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Metabolites identification and quantification of antcin H in mice tumors after oral administration of the anticancer mushroom Antrodia camphorata
Li Zi-Wei, Ji Shuai, Li Bin, Wang Shuang, Tzeng Yew-Min, Qiao Xue, Ye Min
TMR Modern Herbal Medicine    2018, 1 (2): 40-50.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMRmhm2017A15
Abstract HTML PDF (1080KB)  

Objective:Antrodia camphorata (AC), a precious medicinal mushroom in Taiwan, is popularly used for adjuvant cancer therapy. This paper aims to clarify the metabolites which are present in tumor tissues after oral administration of AC in Sarcoma-180 tumor-bearing mice, as well as their contents in tumors. Methods:Tumors of Sarcoma-180 tumor-bearing mice were obtained at 1 h and 4 h after oral administration of AC extract, and the metabolites in the tumor homogenate samples were characterized using UHPLC-orbitrap/MS analysis. Then, a fully validated LC-MS/MS method was developed for quantitative analysis of the most abundant compounds in tumor tissues, namely (25R/S)-antcin H. Results:A total of 33 compounds were characterized in tumor homogenate samples including 28 prototypes of triterpenoids and 5 metabolites. Among them, (25R)-antcin H and (25S)-antcin H had the highest contents of 2.03 and 0.66 μg/g tumor tissues for the 1 h group, and 2.04 and 0.59 μg/g tumor tissues for the 4 h group, respectively. It was obvious that (25R)-antcin H had higher tumor affinity than (25S)-antcin H, since the content of (25R)-antcin H was lower than that of (25S)-antcin H in AC extract (P < 0.01). Conclusion:Triterpenoids can enter tumor tissues after oral administration of AC. Particularly, (25R)-antcin H showed higher exposure to tumor than (25S)-antcin H. These compounds could contribute to the anticancer activities of AC.

Highlights

Metabolites of Antrodia camphorata in mice tumor tissues were profiled by UHPLC-orbitrap/MS analysis for the first time after oral administration, and a total of 33 compounds were characterized. The most abundant compounds in tumor tissues, namely (25R)-antcin H and (25S)-antcin H, were quantified by a fully validated LC-MS/MS method. The results indicated that (25R)-antcin H had higher tumor affinity than (25S)-antcin H.

Clinical experience in treating 78 cases of upper limb edema after breast cancer operation by WenYang HuoXue Washing Prescription
Chen Hong, Wang Xing-Yuan, Zhao Bao-Ya, Zhang Zhong-Hua, Liu Shuang-Wen, Jiao Yun-Lan
TMR Modern Herbal Medicine    2018, 1 (4): 198-202.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMRmhm2017A31
Abstract HTML PDF (307KB)  

Objective: To observe the clinical efficacy and safety of WenYang HuoXue Washing Prescription (WYHX) in the treatment of upper limb edema after breast cancer surgery. Methods: Seventy-eight patients with upper extremity edema after operation of breast cancer with Yin Syndrome were given wet compress with prescription and nursing guidance. The symptom score of affected extremity was observed before and 14 days after treatment, and the total effective rate was evaluated. Results: Twenty-three cases were markedly effective, 41 cases were effective and 14 cases were Invalid. The total effective rate was 82.1%. There was no significant difference between the two groups according to stage I and stage II of edema (P > 0.05). Conclusion: WYHX can effectively improve the discomfort symptoms of upper limb edema and cold after breast cancer surgery, and is worthy of clinical application.

Highlights

WenYang HuoXue Washing prescription can effectively improve the discomfort symptoms of upper limb edema and cold after breast cancer surgery. The DASH score can be evaluated purely from the perspective of traditional Chinese medicine. The therapy can improve the discomfort symptoms such as arm swelling, pain and numbness to a certain extent without adverse reactions

Analysis of drug use law and mechanism of prostate cancer based on data mining and network pharmacology
Yao Yang, Ying Chen, Zhen-ning Yang, Guo-wei Zhang
6TMR Modern Herbal Medicine    2019, 2 (3): 140-150.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMRmhm2017A52
Abstract HTML PDF (1065KB)  

