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2TMR Integrative Medicine  2018, Vol. 2 Issue (4): 140-167     DOI: 10.12032/TMRIM201802031
Review     
Efficacy of acupuncture on treating obesity and adipose-incurred illnesses
Fung-Kei Cheng1,*()
Hong Kong
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Highlights:

This review reveals practical implications and future research directions, benefiting the development of acupuncture in the modern medical arena for both patients and practitioners.

Abstract

Being overweight and obese impacts health due to adiposity itself and illnesses it incurs, which produces individual and societal financial burdens. This urges effective interventions, including adjunct therapies. Acupuncture, a traditional Chinese medical practice, indicates positive signs for tackling these problems. Investigating 101 empirical human-based projects, this narrative review analyses their outcomes and then provides an overview of the effects of acupuncture in body weight reduction and obesity-induced diseases, either performed alone or with other approaches. It involves 15941 participants from 9-80 years old in mainland China, Taiwan, Turkey, Brazil, Egypt, Iran, Greece, Korea, Sudan, Thailand, and the USA. It also reveals practical implications and future research directions, benefiting the development of acupuncture in the modern medical arena for both patients and practitioners.



Key wordsAppetite      Complementary and alternative therapy      Narrative review      Traditional Chinese medicine      Weight reduction     
Published: 14 December 2018
Corresponding Authors: Cheng Fung-Kei     E-mail: oasischeng@yahoo.com
Cite this article:

Fung-Kei Cheng. Efficacy of acupuncture on treating obesity and adipose-incurred illnesses. 2TMR Integrative Medicine, 2018, 2 (4): 140-167.  

URL:

https://www.tmrjournals.com/im/EN/10.12032/TMRIM201802031     OR     https://www.tmrjournals.com/im/EN/Y2018/V2/I4/140

Figure 1 Selection process
Source Research objective (s) Sample size Intervention Results Research location
Guo [94] To compare the effects of acupuncture and ear acupuncture on obesity, hs-C-reactive protein, and blood lipids. 90 participants (n = 48 males, n = 42 females), aged 25-66. Randomly assigned to the acupuncture (n = 45; n = 23 males, n = 22 females; aged 26-65), and ear acupuncture (n = 45; n = 25 males, n = 20 females; aged 25-66) groups.
30-minute session, total 15 sessions.
Effect rate: 93.3% in BMI, 91.1% in waist, 93.3% in waist-hip ratio in acupuncture group; 71.1% in BMI, 73.3% in waist, 68.9% in waist-hip ratio in ear acupuncture group.
Improvements in hs-C-reactive protein, and blood lipids.
China.
Li, Li [95] To investigate the effects of abdominal acupuncture on obesity. 30 women, 15-50. 30-minute session, total 80 sessions. Reductions in body weight, BMI, abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness, and prehepatic fat thickness. Sudan.
Yan, Liu [96] To assess the effects of warming acupuncture and ear acupuncture on obesity with hyperlipidemia. 113 participants (n = 20 males, n = 93 females), aged 18-77. 30-minute session, total 45 sessions. Effect rate: 94.7%; 95% among males, 94.6% among females.
Reductions in BMI, body fat percentage, degree of obesity.
Decreases in total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol.
An increase in high density lipoprotein cholesterol.
Improvements in emotions.
China.
Yan, Yuan [97] To test the effects of warming acupuncture on obesity. 62 participants (n = 24 males, n = 38 females), aged 22-73. Divided into the obese (n = 31; n = 12 males, n = 19 females; aged 24-65), and standard weight without treatment (n = 31; n = 12 males, n = 19 females; aged 22-73) groups.
30-minute session, total 45 sessions.
Effect rate: 93.5%.
Reductions in weight, BMI, degree of obesity, body fat percentage, body moisture rate, and visceral fat cross sectional area.
Reductions in circumferences of chest, waist, hip, and thigh.
A decrease in waist-hip ratio.
China.
Zhang, Wu [98] To compare the effects of acupuncture and diet and diet control only on obesity. 71 participants (n = 24 males, n = 47 females), aged 21-60. Distributed to the acupuncture and diet (n = 40; n = 17 males, n = 23 females), and diet (n = 31; n = 7 males, n = 24 females) groups.
30-minute session, total 12 sessions.
Better reductions in BMI, body weight, body fat percentage, and improvements in muscle mass, protein quality, bone mass, and water quality in acupuncture and diet group. China.
Chen, Yi [99] To compare the effects of acupuncture with moxibustion and medication on obesity with hyperlipidemia. 98 participants (n = 51 males, n = 47 females), aged 45-68. Randomly allocated to the acupuncture with moxibustion (n = 49; n = 26 males, n = 23 females; aged 47-67), and simvastatin (n = 49; n = 25 males, n = 24 females; aged 45-68) groups.
30-minute session, total 90 sessions.
Simvastatin: 10-20mg daily, 225 days.
Reductions in plasma triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and total cholesterol.
Improvements in high density lipoprotein cholesterol.
Incidence of hypoventilation: 2% in acupuncture with moxibustion group, 10.2% in simvastatin group.
Incidence of cardiovascular disease: 4.1% in acupuncture with moxibustion group, 16.3% in simvastatin group.
Incidence of endocrine disorders: 2% in acupuncture with moxibustion group, 12.2% in simvastatin group.
Incidence of digestive disorders: 0% in acupuncture with moxibustion group, 8.2% in simvastatin group.
China.
Gao [100] To compare the effect of acupuncture with Chinese medicine and Chinese medicine alone on simple obesity. 61 participants, aged 13-38.
Unspecified sex ratio.
Randomly assigned to the acupuncture with Chinese medicine (n = 31; aged 14-37), and Chinese medicine alone (n = 30; aged 13-38) groups.
30-minute daily session, total 15 sessions.
Effect rate: 93.6% in acupuncture with Chinese medicine group, 73.3% in Chinese medicine group. China.
Hung, Hung [101] To examine the effects of laser acupuncture on postpartum weight control. 62 postpartum women.
Unspecified age range.
Randomly assigned to laser acupuncture (n = 32), and control (n = 30) groups.
5-second session, total 12 sessions.
Reductions in body weight, BMI, body fat percentage. Taiwan.
