Objective: To observe the effect of TongFengNing Decoction (TD) on uric acid levels, xanthine oxidase (XOD) activity, and XOD mRNA expression of hyperuricemia (HUA) model rats. Methods: 90 rats were randomly divided into 6 groups (n=15), and the HUA model in all groups except the blank group was established by administering hypoxanthine (HX) by gavage and injecting potassium oxonate (OAPS) intraperitoneally. Rats in all TD groups and allopurinol group were administered multiple doses of TD and a single dose of allopurinol by gavage twice daily for 21 days, while the blank group and the model group were administered normal saline. On the 7th, 14th, and 21st days of drug intervention, serum uric acid (SUA), urine uric acid (UUA), intestinal uric acid (IUA), as well as XOD activity and mRNA expression in the liver and small intestine were measured in randomly selected 5 rats of each group. Results: On the 14th and 21st days of intervention, all TD dose groups and the allopurinol group showed decreased SUA and IUA levels, increased UUA levels, as well as decreased XOD activity and mRNA expression in the liver and small intestine, compared with the model group (P < 0.05). The low- and high-dose TD group and the allopurinol group showed increased SUA and IUA levels, as well as XOD activity and mRNA expression in the liver and small intestine, and decreased UUA levels, compared with the moderate-dose TD group (P<0.05). Upon extending the drug intervention time of each TD dose group, SUA and IUA levels, XOD activity, and XOD mRNA expression in the liver and small intestine decreased and UUA levels increased (P < 0.05). Conclusion: TD reduces SUA levels in HUA model rats, which promotes uric acid excretion and inhibits XOD activity and XOD mRNA expression to reduce uric acid production. The reduction in uric acid level by the intermediate dose of TD was better than that by allopurinol and the low and high doses of TD.
The effect of TongFengNing Decoction (TD) on xanthine oxidase (XOD) activity and mRNA expression in the liver and small intestine of a hyperuricemia (HUA) rat model was explored as the possible mechanism of action for reducing serum uric acid (SUA). The experimental results show that TD reduces SUA levels in HUA model rats by promoting uric acid excretion and inhibiting XOD activity and mRNA expression. These results demonstrate the probable mechanism by which TD lowers uric acid, highlight its clinical application, and reflect the therapeutic advantage of using traditional Chinese medicine.
We summarized the discovery of liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) based glutathione (GSH) capture of reactive metabolites in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), which provides scientific basis for further research and clinical application of Chinese medicine toxicity discovery. This dissertation overviews relevant literatures of GSH capture of reactive metabolites in recent years. And then we review the principles and methods of LC-MS based GSH capture of reactive metabolites, as well as the research progress in the discovery of toxicity of TCM including pyrrolizidine alkaloids, furans and quinoid species. The review shows that the representative compounds of TCM includes adonifoline, lasiocarpine, diosbulbin B and safrol are well dctected by LC-MS based GSH capture technique. And the main analytic systems of LC-MS are triple quadrupole and Q-Trap mass spectrometer. Constant neutral loss scan (CNLS), precursor ion scan (PIS) and multiple reaction monitor (MRM) are main detection methods to monitor the characteristic GSH conjugate fragmentations. The approach of LC-MS based GSH-trapped metabolites has a good application prospect in the discovery of toxic components of TCM.
Metabolic bioactivation of certain drugs can generate reactive metabolites (RM) that are capable of covalently modifying cellular biomolecules and are implicated in drug induced toxicity. These electrophilic metabolites, also known as intermediates, cannot easily be detected due to the chemical instability and shorter half-life. As a natural nucleophilic agent, glutathione (GSH) can capture these electrophilic RM, forming GSH covalent conjugates. GSH conjugates screening by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) can be applied for rapid characterization and detection of potential toxicity of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). In this paper, we briefly introduced the principle of RM trapped by GSH, as well as mentioned some qualitative and quantitative methods by LC-MS for GSH conjugates screening over recent years. Moreover, the application of this technology in the discovery of toxicity of TCM, especially those containing pyrrolizidine alkaloids, furans and quinoid species, were also reviewed. In short, the approach of LC-MS based GSH-trapped RM can be employed for rapid and sensitive detection of potential toxic RM in TCM, with a good prospect in application.
The plants of the genus Picrasma, comprised of nine species, are mainly distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of America and Asia. Some species of this genus are used as traditional medicine resources to cure anemopyretic cold, sore throat, dysentery, eczema, nausea, loss of appetite, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and so on. A total of 157 chemical constituents identified from Picrasma were reviewed by Jiao WH et al. in 2007. Since then, 101 compounds were reported from the plants of the genus Picrasma. These compounds are assigned to alkaloids, quassinoids, triterpenoids, and others. This review aims to provide an updated overview on the chemical constituents of the plants of the genus Picrasma during 2007-2017.
The plants of the genus Picrasma comprise of nine species and are mainly distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of America and Asia. The bark, roots, stems, branches, or leaves of some species in the genus Picrasma are used as traditional herbal medicines for the treatment of anemopyretic cold, sore throat, dysentery, eczema, nausea, loss of appetite, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and so on. The chemical constituents of the plants of this genus were carried out to isolate 157 compounds before 2007, which were reviewed by Jiao WH et al. From then on, some significant progresses on the plants of the genus Picrasma have been achieved over the last decade, and another 101 compounds with various biological activities are reported. These compounds are assigned to alkaloids, quassinoids, triterpenoids, and others. So far, the chemical investigation on the plants of the genus Picrasma only focus on three species (P. quassioides, P. javanica and P. excelsa). Among them, the most studies on chemical constituents concentrate on the plants of P. quassioides, followed by the plants of P. javanica. Little researches have been done on the plants of P. excelsa. The current results show that there are large differences in the chemical constituents between the species of the genus Picrasma. The updated overview on the chemical constituents of the plants of the genus Picrasma is provided herein after the systematic review by Jiao WH et al. in 2007.
