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Exploring the relationship between Ca2+ and the "Qi" of TCM from the perspective of modern medicine
Ai-Wen Zhuang, Xue-Min Fan, Li-Na Ji, Xian Deng, Hong Ling, Rong-Qun Li
2TMR Integrative Medicine    2019, 3: e19006.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMRIM201903006
Abstract ( 190 HTML PDF (525KB) ( 99 )  

Highlights:

There are many similarities and close relationships between Qi and Ca2+ in terms of source and function.

Abstract

Ancient Chinese philosophy believed that Qi is the origin of all things in the universe, and it is the extremely fine material that exists in the universe and is ubiquitous. The Qi of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is put forward on the basis of philosophical meaning. It points out that Qi is a very invasive and extremely subtle substance with strong vitality in the human body. It is the basic substance that constitutes the human body and maintains its life activity. Qi is the basic concept of TCM, but the understanding of the essence of Qi is not clear. At present, there are more and more studies on the essence of Qi of TCM, but it has not achieved a major breakthrough, which has become one of the problems that limit the development of traditional Chinese medicine. Through the research on the literature, it is found that Qi and Ca2+ are inextricably similar. This paper attempts to explore the relationship between Qi and Ca2+ from the aspects of source of production and physiological function to explain their similar points. We hope to provide new ideas for the study of the essence of Qi and achieve the purpose of promoting the development of TCM.

Non-pharmacological therapy of TCM for the treatment of essential hypertension
Meng-Lei Li, Shan-Fu Chen, Ying-Qiang Zhao
2TMR Integrative Medicine    2019, 3: e19010.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMRIM201903010
Abstract ( 308 HTML PDF (530KB) ( 222 )  

Highlights:

It is necessary to strengthen the research on the mechanism of non-drug therapy of TCM, and combine clinical observation and experimental research to promote the promotion and application of non-pharmacological therapy of TCM in clinical practice.

Abstract

Non-pharmacological treatment is an important means to control hypertension, with many advantages such as low cost, less medication, stable blood pressure, less complications, and improved prognosis. This article reviews the research progress of non-drug treatment of hypertension in Chinese medicine in the past five years, and evaluates traditional Chinese medicine such as TCM Qigong, Wuhuo opera, Ba Duanjin and Taijiquan, and Chinese medicine acupuncture, moxibustion, massage, application, acupoint embedding and other traditional Chinese medicine. The effect of external treatment in hypertension control provides guidance for non-drug therapy to control hypertension.

Traditional Chinese non-drug therapies for cancer pain treatment
Xun Liu, Zhu Yang, Feng-Xi Long, Jin-Lin Wu, Dong-Xin Tang
2TMR Integrative Medicine    2019, 3: e19017.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMRIM201903017
Abstract ( 97 PDF (293KB) ( 70 )  

Cancer pain is the most common and serious symptom of cancer, which seriously affects the quality of life of cancer patients. the most widely used three-step analgesia has received good effects, but the toxic side effects at the same time can be ignored. As a complementary therapy increasingly accepted around the world, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) also plays an important role in cancer pain treatment. Traditional Chinese non-drug therapy has a good effect for cancer pain. In this mini-review, the commonly used traditional Chinese non-drug therapies such as acupuncture, moxibustion, acupoint catgut embedding and injection, massage, ear point pressing with coxherb seeds therapy, traditional music therapy were introduced.

TCM syndrome types and the related factors in 145 cases of renal cell carcinoma
Dong Wang, Yu Gao, Xiao-Yu Zhu, Jia Zhang, Xi-Xing Wang
2TMR Integrative Medicine    2019, 3: e19022.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMRIM201903022
Abstract ( 304 PDF (461KB) ( 220 )  