Li [102] To compare the effects of acupuncture with rehabilitation exercise and rehabilitation exercise alone on obesity. 529 participants (n = 322 males, n = 207 females), aged 60-78. Randomly assigned to the acupuncture with rehabilitation exercise (n = 264; n = 160 males, n = 104 females; aged 60-78), and rehabilitation exercise alone (n = 265; n = 162 males, n = 103 females; aged 60-78) groups.
Acupuncture: 20-minute session, total 40 sessions.
Exercise: 1-1.5 hours session, total 40 sessions.
Effect rate: 82.2% in acupuncture with rehabilitation exercise group, 70.2% in rehabilitation exercise alone group.
Reductions in BMI, waist-hip ratio, abdominal circumference, and hip circumference; more significant in acupuncture with rehabilitation exercise group.
Improvements in cardiac function indices, and quality of life.
China.
Liu, Wang [103] To investigate the effect of acupuncture and moxibustion on obesity. 50 participants (n = 8 males, n = 42 females), aged 14-46. Acupuncture: 30-minute daily session, total 45 sessions.
Moxibustion: 30-minute session, total 45 sessions.
Effect rate: 88%. China.
Pang, Liu [104] To assess the effects of warming acupuncture and ear acupuncture on obesity. 160 participants (n = 29 males, n = 131 females), aged 18-72. Randomly divided into the warming acupuncture and ear acupuncture (n = 54; n = 9 males, n = 45 females; aged 19-45), and warming acupuncture (n = 54; n = 9 males, n = 45 females; aged 18-72) groups, together with a standard weight group (n = 52; n = 11 males, n = 41 females; aged 23-55).
30-minute session, total 45 sessions.
Effect rate: 94.4% in warming acupuncture and ear acupuncture group, 83.3% in warming acupuncture group.
Reductions in weight, BMI, body fat percentage, and degree of obesity.
Decreases in lipid levels including total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein (HDL-C), fat-islet axis relevant indexes including fasting plasma glucose (FBS), fasting leptin (FLP), fasting insulin (FINS), insulin sensitive index (ISI), insulin resistance index (Homa-IR), insulin secretion index (Homa-β), and autonomic nerve function index (Y value).
China.
Song, Duan [105] To compare the effects of acupuncture and acupuncture with Chinese medicine on obesity. 48 participants (n = 21 males, n = 27 females), aged 24-61. Randomly allocated to the acupuncture (n = 24; n = 10 males, n = 14 females; aged 24-61), and acupuncture with Chinese medicine (n = 24; n = 11 males, n = 13 females; aged 25-60) groups.
30-minute daily session, total 56 sessions within 8 weeks.
Effect rate: 91.7% in acupuncture with Chinese medicine group, and 70.8% in acupuncture group. China.
Tseng, Tseng [106] To assess the effects of laser acupuncture on appetite sensations. 53 participants (n = 11 males, n = 42 females).
Unspecified age range.
Randomly allocated to the laser acupuncture (n = 26) and sham laser acupuncture (n = 26) groups.
10-second session, total 24 sessions within 8 weeks.
Significant reductions in BMI, body fat percentage, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-hip ratio in the laser acupuncture group.
Evident improved scores on the fullness, hunger, satiety, desire to eat, and overall well-being.
Taiwan.
Wang, Wang [107] To compare the effects of acupuncture and abdominal vibration therapy at acupoints on obesity. 136 participants (n = 26 males, n = 110 females), aged 30-55. Randomly allocated to the abdominal vibration therapy at acupoints (9n = 68; n = 12 males, n = 56 females; aged 30-55), and acupuncture (n = 68; n = 14 males, n = 54 females; aged 30-55) groups.
30-minute session, total 24 sessions.
Effect rate: 83.6% in abdominal vibration therapy at acupoints group, and 81.5% in acupuncture group.
Reductions in BMI, waist-hip ratio, abdominal fat, and thickness in 2 groups.
China.
Wang, Liu [108] To compare the effects of acupuncture on post-natal obesity. 38 post-natal women, aged 25-40. Distributed to the acupuncture with massage, cupping, diet and exercise (n = 19), and diet and exercise (n = 19) groups.
30-minute session, unspecified total sessions.
Effect rate: 89.5% in acupuncture with diet and exercise group, 52.6% in diet and exercise group.
More significant reductions in body weight, and BMI in acupuncture with diet and exercise group than that in diet and exercise group.
China.
Yan, Liu [109] To investigate the effects of acupuncture on obese people with hyperlipidemia. 1527 patients (n = 206 males, n = 1321 females), aged 16-77. 30-minute session, total 45 sessions. Effect rate: 88.6%.
The younger, the more effective: 93.4% in the group of aged 16-30, 89.5% in aged 31-40, 80.9% in aged 41-77.
China.
Ye, Zhong [110] To examine the effects of acupuncture with Chinese medicine on obesity. 88 participants (n = 47 males, n = 41 females), aged 15-64. Divided into the acupuncture with Chinese medicine (n = 44; n = 23 males, n = 21 females; aged 16-64), and Chinese medicine (n = 44; n = 24 males, n = 20 females; aged 15-62) groups.
15-20 minute session, total 10 sessions.
Effect rate: 86.4% in acupuncture with Chinese medicine group, 65.9% in Chinese medicine.
Recurrence rate after 6 months: 11.4% in acupuncture with Chinese medicine group, 31.8% in Chinese medicine.
China.
Yuan, Liu [111] To examine the effects of warming acupuncture on obesity with hyperlipidemia. 125 participants (n = 25 males, n = 100 females), aged 18-66. 30-minute session, total 45 sessions. Effect rate: 93.6%.
Reductions in body weight, BMI, degree of obesity, body fat percentage.
Reductions in total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL-C).
An increase in high density lipoprotein (HDL-C)
China.
Yuan, Liu [112] To investigate the effects of acupuncture on obese people with hyperlipidemia. 1528 patients (n = 207 males, n = 1321 females), aged 16-72. 30-minute session, total 45 sessions. Effect rate: 88.5%.
Weight loss: 96.5%.
Reduction in hyperlipidemia: 88.7%
China.
Zeng [113] To assess the effects of warming acupuncture and ear acupuncture on obesity with primary hypertension. 50 participants (n = 22 males, n = 28 females), aged 20-68. 30-minute daily session, total 90 sessions. Reductions in body weight, BMI, and body fat percentage.
Decreases in systolic bold pressure, and diastolic blood pressure.
China.
