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30 June 2020, Volume 3 Issue 2 Previous Issue   
Review
The law of Chinese medicine prescriptions in dictionary of Chinese medicine prescription for lepriasis: a data mining analysis
Hai-Ping Duan, Hai-Die Liu, Yu-Rong Zhao, Ming-Kai Wang, Li-Fen Wang
Medical Data Mining. 2020, 3 (2): 49-58.   https://doi.org/10.12032/MDM2020063001
Abstract ( 38 )     PDF (601KB) ( 22 )  
Backgroud: Lepriasis is a chronic and less contagious disease caused by mycobacterium leprosy. It is characterized by ulcerations of the internal organs, bone and skin. In severe cases, it can lead to sensory loss, gangrene, limb deformation and paralysis. It is not hereditary, and usually occurs two to seven years after infection. It has not been completely eliminated, and is still an important public health problem. China is still a low leprosy endemic area. In China, 1,000 to 1,500 people were infected with leprosy every year between 2000 and 2012 The purpose of this study was to explore the law of Chinese medicine prescriptions for lepriasis in dictionary of Chinese medicine prescription by data mining. Methods: Prescriptions for the treatment of leprosy were obtained from dictionary of Chinese medicine prescription. Weka 3.8 was used to analyze the relationship among drugs. Hierarchical clustering analysis was conducted by unsupervised entropy hierarchical clustering algorithm to obtain new prescriptions for the treatment of lepriasis. Results: Five hundred and twenty-five prescriptions for the treatment of lepriasis were selected from the dictionary of Chinese medicine prescription. The results showed that drugs with high-frequency use were Fangfeng (Saposhnikoviae radix) Danggui (Angellcae sinensis radix) Kushen (Sophorae flavescentis radix) Jingjie (Schizonepetae herba) Chuanxiong (Chuanxiong rhizoma) and so on. Most of them were antipyretic drugs. The property of drugs mainly was warm, followed by flat and cold. The function of drugs mainly was relieving exterior syndrome, followed by tonifying deficiency, suppressing hyperactive liver for calming endogenous wind, clearing heat, etc. The taste of drugs mainly was spicy, followed by bitter, sweet, etc. The meridian of drugs mainly was liver meridian, followed by lung meridian, spleen meridian, stomach meridian, heart meridian and so on. Four new prescriptions have been discovered. Conclusion: The law of Chinese medicine prescription for lepriasis in dictionary of Chinese medicine prescription was summarized by data mining. It provides an insight into the treatment of lepriasis using traditional Chinese medicine and new drug research.
Article
Rules of prescriptions for diabetes in dictionary of traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions based on data mining
Li-Jiao Chen, Ming-Kai Wang, Xue-Qin Qin, Li-Fen Wang
Medical Data Mining. 2020, 3 (2): 59-72.   https://doi.org/10.12032/MDM2020063002
Abstract ( 7 )     PDF (814KB) ( 7 )  
Background: This study aimed to provide reference and guidance for the clinical use of traditional Chinese medicine based on the analysis of the prescriptions for the treatment of diabetes and the rules of drug use in Dictionary of Traditional Chinese Medicine Prescriptions. Methods: Prescriptions and drugs for the treatment of diabetes were found out from Dictionary of Traditional Chinese Medicine Prescriptions, and their natures, tastes, meridians and functions were found respectively. The data were statistically analyzed by SPSS 22.0, Weka 3.8, and Cytoscape 3.6.1 software. Results: Five hundred and twenty prescriptions for diabetes were selected, involving 373 traditional Chinese medicines. The medium and high frequency drugs in the prescription are Maidong (Ophiopogonis radix), Gancao (Glycyrrhizae radix et rhizoma), Tianhuafen (Trichosanthis radix), Renshen (Ginseng radix et rhizoma), Huanglian (Coptidis rhizoma), Fuling (Poria), Dihuang (Rehmanniae radix), Zhimu (Anemarrhenae rhizome), et al. Most of them are heat clearing drugs, tonic drugs, supplemented by drugs such as diuresis, dampness, astringency, et al., and are with