Publication Ethics

Publication Ethics

Ethical standards for publication exist to ensure high-quality scientific publications, public trust in scientific findings, and that people receive credit for their work and ideas. TMR Cancer follows the standards of Publication Ethics. We only accept manuscripts that adhere to the ethical guidelines of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) and which pass strict double-blind peer review.

Following the COPE code of conduct for publishers

The manuscript publishing process of the TMR Cancer is founded upon a clear definition of the relationship between authors, peer reviewers and our staff. That foundation is strengthened by consistent respect for the privacy of the authors and peer reviewers, protection of intellectual property and copyright, and fostering of editorial independence. All manuscripts are subject to peer review and are expected to meet standards of academic excellence. If approved by the editor, submissions will be considered by peer reviewers, whose identities will remain anonymous to the authors.

Following the COPE code of conduct for journal editors

The manuscript editing process of the TMR Cancer begins with ensuring that editors understand their general duties and responsibilities, so that they may efficiently and effectively recognize manuscripts that fit the views and scope of the journal that they represent. The manuscript editing process has systematic steps in place to assure the quality of the material selected for publication. Each step is rooted in the core values of championing freedom of maintaining integrity of the academic record, ensuring the business needs do not compromise intellectual and ethical standards, and publishing corrections, clarifications, retractions and apologies when needed. Editors and reviewers must not ask authors to include references merely to increase citations to their own or an associate’s work, to the journal, or to another journal they are associated with.

Following the Directory of Open Access Journals criteria for journal indexing

These basic requirements include aims, scope, editorial board members, instructions for authors, description of article quality control, open access statement, policy of dealing with plagiarism, and permission statement.

Following the academic rules and norms 

Authors must provide human and animal rights statement, institutional review board statement, informed consent statement, clinical trial registration statement, institutional animal care and use committee statement, animal care and use statement, biostatistics statement, conflict-of-interest statement, and data sharing statement.


If TMR Cancer becomes aware of breaches of our publication ethics policies, whether or not the breach occurred in a journal published by TMR Publishing Group, the following sanctions may be applied across the TMR journals:

Rejection of the manuscript and any other manuscripts submitted by the author (s).

Not allowing submission for 1-3 years.

Prohibition from acting as an editor or reviewer.

TMR Cancer may apply additional sanctions for severe ethical violations.


Suspected breaches of our publication ethics policies, either before and after publication, as well as concerns about research ethics, should be reported to our Research Integrity team, overseen by the Head of Research Integrity.

  Claimants will be kept anonymous if requested, though claimants may also wish to use an anonymous email service such as ProtonMail or TorGuard.

TMR Cancer may ask the authors to provide the underlying data and images, consult editors, and contact institutions or employers to ask for an investigation or to raise concerns.

Corrections and Retractions

When errors are identified in published articles, the publisher will consider what action is required and may consult the editors and the authors’ institution (s). Errors by the authors may be corrected by a corrigendum and errors by the publisher by an erratum. If there are errors that significantly affect the conclusions or there is evidence of misconduct, this may require retraction following the COPE Retraction Guidelines. All authors will be asked to agree to the content of the notice.

Conflicts of Interest

Conflicts of interest (COIs, also known as ‘competing interests’) occur when issues outside research could be reasonably perceived to affect the neutrality or objectivity of the work or its assessment. Potential conflicts of interest must be declared—whether or not they actually had an influence—to allow informed decisions. In most cases, this declaration will not stop work from being published nor will it always prevent someone from being involved in a review process.

  If unsure, declare a potential interest or discuss with the editorial office. Undeclared interests may incur sanctions. Submissions with undeclared conflicts that are later revealed may be rejected. Published articles may need to be re-assessed, have a corrigendum published, or in serious cases be retracted. For more information on COIs, see the guidance from the ICMJE and WAME. Conflicts include the following:

Financial—funding and other payments, goods and services received or expected by the authors relating to the subject of the work or from an organization with an interest in the outcome of the work

Affiliations—being employed by, on the advisory board for, or a member of an organization with an interest in the outcome of the work

Intellectual property—patents or trademarks owned by someone or their organization

Personal—friends, family, relationships, and other close personal connections

Ideology—beliefs or activism, for example, political or religious, relevant to the work

Academic—competitors or someone whose work is critiqued


Authors must declare all potential interests in a ‘Conflicts of interest’ section, which should explain why the interest may be a conflict. If there are none, the authors should state “The author(s) declare(s) that there are no conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this paper.” Submitting authors are responsible for coauthors declaring their interests. 