Zhang [114] To compare the effects of acupuncture with metformin and metformin alone on obese patients with infertility caused by polycystic ovary syndrome. 100 obese women, aged 22-38. Randomly allocated to the acupuncture with metformin (n = 50; aged 22-38, and metformin alone (n = 50; aged 23-37) groups.
30-minute session, 6 months; unspecified total sessions.
Metformin: 3 times a day, 6 months.
Reductions in body weight, BMI, waist-hip ratio, and size of cystic ovary.
A decrease in hormones.
More significant indicators in acupuncture with metformin group.
China.
Zhu [115] To compare the effects of ear acupuncture and acupuncture on abdomen on simple obesity. 60 participants (n = 35 males, n = 25 females) aged 23-64. Randomly allocated to the ear acupuncture (n = 30; n = 17 males, n = 13 females; aged 25-62), and acupuncture on abdomen (n = 30; n = 18 males, n = 12 females; aged 23-64) groups.
30-minute session, total 20 sessions.
Reductions in BMI (93.3%), waist circumference (96.7%), waist-hip ratio (90%) in ear acupuncture group.
Reductions in BMI (80%), waist circumference (83.3%), waist-hip ratio (67.7%) in acupuncture on abdomen group.
China.
Zhu, Huang [116] To compare the effects of acupuncture with diet and exercise with diet on the impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). 320 participants (n = 117 males, n = 203 females).
Unspecified age range.
Randomly assigned to the acupuncture with diet (n = 160; n = 56 males, n = 104 females), and exercise and diet (n = 160; n = 61 males, n = 99 females) groups.
Unspecified session duration, and total sessions.
Reverting to normal glucose tolerance (NGT): 46.9% in acupuncture with diet, and 15.6% in exercise and diet groups.
More significant reductions in fasting blood glucose (FBG), 2-hour postprandial blood glucose (PBG), triglycerides (TG), BMI, waist circumference, total cholesterol (CHO), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in acupuncture with diet group than that in exercise and diet group.
China.
Chen [117] To compare the effects of acupuncture and lifestyle adjustment on obesity with type 2 diabetes. 80 participants (n = 35 males, n = 45 females), aged 28-69. Randomly distributed to acupuncture with lifestyle adjustment (n = 40; n = 18 males, n = 22 females; aged 29-67), and lifestyle adjustment only (n = 40; n = 17 males, n = 23 females; aged 28-69) groups.
Unspecified session duration, and total sessions.
Effect rate: 97.5% in acupuncture with lifestyle adjustment group, 60% in lifestyle adjustment alone group. China.
He, Zhang [118] To assess the effects of acupuncture and acupuncture with massage on body weight loss. 56 women.
Unspecified age range.
Randomly distributed to the acupuncture (n = 20) and acupuncture with massage (n = 20) groups.
30-minute session, total 21 sessions.
Reductions in body weight. China.
Hou, Yang [119] To look into the effects of acupuncture, music therapy, and aromatherapy on simple obesity. 50 participants (n = 9 males, n = 41 females), aged 16-59. Randomly assigned to the acupuncture (n = 25), and acupuncture, music therapy, and aromatherapy (n = 25) groups.
30-40 minute session, total 48 sessions.
Effect rate: 72% in acupuncture group, 92% in acupuncture, music therapy, and aromatherapy group. China.
Ismail, Ibrahim [120] To examine the effects of acupuncture and ear acupuncture with low-calorie diet on weight loss. 80 participants (n = 6 males, n = 73 females).
Unspecified age range.
30-minute session, total 48 sessions. Reductions in hs-CRP and body weight. Egypt.
Lu, Liu [121] To assess the effects of warming acupuncture and ear acupuncture on obesity with hyperlipidemia. 126 women, aged 17-62. Randomly assigned to the warming acupuncture and ear acupuncture (n = 63; aged 17-62), and warming acupuncture (n = 63; aged 18-56) groups.
30-minute session, unspecified total sessions.
Effect rate of weight loss: 95.2% in warming acupuncture and ear acupuncture group, 82.5% in warming acupuncture group.
Reduction in lipid: 93.7% in warming acupuncture and ear acupuncture group, 81% in warming acupuncture group.
Reductions in BMI, degree of obesity, body fat percentage, and waist circumference.
Decreases in serum total cholesteroal (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL-C).
An increase in high density lipoprotein (HDL-C).
China.
Pang, Liu [122] To examine the effects of warming acupuncture and ear acupuncture on obesity with hyperlipidemia. 130 women, aged 18-54. Randomly distributed to the warming acupuncture and ear acupuncture (n = 65; aged 19-54), and warming acupuncture (n = 65; aged 18-54) groups.
30-minute session, total 45 sessions.
Effect rate: 95.4% in the acupuncture and ear acupuncture group, 84.6% in acupuncture group.
Reductions in body weight, BMI, degree of obesity, body fat percentage.
Decreases in serum total cholesteroal (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL-C).
An increase in high density lipoprotein (HDL-C).
China.
Tür, Aksay [123] To look into the effects of acupuncture and ear acupuncture on reducing HbA1c levels, weight and BMI. 19 participants.
Unspecified age range and sex ratio.
30-minute session, total 20 sessions within 10 weeks. Reductions in HbA1c levels, weight and BMI. Turkey.
Wang and Wang [124] To investigate the effects of acupuncture on weight loss. 67 participants (n = 38 males, n = 29 females), aged 16-58. 45-minute session, total 30 sessions. Effect rate: 78.1%.
Reductions in body weight, and BMI.
China.
Wang, Liu [125] To compare the effects of electro-acupuncture and catgut embedding on simple obesity 164 participants (n = 30 males, n = 134 females), aged 16-58. Randomly allocated to the electro-acupuncture and catgut embedding (n = 56; n = 10 males, n = 46 females; aged 18-55), electro-acupuncture (n = 56; n = 10 males, n = 46 females; aged 16-58), and control (n = 52; n = 10 males, n = 42 females; aged 23-55) groups.
30-minute session, total 36 sessions.
Reductions in body weight, BMI, degree of obesity, body fat percentage in treatment groups.
Decreases in total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL-C).
An increase in high density lipoprotein (HDL-C).
Positive changes in fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting insulin (FINS), fasting leptin (FLP), insulin sensitivity index (ISI), insulin resistance index (Homa-IR),β-cell function index (Homa-β) and vegetative nerve system equilibrium index (Y value) in treatment groups.
China.