Background: To analyze the distribution of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndromes and the related factors in patients with renal cell carcinoma, and to provide further guidance for the relapse prevention and combination of traditional Chinese and Western medicine in postoperative renal cancer patients. Methods: A retrospective survey was conducted to establish a postoperative clinical symptom assessment scale for patients with renal cell carcinoma. The distribution of TCM syndromes in 145 patients with renal cell carcinoma was analyzed statistically. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze the correlation between different TCM syndromes and risk factors. Results: The postoperative TCM syndromes of patients with cell carcinoma were mainly spleen-kidney deficiency (38.6%), liver-kidney Yin deficiency (15.9%), spleen-kidney Yang deficiency (13.1%), and damp-heat pouring downward (9.7%). The incidence of severe spleen-kidney Qi deficiency syndrome and spleen- kidney Yang deficiency syndrome was statistically different from that of liver-kidney Yin deficiency syndrome (P < 0.05). The history of drinking and BMI ≥ 24 kg/m2 were risk factors for spleen-kidney Qi deficiency syndrome; the history of hypertension was a protective factor for liver-kidney Yin deficiency syndrome after renal cancer surgery; male was a protective factor for patients with renal cancer who had damp-heat pouring downward syndrome; smoking history and drinking history were risk factors for damp-heat pouring downward; age was a protective factor for spleen-kidney Yang deficiency after renal cancer surgery. Conclusion: This study found that spleen-kidney Qi deficiency syndrome, liver-kidney Yin deficiency syndrome, spleen-kidney Yang deficiency syndrome, dampness and heat injection syndrome were the common TCM syndrome types after renal cell carcinoma patients. There was a correlation between the TCM syndromes of renal cell carcinoma and the risk factors such as drinking history, overweight and obesity, smoking history and drinking history. The distribution of TCM syndromes and its correlation with risk factors in renal cell carcinoma patients after surgery can provide ideas for clinical treatment and prognosis.

Network pharmacology: an important breakthrough in traditional Chinese medicine research
Yuan Jin-Wei, Hao Jian, Chen Dan
2TMR Integrative Medicine    2018, 2 (3): 92-98.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMRIM201802026
Abstract ( 435 HTML PDF (979KB) ( 251 )  

Highlights

Network pharmacology breaks through the traditional linear research model and coincides with the complexity of traditional Chinese medicine, provides technical support and new strategy in the research of traditional Chinese medicine.

Abstract

Objective: To study the relationship between traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) research and network pharmacology. Methods: Discuss the common features of TCM and network pharmacology through the analysis of the characteristics of TCM, the background of network pharmacology, so as better interpretation of TCM and in-depth understanding of TCM research and network pharmacology. Results: Multicomponent and multitarget characteristics of TCM as same as the study thought of network pharmacology. Network pharmacology breaks through the research model of linear and coincides with the complexity of TCM, provides technical support for rational design of TCM formulae, both and a new way in the research of TCM. It becomes a new strategy for modern TCM research. Conclusion: Network pharmacology is an important breakthrough in TCM research, its research promote modernization and internationalization process of TCM conduce to the research and development of TCM and have important significance for the integration of Chinese and Western medicine.

Application of sinomenine in rheumatic diseases
Hai-Yu Wang, Chen-Hui Song, Xiao-Ping Liu, Tang-liang Qian, Yue-Lan Zhu, Xiu-Juan Hou
2TMR Integrative Medicine    2018, 2 (2): 54-61.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMRIM201802021
Abstract ( 307 PDF (312KB) ( 79 )  
Sinomenine is widely used in a variety of rheumatic diseases, but more and more attention has been paid to the adverse reaction in allergic reactions, digestive tract, blood, circulatory and nervous system. The application of sinomenine in rheumatoid diseases and its side effects were reviewed, which may provide a reference for the safe and effective application of sinomenine preparations.
Regulatory effects of the combination of berberine and ginsenoside Rb1 on high-fat diet-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease via AMPK pathway and improved pharmacokinetics
Lv Zhou, Xiu-Teng Zhou, Wen-Bo Xu, Yi-Dan Chen, Ni-Hua Wang, Jiao Guo, Hui Fan
2TMR Integrative Medicine    2018, 2 (2): 76-86.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMRIM201802024
Abstract ( 355 PDF (1181KB) ( 85 )  

Objective: We evaluated the protective effects of berberine (BBR) combined with ginsenoside Rb1 (G-Rb1) on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in rats and futher investigated the underlying mechanisms. Methods: Rats were fed an HFD for 6 weeks and then randomly divided into four groups and treated with BBR (50 mg/kg), G-Rb1 (100 mg/kg), BBR (50 mg/kg)+G-Rb1 (100 mg/kg), or fenofibrate (40 mg/kg). Histological examination of liver tissue was performed. In human hepatocellular carcinoma cells HepG2, protein expression of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase was detected by western blotting, and the mRNA expression of carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl coenzyme A reductase was detected by quantitative PCR. Pharmacokinetic assessments included analysis of bioavailability of BBR and G-Rb1 in vivo and G-Rb1 metabolism by intestinal bacteria in vitro. Results: Compared to the single-use group, BBR combined with G-Rb1 significantly ameliorated hepatic fat accumulation in HFD-induced obese rats, as demonstrated by reduced hepatic triglyceride content, and histological evaluation of liver sections. Activation of hepatic AMPK and phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase were significantly elevated in hepatocytes treated with both BBR and G-Rb1. Consistent with the activation of AMPK, the mRNA expression of carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 was stimulated, while the mRNA expression of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl coenzyme A reductase was suppressed. Pharmacokinetic analysis revealed that BBR increased the bioavailability of G-Rb1 in Sprague-Dawley rats. Additionally, BBR prevented degradation of G-Rb1 in fecal solution in vitro. Conclusion: BBR combined with G-Rb1 improved NAFLD through the AMPK signaling pathway, and BBR enhanced G-Rb1 bioavailability via promoting the intestinal absorption of G-Rb1. This combination may be a useful therapeutic agent for NAFLD.

The efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal medicine combined with ACEI/ARB for treatment of incipient diabetic nephropathy: A meta-analysis
Qi-Yan Zheng, Wei-Jing Liu, Wei-Wei Sun, Yao-Xian Wang, Hong-Fang Liu, Lu-Ying Sun
2TMR Integrative Medicine    2018, 2 (1): 7-29.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMRIM201802012
Abstract ( 425 HTML PDF (1365KB) ( 163 )  

Objective: This meta-analysis evaluated the efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) combined with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and/or angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARBs)for treatment of incipient diabetic nephropathy(IDN). Methods: Nine data bases were searched for randomized controlled trials of Chinese herbal medicine(CHM) and ACEI/ARB for treatment of IDN. Included articles were published between January2006 and December 2016. All studies were divided into prescriptions containing both Astragali Radix and Rehmanniae Radix (i subgroup), Astragali Radix(Huangqi) or Rehmanniae Radix(Dihuang) (ii subgroup), neither Astragali Radix nor Rehmanniae Radix (iii subgroup). Review Manager 5.3was used for subgroup analysis. Results: In total, 28 RCTs with 2017 patients were included. The results showed 1)the urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) can be reduced significantly using CHM with ACEI or ARB for treatment of IDN compared to ACEI or ARB alone, and reduction of the UAER of the i subgroup was superior to that of the other two subgroups;2)serum creatinine (Scr) levels can be reduced significantly using CHM combined with ACEI or ARB, and reduction of Scr in the ii subgroup was superior to that in the iii subgroup;3)reduction of BUN in group A was not better than that in group B. Conclusion: In summary, CHMs combined with ACEI/ARB can decrease UAER and Scr significantly compared to the use of ACEI/ARB during IDN treatment. The effect was more significant in the CHM group containing Astragali Radix or Rehmanniae Radix. The application of Astragali Radix and Rehmanniae Radix should be emphasized in third stage diabetic nephropathy.

An improved primary culture method for hippocampal neurons in fetal rats and MAP2 identification
Yi-Ran Shao, Yong Chang DI WU, Tao Yue
2TMR Integrative Medicine    2018, 2 (1): 1-6.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMRIM201802011
Abstract ( 423 HTML PDF (359KB) ( 220 )  

Objective: To establish a simple, effective and high-purity primary culture method for fetal rat hippocampal neurons. Methods: Wistar rats of gestational age 18 days were taken and the brain tissue was separated under the microscope. Single neuronal cells were obtained by digestion with Brain Dissociation Kit, and then were seeded in cell plates to observe the basic morphologic structure after 24h, 3d, and 5d. Immunofluorescence of microtubule associated protein 2 was applied to assess cell purity of the culture. Results: The hippocampal neurons obtained in this culture method are in good condition and grow vigorously. On the 7th day after culture, the purity of neurons was up to 99.62%. Conclusion: The method is simple and effective for obtaining the high-purity and stable neurons.

Research progress in immunotherapy of pancreatic cancer
Yong Tang, Hong-Yin Zhang, Xiao-Li Zhou
2TMR Integrative Medicine    2017, 1 (1): 2-8.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMRIM201701111
Abstract ( 354 PDF (311KB) ( 258 )  

Pancreatic cancer is among the most lethal malignancies resistant to conventional therapies. The urgent need for new therapies has turned the spotlights on immunotherapy. In recent years, a growing body of evidence has already been gathered regarding the efficacy of genetic engineering modified T-cells, checkpoint inhibitors of T-cells, killer cells induced by dendritic cells and cytokine in patients with pancreatic cancer. Cryoimmunotherapy in situ and extra-tumor and immunotherapy combined with chemotherapy could also increase the effectiveness. Research of pancreatic cancer vaccine has made some progress. The immunity enhancing function of some traditional herbs have been reported, such as Ginsenoside Rg3, which could enhance T-cell subsets and NK cell activity in pancreatic cancer patients with chemotherapy.

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