cold and warm properties, sweet and bitter taste, and belong to lung meridian, heart meridian and stomach meridian. According to the association rule analysis of high-frequency drugs, the compatibility rules of drugs were obtained, such as Danggui (Angelicae sinensis radix) plus Dihuang (Rehmanniae radix), Kushen (Sophorae flavescentis radix) plus Tianhuafen (Trichosanthis radix), Danggui (Angelicae sinensis radix) plus Gancao (Glycyrrhizae radix et rhizoma), Roucongrong (Cistanches herba) plus Wuweizi (Schisandrae chinensis fructus), Digupi (Lycii cortex) plus Maidong (Ophiopogonis radix), et al. Six new prescriptions were excavated by entropy level clustering, and the treatment methods were mainly nourishing Yin (it is the category of ancient philosophy, with the back to the sun as the Yin, opposite to the Yang; it is a generalization of the opposite attributes of some things or phenomena related to each other in nature), benefiting Qi (it is the most basic element that constitutes human body and maintains life activities in traditional Chinese medicine) and promoting body fluid, as well as benefiting water and dampness, clearing heat and reducing fire. Conclusion: The prescriptions for the treatment of diabetes included in Dictionary of Traditional Chinese Medicine Prescriptions are mainly for nourishing Yin and promoting body fluid, and also for invigorating lung and Qi, clearing heat and purging fire, which can provide reference for modern clinicians in the treatment of diabetes based on syndrome differentiation.
Characteristic of prescriptions from associate professor Lifen Wang for acne vulgaris: a data mining analysis
Hai-Die Liu, Ming-Kai Wang, Yu-Rong Zhao, Hai-Ping Duan, Li-Fen Wang
Medical Data Mining. 2020, 3 (2): 73-83.   https://doi.org/10.12032/MDM2020063003
Abstract ( 12 )     PDF (547KB) ( 6 )  
Background: This study aimed to summarize the characteristic of prescriptions from associate professor Lifen Wang for acne vulgaris by data mining analysis. Methods: Medical records of outpatients for treating acne vulgaris from associate professor Lifen Wang were collected in dermatology department in Yunnan Provincial Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine. SPSS 20.0 software was used to calculate the frequency of drugs. Weka 3.8 software was used to analyze the correlation of drugs. Cytoscape 3.6.1 softwwere was used to present the results of association rule analysis in the form of network figure. A new formula for treating acne vulgaris was obtained by hierarchical clustering algorithm. Results: The high-frequency drugs for the treatment of this disease were Baihuasheshecao (Hedyotis diffusa), Jinyinhua (Lonicerae japonicae flos), Gancao (Glycyrrhizae radix et rhizoma), Ruxiang (Olibanum), et al. The efficacy of high-frequency drugs includes heat-clearing, blood-activating and blood-removing, and deficiency-tonifying, accounting for 63.93% of the total frequency. The primary property of high-frequency drugs is cold followed by warm and flat, accounting for 63.89% of the total frequency. The taste of high-frequency drugs includes bitter, sweet and spicy, et al., accounting for 40.38% of the total frequency. The meridial of high-frequency drugs includes liver, heart, spleen, stomach, and lung, et al., account for 43.23% of the total frequency. The most commonly used combination of drugs was Ruxiang (Olibanum) plus Moyao (Myrrha) from the association rules of high-frequency drugs. Conclusion: Associate professor Lifen Wang commonly uses Baihuasheshecao (Hedyotis diffusa), Jinyinhua (Lonicerae japonicae flos), Gancao (Glycyrrhizae radix et rhizoma), Ruxiang (Olibanum) in the treatment of acne vulgaris. The primary properties of used drugs were cold, warm, and plain. The primary drug pairs were Ruxiang (Olibanum) plus Moyao (Myrrha), Cebaiye (Platycladi cacumen) plus Baihuasheshecao (Hedyotis diffusa), et al. Main functions of new prescriptions for the treatment of acne vulgaris include reducing swelling and removing stasis, clearing the heat and removing toxins, promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis.