Wang, Liu [126] To investigate the effects of warming acupuncture on obesity. 200 participants (n = 30 males, n = 170 females), aged 18-66. 30-minute session, total 45 sessions. Effect rate: 94.2%. China.
Wei, Chen [127] To compare the effects of acupuncture and diet control on simple obesity. 86 participants (n = 41 males, n = 45 females), aged 18-57. Randomly distributed to the acupuncture (n = 44; n = 21 males, n = 23 females; aged 18-57), and diet control (n = 42; n = 20 males, n = 22 females; aged 20-56) groups.
30-minute session, total 30 sessions.
Effect rate: 84.6% in acupuncture group, 64.3% in diet control group.
Reductions in body weight, BMI, basal metabolic rate, body fat percentage, waist circumference, hip circumference.
Decreases in total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL-C).
An increase in high density lipoprotein (HDL-C).
Better positive indicators in acupuncture group.
China.
Wei, Xu [128] To compare the effects of acupuncture with cupping, and cupping alone on obesity. 200 participants (n = 50 males, n = 150 females), aged 18-57. Allocated to acupuncture with cupping (n = 100), and cupping (n = 100) groups.
Total 20 sessions; unspecified session duration.
Cupping: 2-3 sessions per week, total 10 sessions.
Effect rate: 94% in acupuncture with cupping, 57% in cupping group. China.
Zhang [129] To compare the effects of standard treatment and acupuncture on obesity. 100 participants.
Unspecified age range and sex ratio.
Randomly divided into the diet control with exercise (n = 40), and acupuncture with diet control and exercise (n = 60) groups.
30-minute session, unspecified total sessions.
Effect rate: 30% in diet control with exercise group, and 76.7% in acupuncture with diet control and exercise group. China.
Zhang, Duan [130] To investigate the effect of electro-acupuncture on obesity with breast hyperplasia. 67 women, aged 16-58. 30-minute session, total 45 sessions. Effect rate: 95.5%.
Reductions in body weight, BMI, chest circumference, waist circumference, hip circumference, thigh circumference, waist-hip ratio.
China.
Zhou, Xie [131] To compare the effects of He’s three pass acupuncture and acupuncture on obesity. 84 participants (n = 15 males, n = 69 females), aged 13-71. Randomly distributed to the He’s three pass acupuncture (n = 44; n = 6 males, n = 38 females; aged 18-58), and acupuncture (n = 40; n = 9 males, n = 31 females; aged 13-71) groups.
Total 30 sessions, unspecified session duration.
Effect rate: 81.8% in He’s three pass acupuncture group, 65% in acupuncture group.
Reductions in body weight, BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference, and body fat percentage.
China.
Darbandi, Darbandi [132] To compare the effects of electro-acupuncture and ear acupuncture and sham practices on obesity. 80 obese men, aged 18-50. Randomly assigned to Group A (electro-acupuncture) (n = 20), Group B (sham acupuncture) (n = 20), ear acupuncture (n = 20), and sham ear acupuncture (n = 20).
20-minute session, total 12 sessions.
Reductions in BMI, trunk fat mass, waist circumference, hip circumference in all group.
Better improvements in genuine practices than in sham groups.
Higher decreases in BMI, trunk fat mass, and waist circumference in electro-acupuncture group than in sham electro-acupuncture group, except hip circumference.
Iran.
Liu and Liu [133] To investigate the effects of warming acupuncture on obesity among menopausal women. 91 women, aged 43-54. 30-minute session, total 36 sessions. Effect rate of obesity: 88.4%.
Reductions in body weight, BMI, body fat, and degree of obesity.
Effect rate of menopause: 99.1%.
Significant reductions in Kupperman menopausal index, follicle-stimulating hormone.
China.
Set, Cayir [134] To examine the effects of ear acupuncture on the obese women with depression. 24 women.
Unspecified age range.
15-20 minutes per session, total 6 sessions. No reduction in BMI and depression. Turkey.
Xue and Zhang [135] To compare the effects of acupuncture on the back-shu points and acupuncture on different acupoints on obesity. 60 participants (n = 9 males, n = 51 females), aged 25-45. Randomly distributed to the acupuncture on the back-shu points (n = 30; n = 4 males, n = 26 females, aged 28-45), and acupuncture on other acupoints (n = 30; n = 5 males, n = 25 females; aged 25-40) groups.
30-minute daily session, total 30 sessions.
Reductions in BMI (56.7% in acupuncture on the back-shu points group and 16.7% in acupuncture on different acupoints group), waist circumference (83.3% in acupuncture on the back-shu points group and 43.3% in acupuncture on different acupoints group), waist-hip ratio (56.7% in acupuncture on the back-shu points group and 30% in acupuncture on different acupoints group), weight (60% in acupuncture on the back-shu points group and 26.7% in acupuncture on different acupoints group). China.
Yang, Kim [136] To investigate the effects of acupuncture on heart rate variability in obese premenopausal women. 46 women, aged 21-54. Randomly distributed to the acupuncture (n = 23), and sham acupuncture (n = 23) groups.
30-minute session, unspecified total sessions.
Reductions in body weight, BMI, waist circumference.
Deactivation of parasympathetic function and an increase in sympathetic activity.
Korea.
Zhang [137] To test the effects of electro-acupuncture and acupuncture on simple obesity with degenerative knee arthritis. 80 participants (n = 10 males, n = 70 females), aged 45-78. Randomly divided into the electro-acupuncture with acupuncture (n = 40; n = 3 males, n = 37 females), and acupuncture (n = 40; n = 7 males, n = 33 females) groups.
73-minute daily session, total 50 sessions.
Effect rate: 100% in electro-acupuncture with acupuncture group, 95% in electro-acupuncture group.
Relapse rate at 12-month follow-up: 7.5% in electro-acupuncture with acupuncture group, 37.5% in acupuncture group.
China.
Feng, Liu [138] To examine the effects of warming acupuncture and ear acupuncture on obesity with primary hypertension. 36 participants, aged 16-62.
Unspecified sex ratio.
30-minute session, total 45 sessions. Effect rate: 91.7%.
Reductions in body weight, BMI, body fat percentage, and degree of obesity.
Decreases in systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure.
China.
Hu [139] To look into the effects of acupuncture on obesity. 60 participants (n = 25 males, n = 35 females), aged 24-52. 15-minute daily session, total 30 sessions. Reductions in body weight, BMI, body fat percentage, basal metabolism, waist, hip circumference, upper arm, and thigh circumference. China.
