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25 April 2020, Volume 3 Issue 2        Previous Issue   
Orginal Article
Water extracts of Cordyceps sinensis inhibits proliferation and metastasis via regulating cell cycle and matrix metalloproteinases in melanoma
Shu-Xian Yang, Xue-Lian Bai, Xue-Feng Hu ...
90Life Research. 2020, 3 (2): 50-61.   https://doi.org/10.12032/life2020-0403-101
Abstract ( 73 )     PDF (3127KB) ( 38 )  
Background: Melanoma has poor survival rate owing to its aggressiveness and high rates of metastasis and recurrence. Only few effective therapies are available for metastatic melanoma, so, development of novel anti-metastatic drugs is in urgent need. Cordyceps sinensis is a well-known and common Chinese medicine and has been used as anti-cancer adjuvant treatments for many years. In our study, we aim to evaluate the effects of water extracts of Cordyceps sinensis (WECS) in A375 melanoma cells and in zebrafish model of melanoma metastasis. Methods: Initially, we detected the effect of WECS on the via- bility in A375 melanoma cells by MTT assay and colony formation assay, and then we detected the effect of WECS on adhesion and metastasis by wound healing assay and Transwell chambers assays. Next, we also explored underlying mechanism by Western blot. Notably, in vivo anti-metastasis assays with A375 zebrafish xenograft model also were performed. Results: As expected, our results found that WECS sup- pressed proliferation, adhesion and metastasis in A375 melanoma cells via regulating AKT/MMP2/MMP9 pathways and cell cycle. Furthermore, we also confirmed anti-metastasis efficacy of WECS with A375 zebrafish xenograft model. Conclusion: Overall, our results indicate that WECS, as a kind of metastasis inhibitor, may be developed as a new therapeutic strategy for metastatic melanoma treatment.
Review
Sleep, cognition and neurodegenerative diseases
Diana Ikilikyan, Melissa J. Walker
90Life Research. 2020, 3 (2): 62-67.   https://doi.org/10.12032/life2020-0424-302
Abstract ( 167 )     PDF (605KB) ( 134 )  
Quality and quantity of sleep are undervalued by many, primarily due to the hunger our generation has for increased productivity during the day, as 24 hours is just not enough. Even fewer pay attention to the timing of sleep during the circadian cycle or are even aware of its importance. Studies show that insufficient amounts of sleep, poor sleep quality, and/or improper timing of sleep induce both acute and chronic clinical issues that can be prevented by simply sleeping the recommended amount, with restorative quality, and correct circadian timing. Forfeiting hours that should be dedicated specifically to sleep can lead not only to psychological deficits such as mood disorders, stress and anxiety, but also physiological issues such as cognitive and memory deficits, metabolic syndrome, obesity, neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s, and even possibly cancer. This article reviews the relationship between sleep, cognition and neurodegenerative diseases with the latest research progress, providing new research ideas for researchers. The author also analyzes the importance of improving people's sleep quality from a sociological point of view to remind people to improve their awareness of sleep.
Research progress on the influence of opioids on fetal neurodevelopment during pregnancy
Xia-Lei Li, Yue-Han Guo, Shu-Ting Wei, Ju Chen, Yi-Bo Wu
90Life Research. 2020, 3 (2): 68-77.   https://doi.org/10.12032/life2020-0424-301
Abstract ( 78 )     PDF (482KB) ( 50 )  
Women usually suffer from chronic pain due to pregnancy or have an increased level of chronic pain. In view of the definite curative effect of opioids on chronic pain and opioid use disorders, opioids have attracted much attention in the treatment of bone, joint, neuropathic and other chronic pain and opioid use disorders in pregnant women. Considering that the unreasonable use of opioids by pregnant women will lead to risks such as drug accumulation and increased neural sensitivity in the fetus, the correct and reasonable use of opioids is the key to the treatment. In recent years, it has been found that opioids can cross the blood fetal barrier into the fetal circulation, and damage fetal nerve development to varying degrees. However, the studies on the typical diseases such as neonatal neural tube defects and neonatal abstinence syndrome are not comprehensive. Therefore, this article has clarified the unreasonable use of opioids during pregnancy and its effect on fetal nerve development, and put forward relevant measures in order to provide reference for clinicians/pharmacists in obstetrics and gynecology.
Hypothesis
Classical piano playing as a pathway to flow states for learners with disabilities
Lee D. Stockner
90Life Research. 2020, 3 (2): 91-97.   https://doi.org/10.12032/life2020-0422-402
Abstract ( 250 )     PDF (903KB) ( 85 )  
Derivation of happiness through playing classical music represents a rare pinnacle of musical experience. Biofeedback based research on playing piano in the state of effortless attention, named flow, has provided data which fortifies testimonials of pleasure during performance. Benefits include lower blood pressure, smooth breathing, a sense of disconnection from anxiety, and even feelings of euphoria. Other than in cases of extraordinary talent, it is highly uncommon for individuals with pervasive and profound disabilities to reach a flow state through music performance. One of the bedrocks of reaching a flow state is having expertise in all elements of an activity which special learners may struggle with, especially if learning to play classical music. However, with a new language of music designed with the highest possible degree of clarity and ease (hereafter referred to as the Special Language), expertise is completely within reach for almost anyone with basic color and letter matching skills. Using this method, students with severe challenges can immediately understand instructions, chain them together into melodic patterns and engage in the flow of reproducing music. With these skills unlocked, students who cannot read traditional notes can begin the step by step process of learning to play properly. This change in approach opens up potential fields of research to discover how great an impact flow states at the piano can have on individuals who cannot read traditional music notation, how music teachers can prioritize flow in music education, and how educators and therapists who do not read traditional music notation can use music in the classroom. The purpose of establishing credibility of the Special Language/Flow Approach is to enable a higher quality of life for individuals who may not have the ability to attain it for themselves.
Comment
Do our brains really belong to us?
Xin Wang
90Life Research. 2020, 3 (2): 98-100.   https://doi.org/10.12032/life2020-0425-601
Abstract ( 57 )     PDF (307KB) ( 52 )  
As the most important and mysterious organ in our body, the brain has been explored by numerous scientists. In this context, this paper mainly aims at Hilary Putnam's hypothesis of "brain in a tank" in his book “Reason, Truth and History", and considers the possibility of the realization of this hypothesis in combination with practical experiments such as brain machine connection and brain wave transmission from regenerated brain cells, hoping to play a certain guiding role.