Review
Family participation and educational guidelines for secondary prevention of myocardial infarction: an overview
Wen-Jiao Li, Hui-Min Zhang, Yan Li, Chang-De Jin
Medical Data Mining. 2020, 3 (2): 84-91.   https://doi.org/10.12032/MDM2020063004
Abstract ( 18 )     PDF (410KB) ( 13 )  
Background: Secondary prevention of myocardial infarction can effectively improve the quality of life and long-term prognosis of patients. This study aimed to summarize the evidence of family members’ participation and education in secondary prevention of myocardial infarction. Methods: We searched current guidelines related to myocardial infarction, including Guideline International Network, National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network, National Guideline Clearinghouse, Australian Clinical Practice Guidelines, New Zealand Guidelines Group, World Health Organization and other professional guideline websites as well as PubMed, VIP database, Wanfang Data, China National Knowledge Infrastructure and other databases. The clinical guidelines research and evaluation Ⅱ system was used to evaluate the quality of the guidelines related to the participation and education of patients’ families in the secondary prevention of myocardial infarction. Relevant recommendations were summarized. Results: Three guidelines from the United States, New Zealand and China were included. The quality is classified as A for one guideline, B for other and C for another. Finally, 10 recommendations are summarized, including the development of family eating habits, the psychological, family and social adaptation of patients and their families, as well as the recommendation of caring education for their families. Among them, the caring education for their families includes the nursing of patients with myocardial infarction, the recognition of symptoms of myocardial infarction, the start of rescuing medical services, the training of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, risk assessment, prognosis and living will education and social network or social isolation education. Conclusion: This study shows the important role of family members’ participation and education in secondary prevention of myocardial infarction, and provides evidence-based support for medical staff’s intervention in synchronous education of family members of patients with myocardial infarction. It suggests that clinical researchers and doctors should pay more attention to patients’ family health issues, promote the participation of family members, and strengthen the related education to increase the role of family support system in secondary prevention of myocardial infarction.
Article
Mechanisms of Quzhisanwei formula for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis based on a network pharmacology approach
Hai-Sheng Chai, Ting-Ting Shen, Yan-Hong Liu, Rong-Kun Yin, Zhi-Qin Wu, Yue-Lan Wu, Zhen-Yu Tan, Shang-Wei Hou, Qin Zhang
Medical Data Mining. 2020, 3 (2): 92-101.   https://doi.org/10.12032/MDM2020063005
Abstract ( 6 )     PDF (1250KB) ( 3 )  
Background: The experienced prescription Quzhisanwei formula, a traditional Chinese medicine formula, has been demonstrated to be effective for the treatment of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. However, the underlying pharmacological mechanisms remain unclear. This study aims to explore the potential action mechanisms of the experienced prescription Quzhisanwei formula in the treatment of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Methods: A network pharmacology approach including absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion evaluation, target prediction, known therapeutic targets collection, interacting pathways and network construction was used in this study. The active components and potential targets of the experienced prescription Quzhisanwei formula were screened by Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform, Swisspredict. Then, the targets of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis were collected in the GeneCards. Additionally, gene ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analyses were performed using WebGestalt. Drug-target-pathway networks were constructed using Cytoscape to give a visual view. Results: It showed that 27 compounds and 89 potential targets were obtained in this work. These targets were further mapped to 109 gene ontology biological process terms. And the potential regulatory signaling pathway included non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, insulin, HIF-1 signaling pathway, PPAR signaling pathway, pathways in cancer, AGE-RAGE signaling pathway in diabetic complications, and so on. Conclusion: This study indicated that active compounds of the experienced prescription Quzhisanwei formula mainly had multi-target and holistic therapeutic effects on non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. However, in vivo and in vitro experiments are still needed.