusion criteria. Pooled relative risk was estimated by using the fixed effects model or random effects model according to heterogeneity. Data were extracted independently and the standardized mean deviation (SMD) of the calculated results was obtained. Result: After selection, 8 of 729 studies were included. The result showed that CS combined with chemotherapeutic drugs was favorable for the treatment of malignant tumor. The amount of CD3+ T cells in the experimental group was significantly higher than that in the control group (SMD = 0.86; 95% CI = 0.02, 1.70; P < 0.01; I2 = 91%). The amount of CD4+ T cells in the experimental group was significantly higher than that in the control group (SMD = 0.95; 95% CI = 0.22, 1.68; P < 0.01; I2 = 88%). The amount of CD8+ T cells in the experimental group was significantly higher than that in the control group (SMD = -0.07; 95% CI= -0.30, 0.17; P = 0.32; I2 = 14%). The rate of CD4+/CD8+ T cells in the experimental group was higher than that in the control group (SMD = 27.76; 95% CI = 25.25, 30.28; P = 0.39; I2 = 0%). And CS may retard the declining trend of KPS functional status evaluation (RR = 0.46, 95% CI = 0.2780, 0.7350; P < 0.01), thus improving the patients’ life quality. Conclusion: The current evidence suggested that CS is favorable to improve the efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs in patients with malignant tumors, probably by improving immune system function.
Traditional Chinese medicine is an important tumor-assisted treatment.
Classical formula has a good effect in colorectal treatment, but the mechanism is not clear.
Classical Chinese medicine prescriptions are widely used in cancer treatment. Although obvious therapeutic effects have been observed in clinical practice, laboratory evidence is still lacking. Clinically effective prescriptions may become the research direction for the development of cancer therapeutic drugs.
ShanghanZabingLun, an acient book of Chinese medicine that published in Han dynasty (219 C.E.), is the first monograph in China that has the principles of prescription and treatment. Modern physicians flexibly applied many classical prescriptions recorded on this acientd book, such as BanxiaXiexin decoction, DaChengqi decoction, YiyiFuziBijiang decoction and Wumeipill for the treatment of colorectal cancer and its complications, and made some progress in clinical and experimental research. Studies have shown that classical prescriptions alone or in combination with other therapies can improve immunity, prevent cancer from recurrence and metastasis, reduce the side effects of anticancer drugs, improve quality of life, and prolong the survival of cancer patients. However, the current clinical and mechanistic studies on the treatment of classical prescriptions still need to explore in depth. This study aims to summarize the clinical and research progress in the treatment of colorectal cancer with classical prescriptions in recent years.
Astragalus polysaccharide is one of the main components of astragalus. It is a natural extract with a variety of effects and has a specific therapeutic effect on patients with malignant tumors. Astragalus polysaccharides can exert antitumor effects in a variety of ways, such as reducing the side effects of radiation therapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy and targeted therapy, and also play a synergistic role in combination therapy. Astragalus polysaccharide has shown sound anti-tumor effects, and its mechanism is related to directly inhibiting the growth of tumor cells, promoting apoptosis, inhibiting tumor angiogenesis and enhancing cellular immunity.
Astragalus polysaccharide has the beneficial effect of Qi-deficiency, and it also has several anti-tumor mechanisms, including pharmacological actions and clinical functions. Through literature review, this work concluded anti-tumor mechanism and clinical application of astragalus polysaccharide, which was of considerable significance to expand and optimize its anti-tumor function and clinical application.
Gastric cancer accounts for the fourth-highest incidence of tumors worldwide and the second-highest mortality rate. And gastric cancer is highly heterogeneous, and the disease progresses rapidly. Most patients with gastric cancer are diagnosed as advanced at the time of initial diagnosis. Peritoneal hyperthermia chemotherapy (HIPEC) is a new technique that combines intraperitoneal chemotherapy with hyperthermia and peritoneal lavage. HIPEC combined with cytoreductive surgery (CRS) has unique advantages in the treatment of abdominal cancer and malignant ascites. The prognosis of gastric cancer peritoneal carcinomatosis (GCPC) remains poor despite recent advances in systemic chemotherapy. Current evidence supporting the treatment of HIPEC for GCPC is limited. The authors performed a meta-analysis of the efficacy and safety of HIPEC in GCPC treatment.
Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) in the treatment of gastric cancer with peritoneal carcinomatosis. Methods: The relevant clinical controlled studies were retrieved from the databases of PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase. Risk ratio (RR), as well as the respective 95% confidence interval (CI), was used as a statistical indicator. 1-year survival, 2-year survival, and safety were analyzed. Results: Two randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and 10 high-quality non-randomized controlled trials (NRCTs) were included, enrolling 837 patients (438 in the HIPEC group and 415 in the control group). Compared with the control group, HIPEC group turned out to be of greater improvement in long-term efficacy: 1-year survival rate (1y-os) and 2-year survival rate (2y-os). Subgroup analysis of different treatment modes in NRCTs showed that, in terms of 1-year survival rate, (1) HIPEC combined with cytoreductive surgery (CRS) compared with CRS alone, RR = 0.68, 95% CI: (0.53, 0.85); (2) HIPEC combined with intravenous chemotherapy ± CRS versus chemotherapy alone, RR = 0.54, 95% CI: (0.39, 0.74); (3) HIPEC combined with palliative gastrectomy versus palliative gastrectomy, RR = 0.37, 95% CI: (0.22, 0.63). As for safety,there were no significant differences in adverse events between two groups. Conclusion: HIPEC can prolong the survival of gastric cancer patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis, and the incidences of adverse events were not increased.
Although aggressive angiomyxoma (AAM) has some characteristics of malignant tumors, it does not cause distant metastasis.
Surgery combined with traditional Chinese medicine treatment may be a new way to treat AAM.
Aggressive angiomyxoma(AAM) is a tumor that occurs mainly in women, and its mechanism and treatment are still in the exploratory stage. Traditional Chinese medicine may exert a certain effect in the treatment of AAM. But the mechanism that works is still in need of further laboratory research.
Aggressive angiomyxoma (AAM) is a rare soft tissue tumor. Invasiveness and recurrence are important clinical features of AAM. A patient with recurrent AAM was admitted to the hospital.At present, the treatment for AAM is still based on surgerybecause it does not have lymph nodes and distant metastasis. Moreover, chemotherapy is of little significance. Traditional Chinese medicine believes the formation of tumor is related to blood stasis, so after surgery, a Chinese medicine called Xue-Shuan-Tong was used to improve blood circulation and disperses stasis. The drainage tube was removed on the 5th day after the operation and achieved a good wound healing. This article analyzes and demonstrates the pathogenesis of female vulvar invasive angiomyxoma from the perspective of modern medicine and traditional medicine, in order to provide a better understanding of the disease.
CT-guided radiofrequency ablation combined with chemotherapy may be one effective method for the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
Radiofrequency ablation is a precise treatment,which may improve disease control rate and the life quality of patients with NSCLC.
At present, the research on the combined treatment of NSCLC is still limited, and the treatment effect is not clear.At present, the therapeutic effect of combination therapy on NSCLC requires further clinical validation evidence. This article provides clinical evidence for the role of radiotherapy combined with chemotherapy in the treatment of advanced NSCLC.
Objective: To study the short-term efficacy and improvement effect on the quality of life of CT guided radiofrequency ablation（RFA） in treating late non-small cell lung cancer. Methods: 317 patients with non-small cell lung cancer (87 cases in the observation group and 230 cases in the control group) were selected for propensity score matching, with a matching tolerance of 0.05, and 42 pairs were successfully paired. The changes in chest enhanced CT before and 3 months after treatment and the quality of life measurement scale EORTC QLQ-C30 in Chinese version were evaluated. Results: The disease control rate of the observation group was 88.09%, which was significantly higher than that of the control group (61.91%). The functional and symptom scores of the two groups after treatment were significantly better than those before treatment, and the indicators of the observation group after treatment were better than those of the control group (P< 0.05). Conclusion: CT-guided radiofrequency ablation combined with chemotherapy is safe and effective in the treatment of NSCLC, which can control local tumor progression, reduce tumor burden, and improve the quality of life of patients with advanced NSCLC.
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