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3TMR Integrative Nursing  2019, Vol. 3 Issue (5): 181-188    DOI: 10.12032/TMRIN20190729
Orginal Article     
Universal precaution practice and barriers to compliance among nurses in Aseer public Hospitals, Saudi Arabia
Manal Banaser1,*(), Abdulah Alshehari2, Abdulrahman Albukhodaah2, Sami Alqahtani3
1The Curative Services Deputyship, Nursing Affairs General Department, Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia
2Khamis Mushayt Maternity and Children Hospital
3Khamis Mushayt General Hospital, Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia.
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Highlights

This article showed that perception of nurses toward compliance with universal precautions in Aseer region hospitals, Sau-di Arabia and factors that may hinder the nurses from complying with those standards. Despite the availability of custom provisions, it is widely recommended that nurses should take precautions, regardless of whether there is a risk of infection or not.

Editor’s summary

Blood borne pathogens are considered as an important occupational risk for nurses. Nursing staff must take a multiplicity of factors, including training on how to prevent and control infections, and how to protect themselves through the use protective clothing.

Abstract

Background: Studies have shown that for every 100 hospitalized patients at any given time, 10 in developing, and 7 in the developed countries would eventually develop at least one episode of healthcare associated infections. This highlights the imperativeness of adherence to Universal Precautions (Ups) for prevention of infections. Proper compliance with standard would lead to a decrease in rate of HAI. Aim: The aim of the study is to determine the perception of nurses toward compliance with universal precautions in Aseer region hospitals, Saudi Arabia and factors that may hinder the nurses from complying with those standards. Methods: A cross sectional study was performed. Data collected using validated questionnaire of universal precautions from convenience sample of 302 respondents’ nurses across four public hospitals in Aseer region. Analysis was performed through descriptive statistics and chi square tests of association. Results: The overall compliance toward universal precautions among nurses was high at 88%. The results reveal that all constructs that define the actions of the nurses to have a statistically significant association at 99% with the extent to which nurses utilized the universal precautions. Discussion: The results indicate that nursing staff adhere to the universal precautions for prevention of infection. However, the hospitals should solve the main barriers including lack of personal protective clothing, challenges during emergencies, and lack of training on how to use.



Key wordsUniversal precautions      Infections prevention      Nurses      Hospital infection      Saudi Arabia     
Published: 24 October 2019
Corresponding Authors: Banaser Manal   
E-mail: mbanaser@moh.gov.sa
Cite this article:

Manal Banaser, Abdulah Alshehari, Abdulrahman Albukhodaah, Sami Alqahtani. Universal precaution practice and barriers to compliance among nurses in Aseer public Hospitals, Saudi Arabia. 3TMR Integrative Nursing, 2019, 3(5): 181-188. doi: 10.12032/TMRIN20190729

URL:

https://www.tmrjournals.com/in/EN/10.12032/TMRIN20190729     OR     https://www.tmrjournals.com/in/EN/Y2019/V3/I5/181