  Authors must declare current or recent funding (including article processing charges) and other payments, goods or services that might influence the work. All funding, whether a conflict or not, must be declared in the ‘Acknowledgments’.

  The involvement of anyone other than the authors who 1) has an interest in the outcome of the work; 2) is affiliated to an organization with such an interest; or 3) was employed or paid by a funder, in the commissioning, conception, planning, design, conduct, or analysis of the work, the preparation or editing of the manuscript, or the decision to publish must be declared.

  Declared conflicts of interest will be considered by the editor and reviewers and included in the published article.

Criteria for Authorship
Authorship credit should be given in accordance with the standard proposed by the ICMJE (, specifically, authorship is merited by (1) substantial contributions to conception and design of the study, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; (2) drafting the article or making critical revisions related to important intellectual content of the manuscript; and (3) final approval of the version of the article to be published. Authors should meet conditions 1, 2 and 3. 

Editors and Reviewers

Editors and reviewers should decline to be involved with a submission when they

Have a recent publication or current submission with any author

Share or recently shared an affiliation with any author

Collaborate or recently collaborated with any author

Have a close personal connection to any author

Have a financial interest in the subject of the work

Feel unable to be objective

Reviewers must declare any remaining interests in the ‘Confidential’ section of the review form, which will be considered by the editor.

Editors and reviewers must declare if they have previously discussed the manuscript with the authors.

Management of Academic Misconduct

TMR Cancer strictly control academic misconduct from the time of manuscript submission. Academic misconduct includes plagiarism, Fabrication,Authorship and Acknowledgements, duplicate submission/multiple submissions, Salami publication, and Citation manipulation . We take the following measures to control academic misconduct:


Plagiarism is the appropriation of another person's thoughts, ideas, data, figures, research methods, or words without giving appropriate credit, or the over-citation of another person's published work. Manuscripts that are found to have been plagiarized from a manuscript by other authors, whether published or unpublished, will be rejected and the authors may incur sanctions. Any published articles may need to be corrected or retracted.


Fabrication is the practice of making up data or results without having performed the relevant research. The authors of submitted manuscripts or published articles that are found to have fabricated or falsified the results, including the manipulation of images, may incur sanctions, and published articles may be retracted.

Authorship and Acknowledgements

All listed authors must have made a significant scientific contribution to the research in the manuscript, approved its claims, and agreed to be an author. It is important to list everyone who made a significant scientific contribution. We refer to the ICMJE guidelines. Author contributions may be described at the end of the submission, optionally using roles defined by CRediT. Changes in authorship must be declared to the journal and agreed to by all authors.

Anyone who contributed to the research or manuscript preparation, but is not an author, should be acknowledged with their permission.

Submissions by anyone other than one of the authors will not be considered.

Duplicate submission/multiple submissions

Duplicate submission/multiple submissions refers to the practice of submitting the same manuscript or several manuscripts with minor differences (e.g., differences only in title, keywords, abstract, author order, author affiliations, or a small amount of text) to two or more journals at the same time, or submitting to another journal within an agreed or stipulated period.

  Traditional Medicine Research consider only original content, i.e. articles that have not been previously published, including in a language other than English. Articles based on content previously made public only on a preprint server, institutional repository, or in a thesis will be considered.

  Manuscripts submitted to Traditional Medicine Research must not be submitted elsewhere while under consideration and must be withdrawn before being submitted elsewhere. Authors whose articles are found to have been simultaneously submitted elsewhere may incur sanctions.

  If authors have used their own previously published work, or work that is currently under review, as the basis for a submitted manuscript, they must cite the previous articles and indicate how their submitted manuscript differs from their previous work. Reuse of the authors’ own words outside the Methods should be attributed or quoted in the text. Reuse of the authors’ own figures or substantial amounts of wording may require permission from the copyright holder and the authors are responsible for obtaining this.

Salami publication

Salami publication refers to the practice of slicing data from a large study, which could have been reported in a single paper, into different pieces and publishing them in two or more articles, all of which cover the same population, methods, and question. Redundant publication, the inappropriate division of study outcomes into more than one article (also known as salami slicing), may result in rejection or a request to merge submitted manuscripts, and the correction of published articles. Duplicate publication of the same, or a very similar, article may result in the retraction of the later article and the authors may incur sanctions.

Citation manipulation

In order to prevent citation manipulation, our science editor and editorial director check whether the manuscript’s citations meet the rules and norms; Upon discovery of citation manipulation, the manuscript will be withdrawn.


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