Li, Cui [140] To compare the effects of acupuncture and medication on obesity with diabetes. 66 participants (n = 29 males, n = 37 females).
Unspecified age range
Randomly assigned to the acupuncture with medication (n = 33), and medication (n = 33) groups.
30-minute daily sessions, total 60 sessions.
Medication: Metformin hydrochloride tablet, 0.5mg, 2 tablets per day.
Greater reductions in weight loss, BMI, waist circumference, and level of fasting insulin in acupuncture with medication group than that in medication only group. China.
Lv, Liu [141] To compare the effects of acupuncture and moxibustion on obesity with knee osteoarthritis. 50 participants who were overweight with knee osteoarthritis (n = 22 males, n = 28 females), aged 42-73. Randomly distributed to the acupuncture with moxibustion (n = 32; n = 15 males, n = 17 females; aged 42-72), and moxibustion (n = 18; n = 7 males, n = 11 females; aged 44-73) groups.
30-minute daily session, total 90 sessions.
Effect rate: 87.5% in acupuncture with moxibustion group, 72.2% in moxibustion group. China.
Ren [142] To examine the effects of warming acupuncture and ear acupuncture on dysmenorrhea with obesity. 87 women with primary dysmenorrhea, aged 17-45. Divided into the dysmenorrhea (n = 44; aged 18-45), and dysmenorrhea with obesity (n = 43; aged 17-44).
30-minute session, total 90 sessions.
Effect rate (10 sessions): 97.7% in dysmenorrhea group, 72.7% dysmenorrhea with obesity group.
Effect rate (20 sessions): 100% in dysmenorrhea group, 86% dysmenorrhea with obesity group.
Effect rate (30 sessions): 100% in dysmenorrhea group, 88.4% dysmenorrhea with obesity group.
China.
Xia and Zhu [143] To compare the effects of acupotomology and acupuncture on obesity. 68 participants (n = 10 males, n = 58 females), aged 18-50. Randomly allocated to the acupuncture (n = 34; n = 4 males, n = 30 females; aged 18-47), and acupotomology (n = 34; n = 6 males, n = 28 females; aged 18-50) groups.
30-minute daily session, total 10 sessions.
Effect rate: 64.7% in acupuncture group, and 82.4% in acupotomology group. China.
Yuan [144] To examine the effects of acupuncture and ear acupuncture on obesity. 500 participants (n = 79 males, n = 421 females), aged 11-71. 30-minute session, total 20-30 sessions. Effect rate: 96.4%. China.
Zhang and Zhou [145] To test the effects of acupuncture, cupping, and massage on simple obesity and obesity with sub-health. 61 participants (n = 29 males, n = 32 females), aged 21-59. Allocated to the simple obesity (n = 32), and obesity with sub-health (n = 29) groups.
Acupuncture: 30-minute daily session, total 10 sessions.
Cupping: 5-minute daily session, total 10 sessions.
Massage: 8-minute session.
Effect rate: 96.8% in simple obesity group, 96.6% in obesity with sub-health.
Reductions in body weight, BMI, waist-hip ratio, body fat percentage.
China.
Abdi, Zhao [146] To investigate the effects of acupuncture and electro-acupuncture with low-calorie diet on obesity. 161 participants, aged 18-55.
Unspecified sex ratio.
Randomly assigned to the acupuncture (n = 79), and sham acupuncture (n = 82) groups.
20-minute session, total 12 sessions within 6 weeks.
A significant reduction in measures of adiposity.
Reductions in anti-HSP antibodies and hs-CRP.
Improvement in lipid profile.
Iran.
Cao, Liu [147] To look into the effects of acupuncture and ear acupuncture with moxibustion on obesity with pre-menstrual tension syndrome. 131 women, aged 16-50. 30-minute session, total 45 sessions. Effect rate: 87.8%.
Reductions in body weight, BMI, body fat percentage, and obesity index.
The younger, the more effective.
China.
Gü?el, Bahar [148] To examine the effects of acupuncture on weight loss. 40 women.
Unspecified age range.
20-minute session, total 10 sessions. Reduction in body weight. Turkey.
Guo, Chen [149] To compare the effects of acupuncture with music and acupuncture alone on obesity. 46 participants (n = 20 males, n = 26 females), aged 17-68. Randomly distributed to the acupuncture with music therapy (n = 23), and acupuncture (n = 23) groups.
30-minute session, total 20 sessions.
Effect rate: 92% in acupuncture with music therapy group, and 61% in acupuncture group. China.
Haddad, Medeiros [150] To inquire into the effects of electro-acupuncture and ear acupuncture on sleep disorder caused by obesity. 37 obese workers in a teaching hospital (n = 11 males, n = 26 females), aged 32-67. 30-minute weekly session, total 8 sessions. 37.8% improved sleep quality. Brazil.
Leng and Liu [151] To compare the effects of ear acupuncture and catgut embedding on obesity. 60 participants.
Unspecified age range and sex ratio.
Randomly divided into the ear acupuncture and catgut embedding (n = 30), and acupuncture (n = 30) groups.
Acupuncture: 30-minute session, unspecified total sessions.
Weight loss: 90% in ear acupuncture and catgut embedding group, and 60% in acupuncture group. China.
Liu [152] To compare the effects of acupuncture with diet control and diet control alone on obesity. 50 participants.
Unspecified age range and sex ratio.
Randomly allocated to the acupuncture with diet control (n = 30), and diet control (n = 20) groups.
30-minute session, unspecified total sessions.
Effect rate: 76.7% in acupuncture with diet control group, 30% diet control alone group. China.
Liu, Zhang [153] To investigate the effects of laser acupuncture on obesity. 28 female students, aged 19-25. Divided into 1 placebo group, and 3 groups with different levels of laser (358, 478, and 597 J/cm2; powers: 150, 200, and 250 mW; intensity: 1194, 1592, and 1990 mW/cm2; irradiation time: 5 min/point, 25 min in total).
Total 24 sessions.
The laser groups receiving 358 and 597 J/cm2 showed significant reductions in body weight, BMI, body fat mass, waist girth, hip girth, and waist-hip ratio after treatment compared with the placebo group. The percent reductions of body fat mass in the laser groups receiving 358 and 597 J/cm2 were 4.29% and 3.94%, respectively, and the corresponding values of body weight were 1.99% and 1.63%, respectively. China.