Abstract

Objective: Excavate the medication rule of traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of prostate cancer, and predicting the biomolecular level mechanism of high-frequency drug compatibility. Methods: Relevant documents in CNKI, Wanfang Medical Network and VIP Chinese Biomedical Periodical Database Pubmed, EMbase were collected and collated systematically. Frequency statistics, association rule analysis and new party mining were carried out using TCMISSV2.5. BATMAN-TCM was used to analyze the interaction relationship and related pathways between high-frequency drug targets. Results: Huangqi (Astragalus membranaceus) was the single drug most used of the 102prescriptions included in the standard. There are 6 pairs of combinations with high confidence in association rule analysis. System entropy cluster analysis resulted in 20 core drug combinations and 9 new prescriptions. Through KEGG pathway analysis of Huangqi, Fuling (Poria cocos), Gancao (Glycyrrhiza uralensis) and Dihuang (Rehmannia glutinosa), it was found that the number of potential targets of the neural active ligand receptor rented pathway and purine metabolism pathway was the largest. Conclusions: Prostate cancer is mainly treated with deficiency-tonifying drugs, which are combined with drugs for promoting blood circulation, removing blood stasis, clearing heat, promoting diuresis, detoxifying and resolving hard mass. The mechanism of action of high-frequency traditional Chinese medicine may be realized by interfering with the neuroactive ligand receptor interaction pathway and purine metabolism pathway.

Highlights

This article found that deficiency-tonifying drugs, which are combined with drugs for promoting blood circulation, removing blood stasis, clearing heat, promoting diuresis, detoxifying and resolving hard mass are commonly used to treat prostate cancer. Core herbs may play their role by interfering with the neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction pathway and purine metabolic pathway.

Identification of prognostic markers by integrating the genome and transcriptomics in ovarian cancer
Xin Wu, Dong-Xin Tang, Xia-Nan Sang, Kui-Long Wang, Min Hao, Gang Cao
6TMR Modern Herbal Medicine    2019, 2 (4): 192-205.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMRmhm2017A59
Abstract PDF (5262KB)  

Objective: In order to find a genetic marker to predict the prognosis of patients with ovarian cancer based on multi-omics data. Methods: We download RNA-Seq SNP, CNV data and clinical follow-up information from TCGA database and randomly divide them into training set and test set. GSE17260 dataset in GEO is taken as an external validation set. Prognosis-related genes, copy number difference genes and mutant genes are screened in the training set. After the integration of genes, the random forest algorithm is further used for feature selection, ultimately obtaining a robust biomarker. On this basis, a gene-related prognostic model is established and verified in the test set and verification set. Results: We have obtained 2097 prognostic related genes, 447 copy amplification genes, 1069 copy deletion genes and 654 significant mutations genes. Through the feature selection of random forest algorithm, five feature genes (PSMB1, COL6A6, SLC22A2, KLHL23 and CD3G) are obtained by integrating these genes, some of which have been reported to be related to tumor progress. Furthermore, the prognostic risk assessment model of 5-gene signature is established by Cox regression analysis. The model can evaluate the risk of patient samples in training set, test set and external verification set. 5-gene signature shows strong robustness and clinical independence. The results of GSEA analysis also show that the pathway of 5-gene signature enrichment is significantly related to the pathway and biological process of the occurrence and development of ovarian cancer. Conclusion: In this study, 5-gene signature is constructed as a new prognostic marker to predict the survival of patients with ovarian cancer.

Role of progressive muscle relaxation in preventing and alleviating of nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy among cancer patients: A protocol of systematic review
Xu Tian, Ling-Li Xu, Rong-Ying Tang, Hui Chen, Wei Xie, Wei-Qing Chen
3TMR Integrative Nursing    2019, 3 (6): 226-230.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMRIN20191213
Abstract HTML PDF (356KB)  

Highlights

This article designed updated systematic review to comprehensively establish the efficacy of progressive muscle relaxation for the prevention and alleviation of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting among cancer patients.

Editor’s summary

Progressive muscle relaxation reduces anxiety and fatigue, and progressive muscle relaxation exercise has been widely applied to prevent and alleviate the toxic resulted from chemotherapy.