Figure 1: Model of safety climate in workplace adapted from Zohar (2002)
Respondents (%)
[N = 342]
Gender Male 15 %
Female 86%
Age group 18 - 24 years 0.88%
25 - 34 years 68.71%
35 - 44 years 25.15%
45 - 54 years 2.63%
55 + years 2.63%
Hospital workplace Aseer Central Hospital 23 %
Abha Maternity Hospital 8 %
Khamiss Mushayt General Hospital 38%
Khamiss Mushayt Maternity and Children Hospital 31%
Education level Diploma/Associated Diploma 38%
Bachelor Degree 60 %
Postgraduate (Master degree/PhD) 2 %
Clinical experience years 1 - 5 years 33%
5 - 10 years 41%
10 - 15 years 18%
> 15 years 8%
Nationality Saudi 52%
Non Saudi 48%
Table 1: Demographic results
Practice of Universal precautions at work Never Rarely Sometimes Often Always
I protect myself against infections at all times 0.66% 2.64% 10.89% 13.20% 72.61%
I put needles in the designated contained 1.65% 2.64% 1.98% 5.28% 88.12%
I use gloves when there is a possibility of exposure 0.66% 2.97% 6.27% 9.24% 80.86%
Washing hands after removing disposable gloves 1.32% 1.65% 10.23% 10.56% 76.24%
Use of water-proof aprons 6.60% 6.27% 14.19% 17.82% 54.79%
Use of eye protection 15.51% 14.19% 20.79% 16.17% 33.00%
Use of surgical masks 2.97% 3.96% 12.54% 9.57% 70.63%
Recapping contaminated needles 63.70% 6.93% 29.04% 99.67% 0.33%
Disposal of all blood-contaminated items 2.64% 3.63% 4.62% 5.61% 83.50%
Extra precaution when using scalpels, needles, razors etc. 1.32% 2.97% 4.29% 7.92% 83.50%
Cover any broken skin before working 1.32% 3.63% 12.87% 11.22% 70.96%
Barriers to standards precautions Strongly Agree Agree Not sure Disagree Strongly Disagree
I do not know how to protect myself from infection risks 3.30% 5.61% 4.95% 22.77% 63.37%
Am too busy to follow recommended precautions 5.28% 16.17% 7.59% 27.72% 43.235
Sometimes do not use the recommended precautions 1.65% 7.26% 9.24% 28.71% 53.145
I may fail to use recommended precautions to avoid offending patient 2.97% 13.20% 13.20% 22.44% 48.18%
Emergency situations make it hard for use of protection 7.59% 20.79% 10.56% 25.41% 35.64%
It is not essential for staff to protect themselves in my areas 2.97% 7.26% 5.61% 26.73% 57.43%
I have not been adequately trained on use of protective equipment 1.32% 8.25% 6.27% 27.72% 56.44%
Wearing protective equipment makes me unconformable 1.65% 15.18% 6.93% 32.67% 43.56%
Wearing protective equipment makes it hard to work properly 1.98% 11.22% 8.25% 32.34% 46.20%
Wearing protective clothes is expensive for the patients 3.30% 14.52% 10.56% 26.73% 44.88%
Personal protective clothing is not readily available 4.62% 13.20% 10.23% 29.70% 42.24%
Table 2: Frequency results
Pearsons Chi Square Df Likelihood ratio Df Linear by linear association Df Effect Size (Cramer V) P
Var1*Var2 511.492 a 16 214.650 16 191.992 1 0.651 P < 0.01
Var1*Var3 852.503a 16 320.974 16 253.186 1 0.839 P < 0.01
Var1*Var4 837.743a 16 404.662 16 279.168 1 0.831 P < 0.01
Var1*Var5 639.887a 16 452.453 16 257.547 1 0.728 P < 0.01
Var1*Var6 498.340a 16 404.544 16 187.712 1 0.642 P < 0.01
Var1*Var7 679.739a 16 431.952 16 277.231 1 0.750 P < 0.01
Var1*Var8 64.641a 8 91.392 8 42.409 1 0.327 P < 0.01
Var1*Var9 525.045a 16 289.010 16 237.751 1 0.658 P < 0.01
Var1*Var10 588.534a 16 285.496 16 234.947 1 0.697 P < 0.01
Var1*Var11 723.774a 16 431.903 16 279.447 1 0.773 P < 0.01
Var1*Var12 749.689a 16 414.802 16 264.419 1 0.786 P < 0.01
Var1*Var13 522.779a 16 404.722 16 234.726 1 0.657 P < 0.01
Var1*Var14 518.045a 16 349.532 16 239.590 1 0.654 P < 0.01
Var1*Var15 743.174a 16 441.211 16 242.872 1 0.783 P < 0.01
Var1*Var16 445.949a 16 385.398 16 200.854 1 0.607 P < 0.01
Var1*Var17 635.417a 16 378.343 16 253.772 1 0.724 P < 0.01
Var1*Var18 563.535a 16 358.298 16 246.092 1 0.682 P < 0.01
Var1*Var19 592.735a 16 379.504 16 235.238 1 0.699 P < 0.01
Var1*Var20 617.636a 16 383.312 16 241.866 1 0.714 P < 0.01
Var1*Var21 746.417a 16 447.997 16 243.002 1 0.785 P < 0.01
Var1*Var22 645.810a 16 438.758 16 242.988 1 0.730 P < 0.01
Table 3: Chi square tests
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