Qin, Li [154] To compare the effect of acupuncture and acupuncture with medicine on lipid metabolism. 76 participants, aged 18-25.
Unspecified sex ratio.
Randomly assigned to the medicine (n = 39), and acupuncture with medicine (n = 37) groups.
4-hour session, total 30 sessions.
Effect rate: a greater reduction in BMI and triglycerides, and better improvement in high density lipoprotein cholesterol in acupuncture with medicine group.
No change in BMI in medicine group.
China.
Ren, Liu [155] To look into the effects of acupuncture and moxibustion on obese women with climacteric syndrome. 151 obese women, aged 45-55. 30-minute session, total 45 sessions. Reductions in weight, BMI, body fat percentage, and obesity index.
Reduction in climacteric syndrome: 98.7%.
Reduction in obesity: 85.5%.
China.
Rerksuppaphol [156] To compare the effects of electro-acupuncture and ear acupuncture and acupuncture alone on obesity. 29 women, aged 21-60. Randomly distributed to electro-acupuncture and ear acupuncture (n = 16), and ear acupuncture (n = 13) groups.
30-minute session, unspecified total sessions.
Higher reductions in body weight, BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-hip ratio, triceps skinfold thickness, subscapular thickness, mid arm circumference in electro-acupuncture and ear acupuncture group than in ear acupuncture group. Thailand.
Tan [157] To compare the effects of warming acupuncture with moxibustion and electro-acupuncture on simple obesity. 120 participants (n = 22 males, n = 98 females).
Unspecified age range.
Randomly distributed to the warming acupuncture (n = 60; n = 10 males, n = 50 females), and acupuncture (n = 60; n = 12 males, n = 48 females) groups.
Warming acupuncture: 30-minute session, total 30 sessions.
Electro-acupuncture: 40-minute session, total 30 sessions.
Moxibustion, 30-minute session, total 30 sessions.
Effect rate: 96.7% in warming acupuncture with moxibustion group, 83.3% in electro-acupuncture group.
Reductions in body weight, BMI, body fat percentage, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-hip ratio.
Decreases in serum total cholesteroal (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL-C).
Limited improvement in high density lipoprotein (HDL-C) only in electro-acupuncture group.
China.
Yi, Cai [158] To assess the effects of acupuncture on obesity. 122 participants (n = 48 males, n = 74 females), aged 12-68. Total 30 sessions, unspecified session duration. Effect rate: 92.6%. China.
Zhang, Tang [159] To examine the effects of electro-acupuncture and medicinal moxibustion on obesity due to spleen and kidney yang deficiency. 58 women, aged 35-65. Randomly assigned to the acupuncture with medicinal moxibustion (n = 28; aged 35-62), and electro-acupuncture (n = 30; aged 37-65) groups.
40-minute acupuncture with moxibustion per daily session, total 15 sessions.
92.9% in acupuncture with medicinal moxibustion group, and 70% in electro-acupuncture group. China.
Zheng [160] To test the effects of acupuncture based on theory of warming yang and benefiting qi on simple obesity. 112 participants (n = 86 males, n = 26 females), aged 18-56. Randomly divided into the acupuncture based on theory of warming yang and benefiting qi (n = 57; n = 42 males, n = 15 females; aged 18-55), and acupuncture (n = 40 males, n = 15 females; aged 18-55) groups.
20-minute daily session, total 21 sessions.
Effect rate: 82.4% in acupuncture based on theory of warming yang and benefiting qi group, 61.8% in acupuncture group.
Reductions in BMI, waist circumference.
More positive indicators of total cholesterol, triglyceridess, low density lipoprotein, and high density lipoprotein in acupuncture based on theory of warming yang and benefiting qi group.
China.
Cao, Liu [161] To look into the effects of acupuncture and ear acupuncture on obesity with hypertension. 731 participants (n = 153 males, n = 578 females), aged 16-80. 30-minute session, total 45 sessions. Effect rate: 93.8%.
The younger, the more effective.
China.
Chen [162] To test the effects of warming acupuncture and electro-acupuncture on simple obesity. 115 participants.
Unspecified sex ratio and age range.
Randomly distributed to the warming acupuncture and electro-acupuncture (n = 57), and acupuncture (n = 58) groups.
30-minute session, total 36 sessions.
Effect rate: 94.7% in warming acupuncture and electro-acupuncture group, 87.9% in acupuncture group.
Reductions in body weight, BMI, waist circumference, body fat percentage.
Taiwan.
Haddad and Marcon [163] To evaluate the effects of electro-acupuncture and ear acupuncture on appetite sensation behaviour. 37 obese workers (n = 11 males, n = 26 females), aged 32-67. Random selection sample.
30-minute weekly session, total 8 sessions.
Reduced waist-hip ratio.
No decreases in body weight, BMI, and waist-hip ratio.
Brazil.
Hou [164] To compare the effects of acupuncture and ear acupuncture on simple obesity. 46 participants (n = 2 males, n = 44 females), aged 14-53. Randomly distributed to the acupuncture (n = 24; n = 1 male, n = 23 females; aged 14-53), and ear acupuncture (n = 22; n = 1 male, n = 21 females; aged 16-50) groups.
40-minute session, total 30 sessions.
Effect rate: 95.8% in acupuncture group, 72.7% in ear acupuncture group. China.
Hu [165] To test the effects of laser acupuncture on simple obesity. 95 participants (n = 22 males, n = 73 females), aged 14-76. Total 12 sessions, unspecified session duration. Reductions in body weight, BMI. China.
Huang, Yang [166] To compare the effect of Bo’s acupuncture and acupuncture on obesity. 61 participants (n = 10 males, n = 51 females), aged 16-55. Randomly distributed to the Bo’s acupuncture (n = 29; n = 5 males, n = 24 females; aged 18-55), and acupuncture (n = 32; n = 5 males, n = 27 females; aged 16-54) groups.
30-minute session, total 16 sessions.
Effect rate: 86.2% in Bo’s acupuncture group, 84.4% in acupuncture group.
Reductions in body weight, BMI, waist circumference, waist-hip ratio.
Improvements in emotion.
China.
Pu, Jin [167] To compare the effects of acupuncture and acupuncture with fumigation on obesity. 140 participants (n = 22 males, n = 118 females), aged 18-55. Randomly allocated to the acupuncture (n = 67; n = 12 males, n = 55 females), and acupuncture with fumigation (n = 73; n = 10 males, n = 63 females) groups.
20-minute session, total 30 sessions.