ABSTRACT

Background and aim: Progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) is one of the most common complementary and alternative therapies. Published systematic review unfolded that PMR has a positive impact on chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting among adult cancer patients. However, the pooled findings were not reliable and valid because included trials have poor quality. It must be noted is that additional studies with good quality have been published recently. So, we design this updated systematic review to comprehensively establish the efficacy of PMR for the of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting among cancer patients.Methods: We will search PubMed, Cochrane Controlled Register of Trial (CENTRAL), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), China Biomedical Literature database (CBM), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Wanfang data to capture all potential items. Data extraction sheet will be used to extract all essential information, the Cochrane risk of bias assessment tool will be utilized to appraise the risk of bias of eligible studies. Finally, a quantitative analysis will be performed if sufficient data were obtained. In contrast, a qualitative analysis will be used to summarize the results of all included studies. Ethics and dissemination: Ethics approval and patient written informed consent will not be required because all of the analyses in the present study will be performed based on data from published studies. We will submit our systematic review and network meta-analysis to a peer reviewed scientific journal for publication.

Interventional effect of cognitive behavioral therapy on cancer-related fatigue in breast cancer patients: A systematic review
Ying Zhang, Jia-Lei Ren, Yu-Hong Chen, Wan-Min Qiang
3TMR Integrative Nursing    2019, 3 (6): 199-206.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMRIN20191211
Abstract HTML PDF (710KB)  

Highlights

This article systematically evaluates the effect of cognitive behavioral therapy on cancer-related fatigue in breast cancer patients, and showed that cognitive behavioral therapy can alleviate the harm caused by cancer-related fatigue.

Editor’s summary

Cognitive behavioral therapy is a psychotherapy method which can change the cognitive orientation of patients. The results of this systematic review indicate that CBT can alleviate cancer-related fatigue in breast cancer patients to a certain extent.

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the effect of cognitive behavioral therapy on cancer-related fatigue in breast cancer patients. Methods: Computer search for CNKI, VIP, Wanfang database, CBM, PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, The Cochrane library as of 2019 randomized controlled trials on October 20 for cognitive behavioral therapy intervention for breast cancer due to fatigue. Results: A total of 6 RCTs were included, 472 patients. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy has a strong effect on cancer related fatigue compared with the usual care [SMD = -1.19, 95% CI (-1.86, -0.53), P = 0.0004]. Results: Available evidence suggests that CBT can alleviate cancer-related fatigue in breast cancer patients, and the above studies still need to continue to conduct relevant studies for validation.

Efficacy and safety of atomized inhalation for Shuanghuanglian on chronic pharyngitis:a Meta-analysis of the randomized controlled trials  
Jian Cheng, Ying Yu -, Chang Yu-, Lei Zhang
92Medical Data Mining    2019, 2 (1): 10-21.   https://doi.org/10.12032/mdm2018010
Abstract PDF (2023KB)  
Objective: As a Chinese drugs preparation to clear heat and remove toxicity, Shuanghuanglian(SHL)has been widely used, but the clinical efficacy and safety of SHL on chronic pharyngitis remain unclear, especially the application of atomized inhalation of SHL need to be verified. The aim of this study was to evaluate its clinical efficacy and safety for chronic pharyngitis. Methods: From the Cochrane Library, Pubmed, EMbase, Wanfang Datebase, CNKI (China National Knowledge Infrastructure), VIP (Chinese Scientifc Journals Database), CBM (Chinese Biomedicine Database), We got the qualified randomized controlled trials(RCTs) and adopted RevMan5.3 software and the risk of bias tool according to the Cochrane to perform a meta-analysis. Results: Ten RCTs, a total of 950 cases (involving 472 cases in SHL group and 478 in control group) were included. The results showed that the clinical efficacy in SHL group was superior to control group [Chi2=5.61, 95%CI (4.29, 11.43), P<0.05], and four literatures reported no obvious adverse reactions in SHL group. Conclusion: Application of atomized inhalation of SHL may have a potential advantage in treating chronic pharyngitis. However, due to the limitation of the quality and sample size of those studies, the accuracy of the result should be treated with caution, higher standardized researches are required to justify the conclusion.
CDK4/6 inhibitors in the treatment of hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative advanced breast cancer
Xue Yang
7Drug Combination Therapy    2020, 2 (1): 25-33.   https://doi.org/10.12032/DCT202001002
Abstract PDF (1170KB)  
Endocrine therapy (ET) is the therapy backbone of hormone receptor (HR)-positive and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative advanced breast cancer. However, there are about 20% HR positive patients with no response to ET due to primary or acquired ET resistance. In this background, many agents have been studied to overcome ET resistance and of which the important agents are cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 (CDK4/6) inhibitors. The prognosis of advanced breast cancer has been improved by combing ET with CDK4/6 inhibitors. In this review, we mainly focused on the CDK4/6 inhibitors in the treatment of HR-positive, HER2-negative advanced breast cancer and discussed the action mechanisms of CDK4/6 inhibitors alone or combined with ET. We also summarized several molecular features that would predict response or resistance to CDK4/6 inhibitors. In addition, we put forward possible strategies to overcome CDK4/6 inhibitor resistance according to the latest research.
Analysis of compatibility rules and mechanisms of traditional Chinese medicine for preventing and treating postoperative recurrence of bladder cancer
Xin-Zhe Zhao, Yao Yang, Ying Chen, Li-Hui Zhang, Guo-Wei Zhang
7Drug Combination Therapy    2020, 2 (1): 16-24.   https://doi.org/10.12032/DCT202001001
Abstract PDF (1310KB)  

Backgroud: Summarize the formula rule of traditional Chinese medicine for preventing and treating bladder cancer recurrence after operation and explore the molecular mechanism of core medicines. Methods: Literatures collected from CNKI, Wanfang Med Online, CMJD, PUBMED and Elsiver databases were as prescription sources, and association rules and complex system entropy clustering analysis were carried out using the Traditional Chinese Medicine Inheritance Support System (TCMISSV2.5). BATMAN-TCM online analysis tool was used to construct target-pathway-disease correlation map to reveal the potential mechanism of action. Results: A total of 122 prescriptions were eligible for data analysis. The high-frequency traditional Chinese medicines are Poria, Radix et Rhizoma Rhei, Radix Astragali, Herba Hedyotidis Diffusae and Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae. The high-frequency drug pairs are Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae/Poria, Poria/Rhizoma Alismatis, Radix Astragali/Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalaeand and Herba Hedyotidis Diffusae/Herba Scutellariae Darbatae.. There are 5 groups of drug pairs with high correlation strength. Cluster analysis shows 6 core drug combinations and 3 new prescriptions. In clinical practice, the core compatibility of traditional Chinese medicines for preventing postoperative recurrence of bladder cancer is Poria, Radix Astragali and Herba Hedyotidis Diffusae. The possible signaling pathways are the neuroactive ligand receptor interaction signaling pathway and calcium signaling pathway. Conclusion: Prevention and treatment of postoperative recurrence of bladder cancer mainly use medicines with effects of eliminating dampness and diuresis for removing edema, heat-clearing and detoxifying, and qi-invigorating. The potential mechanism of the compatibility of core drugs may be realized by interfering with the signal pathway of neuroactive ligand receptor interaction and calcium signal pathway.

Jianpi Bushen Recipe affects epithelial-mesenchymal transition in hepatocellular carcinoma through TGF-β and Twist
Hong-Jie Liu, You-Ying Lai, Zhi-Fen Han, Jian-Jie Chen, Xin-Wen Ma
7Drug Combination Therapy    2020, 2 (1): 1-6.   https://doi.org/10.12032/DCT201905004
Abstract PDF (1055KB)  
Backgroud: To explore the effects of Jianpi Bushen Recipe on the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of nude mice with transplanted human liver cancer SK-HEP-1 cells. Methods: To establish models with transplanted liver cancer cells, nude mice were divided randomly into three groups: blank group, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) group and control group. They were given normal saline, Jianpi Bushen Recipe and solafeni through administration by gavage for four weeks. The expression of TGF-β and twist mRNA were detected by real-time PCR. The expression of E-cadherin was detected by Western blot. Results: Compared with the blank group, the expression of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) mRNA and twist mRNA in the TCM group and the control group decreased significantly (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference between the two groups (P > 0.05). The expression of E-cadherin protein in TCM group and control group increased significantly (P < 0.01). There was no significant difference between the two groups (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Jianpi Bushen Recipe can inhibit the EMT of liver cancer SK-HEP-1 cells in vivo by down-regulating the expression of TGF-β/twist signaling and indirectly up-regulating E-cadherin expression in transplanted liver cancer tissue, indicating the potential of Jianpi Bushen Recipe to inhibit invasion and metastasis of liver cancer.
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