Effect rate (15 sessions): 44.8% in acupuncture group, 67.2% in acupuncture with fumigation group.
Effect rate (30 sessions): 83.6% in acupuncture group, 94.5% in acupuncture with fumigation group.
China.
Shi, Liu [168] To investigate the effects of acupuncture and ear acupuncture on obese women with dysmenorrhea. 102 obese women with dysmenorrhea, aged 18-49. 30-minute daily session, total 30 sessions. Effect rate: 95.1% on weight loss, 100% on menstrual pain.
Reductions in weight, BMI, obesity index, body fat percentage, and menstrual pain.
The younger, the more effective on weight loss.
Effect rate after 10 sessions: 81.4% on weight loss, 92.2% on menstrual pain.
Effect rate after 20 sessions: 92.2% on weight loss, 100% on menstrual pain.
Effect rate after 30 sessions: 97.1% on weight loss, 100% on menstrual pain.
China.
Wu [169] To test the effects of electro-acupuncture on degenerative knee arthritis. 60 participants (n = 4 males, n = 56 females).
Unspecified age range.
Divided into the electro-acupuncture (n = 1 male, n = 29 females), and sham acupuncture (n = 3 males, n = 27 females) groups.
70-minute daily session, total 50 sessions.
Effect rate: 100% in both groups for weight loss and pain.
Relapse rate at 12-month follow-up: 10% in electro-acupuncture group, 40% in sham acupuncture group.
China.
Xie, Fu [170] To investigate the effects of acupuncture on obesity. 400 participants, aged 18-65.
Unspecified sex ratio.
Randomly assigned to the sham acupuncture (n = 100), acupuncture (n = 100), acupuncture and ear acupuncture (n = 100), and ear acupuncture (n = 100) groups.
3-minute session, total 36 sessions.
Effect rate at the 4th week: 16% sham acupuncture group, 57% acupuncture group, 60% acupuncture and ear acupuncture group, 32% ear acupuncture group.
Effect rate at the 8th week: 19% sham acupuncture group, 66% acupuncture group, 71% acupuncture and ear acupuncture group, 36% ear acupuncture group.
Effect rate at the 12th week: 24% sham acupuncture group, 73% acupuncture group, 82% acupuncture and ear acupuncture group, 39% ear acupuncture group.
Reductions in serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, body weight, BMI, and body fat percentage.
China.
Yang and Zhang [171] To test the effects of acupuncture and Chinese medicine on obesity. 38 women, aged 16-51. 45-60 minutes session, total 15 sessions. Effect rate: 94.7%. China.
Zhang, Peng [172] To examine the effects of acupuncture on hepatic and abdominal lipids. 10 obese children (n = 7 boys, n = 3 girls), aged 9-14. 15-minute session, total 8 sessions. Decreases in BMI, body weight, waist and hip circumferences, waist-hip ratio, and abdominal fat. China.
Zhou and Zhang [173] To look into the effects of acupuncture on obesity. 180 participants (n = 59 males, n = 121 females), aged 18-45. 30-minute session, total 30 sessions. Reductions in BMI, and waist-hip ratio. China.
Zhou, Hu [174] To investigate the changes of intestinal microflora during acupuncture treatment. 36 participants (n = 12 males, n = 24 females), aged 20-60. 30-minute session, total 30 sessions. Effect rate: 72.2%.
Reductions in body weight, and BMI.
Reductions in aerobic bacteria, escherichia coli, and bacteroides.
An increase in enterococcus.
No changes in bifidobacterium, and lactobacillin.
China.
Abd-Elaziz, El- Kosery [175] To investigate the effects of electro-acupuncture on body fact composition. 20 obese postmenopausal women, aged 50-60. 30-minute session, total 24 sessions. Reductions in BMI, waist-hip ratio, and body fat percentage. Egypt.
Cai, Li [176] To compare the effects of acupuncture with cupping and sibutramine (medication) on obesity. 95 participants (n = 18 males, n = 77 females), aged 15-64. Randomly assigned to the acupuncture and cupping (n = 50; n = 10 males, n = 40 females; aged 15-64), and sibutramine (n = 45; n = 8 males, n = 37 females; aged 18-60) groups.
Acupuncture: 30-minute session, total 20 sessions.
Cupping: 10-miute session, total 12 sessions.
Sibutramine: 10mg daily, 8 weeks.
Effect rate: 98% in acupuncture and cupping group, 97.8% in sibutramine group.
More significant reductions in body weight, BMI, body fat percentage, waist-hip ratio in acupuncture and cupping group.
China.
Duan, Zuo [177] To compare the effects of acupotomology and acupuncture on obesity. 106 participants (n = 30 males, n = 76 females), aged 21-67. Randomly distributed to the acupotomology (n = 66; n = 18 males, n = 48 females; aged 21-67), and acupuncture (n = 40; n = 12 males, n = 28 females; aged 22-66) groups.
30-minute daily session, 30 sessions per course, 2 courses, total 60 sessions.
Effect rate: after the 1st course: 75.8% in acupotomology group, and 62.5% in acupuncture group; after the 2nd course: 95.5% of participants in acupotomology group, and 80% in acupuncture group.
Reductions in body weight, BMI, and waist circumference.
China.
Gao [178] To compare the effects of acupuncture and Chinese medicine on perimenopausal obesity. 108 obese women, aged 40-55. Divided into the acupuncture (n = 54), and Chinese medicine (n = 54) groups.
30-minute session, total 30 sessions.
Effect rate of obesity: 96.1% in acupuncture, 69.4% in Chinese medicine.
Effect rate of menopausal syndrome: 82.4% in acupuncture, 84.7% in Chinese medicine.
China.
Hu, Chang [179] To assess the effects of laser acupuncture with low-calorie diet on visceral postmenopausal obesity. 95 participants (n = 22 males, n = 73 females), aged 14-76. 10-second session, 4 weeks, unspecified total sessions. Reductions in body weight (-3.8%) and BMI (-3.8%). Taiwan.
Jiang and Liu [180] To compare the effects of acupuncture and ear acupuncture on simple obesity and obesity with hypertension. 808 participants (n = 114 males, n = 694 females), aged 16-73. Divided into the simple obesity (n = 408; n = 55 males, n = 353 females; aged 16-67), and obesity with hypertension (n = 400; n = 59 males, n = 341 females; aged 16-73).
30-minute session, total 45 sessions within 3 months.
Effect rate: 95.8% in simple obesity group, and 92.5% obesity with hypertension group. China.
Jiang, Liu [181] To investigate the effects of acupuncture and ear acupuncture on obese people with hypertension. 229 patients (n = 16 males, n = 113 females), aged 17-66. Divided into the simple obesity (n = 113; n = 9 males, n = 104 females; aged 17-66), and obesity with hypertension (n = 116; n = 7 males, n = 109 females; aged 21-64) groups.
30-minute session, total 45 sessions.
Effect rate: 96.5% in simple obesity group, and 94.8% obesity with hypertension group. China.
Li, Cai [182] To compare the effects of acupuncture with cupping therapy, and medication on obesity. 95 participants (n = 18 males, n = 77 females), aged 15-64. Randomly assigned to the acupuncture with cupping therapy (n = 50; n = 10 males, n = 40 females; aged 15-64), and medication (sibutramine) (n = 45; n = 8 males, n = 37 females; aged 18-60) groups.
Acupuncture: 30-minute session, total 20 sessions within 4 weeks.
Cupping: 10-minute session, total 12 within 4 weeks.
Sibutramine: 10mg daily, 4 weeks.
Weight loss: 98% in acupuncture with cupping therapy group, and 97.8% in sibutramine group.
No significant differences of BMI improvement between 2 groups.
More favourable improvements in waist-hip ratio and body fat percentage in acupuncture with cupping therapy group.
China.
Tu, Xiong [183] To examine the effects of electro-acupuncture and ear acupuncture on abdominal fat. 42 participants (n = 12 males, n = 30 females), aged 18-68. Divided into groups A (VA/SA<6; n = 34; n = 10 males, n = 24 females) and B (VA/SA>6; n = 8; n = 2 males, n = 6 females).
30-minute session, total 90 sessions.
Reduced SA and VA.
Improved distribution of SA and VA.
China.
Xu [184] To investigate the effects of acupuncture and ear acupuncture on obesity with dysmenorrhea. 808 obese women with dysmenorrhea, aged 13-50. Divided into the obesity (n = 407; aged 16-44), and obesity with dysmenorrhea (n = 401; aged 13-50) groups.
30-minute session, total 45 sessions.
Effect rate: 96.3% in obesity group, 89% in obesity with dysmenorrhea.
Reduction in dysmenorrhea: 89%.
China.
Yuan, Lu [185] To compare the effects of acupuncture and diet on obesity with hyperlipidemia. 108 participants (n = 39 males, n = 69 females), aged 40-64. Randomly allocated into the acupuncture (n = 56; n = 20 males, n = 36 females; aged 40-64), and diet (n = 52; n = 19 males, n = 33 females; aged 40-63) groups.
30-minute session, total 24 sessions.
Reductions in BMI, triacylglycerol, and total cholesterol.
The acupuncture group gained greater reductions.
China.
Zhou [186] To investigate the effects of acupuncture, ear acupuncture, and diet on obesity. 121 participants (n = 31 males, n = 90 females), aged 18-52. 30-minute session, total 90 sessions. Reductions in body weight, and BMI. China.
Zhou [187] To compare the effects of ear embedding, acupuncture, and acupuncture with ear embedding on weight loss. 150 participants (n = 18 males, n = 132 females), aged 13-48. Randomly distributed to the ear embedding (n = 20), acupuncture (n = 40), and acupuncture with ear embedding (n = 90).
30-minute daily session, total 20 sessions.
Reduction in weight loss over 5kg: 10% ear embedding group, 30% acupuncture group, 67.8% acupuncture with ear embedding group. China.
Hsu, Wang [188] To examine the effects of ear acupuncture on obesity, and obesity-related hormone peptides. 45 obese women, aged 16-65. Randomly distributed to ear acupuncture (n = 23), and sham ear acupuncture (n = 22) groups.
Total 12 sessions.
No significant reductions in body weight, BMI, waist circumference in both groups.
A significant increase in ghrelin level and decrease in leptin level in ear acupuncture group but not in sham ear acupuncture group.
Taiwan
Wu [189] To examine the effects of acupuncture on waist and hip circumferences, and lipid metabolism. 20 participants, aged 16-65.
Unspecified sex ratio.
30-minute session, total 20 sessions. Decreases in body weight, waist circumference, fasting triglycerides (TG), serum total cholesterol (TC), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL). China.
Sheu, Chen [190] To investigate the effects of acupuncture with Chinese medicine on weight loss. 5 participants (n = 2 males, n = 3 females), aged 22-56. 30-minute session, total 16 sessions. Effect rate: 80% Taiwan.
Cabioglu and Ergene [191] To compare the effects of electro-acupuncture and diet control on weight loss and anthropometric indicators. 55 women, aged 35-50. Allocated to the no treatment (n = 12), electro-acupuncture (n = 22), and diet control (n = 21) groups.
30-minute session, total 20 sessions.
4.8% of weight loss in electro-acupuncture, and 2.5% in diet groups.
Significant decreases in total cholesterol and triglycerides levels in electro-acupuncture and diet groups.
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in the electro-acupuncture group.
No significant changes could be found in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels among the three groups.
Turkey.
Apostolopoulos and Karavis [192] To examine the effect of ear acupuncture on weight loss. 800 participants (n = 117 males, n = 683 females), aged 15-76. Distributed to groups A (1 session) (n = 468), B (2-4 sessions) (n = 278), and C (>4 sessions) (n = 54).
Unspecified total sessions.
Reductions in food consumption: 81.1%.
Decreased anxiety level.
Weight loss: 64.8% during the first 3 months, and 35.5% at 6-12 months.
Weight loss in group B: 61.2% at the 6th month, and 39.1% at the 12th month.
Weight loss in group C: 88.9% at the 6th month, and 77.8% at the 12th month.
Greece.
Liu, Wang [193] To investigate the effects of acupuncture and ear acupuncture on simple obesity. 718 participants (n = 83 males, n = 635 females), aged 17-67. 20-30 minute session, total 15 sessions. Reduction in fat percentage: 20% among males participants, and 30% among females participants.
Weight loss: 5% >5 kg.
Overall effect rate: 90.1%.
China.
Mok, Parker [194] To look into the effect of ear acupuncture on weight loss. 24 participants (n = 1 male, n = 23 females).
Unspecified age range.
Unspecified session duration and total session. No weight changes. USA.
Table 1 Analysis of the reviewed 101 projects
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