The research on the dose-effect relationship in Chinese materia medica is delayed due to the complexity of its composition, multi-efficacy, multi-targeting and other factors. Many experts put forward relevant research ideas and methods and worked out more and more research results in literature, experimental and clinical categories because of the progress of statistical methods and scientific and technological means in recent years. In this paper, these results were preliminarily combed to show the basic situation of dose-effect relationship research in Chinese materia medica.
The research on the dose-effect relationship in Chinese materia medica was delayed due to the complexity of its composition, multi-efficacy, multi-targeting and other factors. However, there are more and more research results in literature, experimental and clinical categories because of the progress of statistical methods and scientific and technological means in recent years. This paper aimed to present the current basic situation.
Objective: In order to obtain the best treatment program for Knee Osteoarthritis (KOA), to alleviate the pain of patients with KOA, and to systematically evaluate the efficacy of acupuncture cupping therapy for KOA. Methods: we used computer to search the databases of CNKI (1989-2018.10), Wanfang (1989-2018.10), VIP (1989-2018.10), PubMed (1966-2018.10), EMbase (1986-2018.10) and Cochrane Library (the 3rd issue of 2018). And the literature quality was evaluated by Jadad scale. Results: A total of 19 eligible RCT studies were included, and a total of 2,088 patients participated in the eligible clinical study. Meta-analysis results showed that the total effective rate OR combination =2.85[OR =3.98, 95%CI (2.98,5.32), P < 0.00001]. The results showed that the curative effect of acupuncture and collaterals cupping in the treatment of KOA was superior to other therapies. Conclusion: Acupuncture and cupping therapy of traditional Chinese medicine is effective and safe in treating KOA. Due to the impact of the original study on Meta-analysis results, more large samples and high-quality clinical trials are still needed to verify.
Highlights Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is one of the most common orthopedic diseases. Most of the patients were elderly, and the clinical manifestations were mainly pain. This paper aims to explore the research progress of TCM acupuncture and cupping therapy for the prevention and treatment of KOA. In this paper, we reviewed the published literature, systematically evaluated and Meta analyzed the efficacy of acupuncture and cupping therapy for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis, and provided better evidence for the clinical treatment of knee osteoarthritis patients.
As one of the representative drugs for clearing heat-toxicity, Chinese medicine DaXueTeng (Caulis Sargentodoxae) contains various chemical substances such as tannins, glycosides, cyclic polyphenols, triterpenoids, lignins, flavonoids, terpenoids and organic acids. It has a wide range of pharmacological effects. Meanwhile, it is valued by the doctor. Modern research suggests that DaXueTeng has antibacterial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, and immunosuppressive effects. It has been experimentally and clinically proven that the active constituents of DaXueTeng have a good therapeutic effect on inflammatory diseases. It is widely used in the treatment of pelvic inflammatory disease, annexitis, prostatitis, appendicitis, periappendiceal abscess, inflammatory intestinal obstruction, UC, endometriosis, inflammatory secondary infertility, gouty arthritis, pharyngitis, and stomatitis. Here we review the anti-inflammatory pharmacological effects and clinical applications of.
DaXueTeng (Caulis Sargentodoxae) belongs to Angiospermae, Dicotyledons, Lardizabalaceae, Sargentodoxa, deciduous woody liana. Caulis Sargentodoxae was first recorded in the “BenCaoTuJing”, saying that it can attack blood and cure blood clots. This dissertation first overview relevant literatures of DaXueTeng recent years. We review the anti-inflammatory effects and clinical application of the current active components of DaXueTeng, which provides a good application prospect in clinic.
Objective: To investigate the effect of Furongtongmai capsule on the in-stent restenosis (ISR) of superficial femoral artery after interventional operation in lower extremity Arteriosclerosis Occlusion (ASO). Methods: A total of 110 inpatients with ASO who performed Superficial femoral artery stent implantation were randomly divided into observation group and control group, with 55 cases in each group．Both groups received Aspirin 100 mg/d and Clopidogrel 75 mg/d. The observation group was given Furongtongmai capsule on the basis of routine treatment. After continuous treatment for 6 months, the clinical efficacy, Ankle Brachial Index (ABI), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CPR) and ISR were compared between the two groups. Results: At 6 months after operation, the plasma levels of Hs-CRP in the two groups were significantly lower than those in the control group (P < 0.05). The ABI of treatment group was significantly higher than the control group (P < 0.05). There was a statistically significant difference in ISR incidence between the treatment group and the control group 6 months after surgery (9.09% vs 27.78%, P < 0.05). Conclusion: Furongtongmai Capsule can inhibit Hs-CRP in patients with ASO after femoral artery intervention, improve the ankle brachial index and reduce the incidence of ISR.
The restenosis rate in patients with lower extremity Arteriosclerosis Obliterans was higher after the bare stent implantation, and the effect of double resistance was not good. In this paper, the effect of Furongtongmai capsule on restenosis after stent implantation was observed by clinical trial. Furongtong mai capsule can reduce the restenosis rate in patients after operation by multiple targets, such as reducing the vascular inflammation, raising ABI and increasing the blood flow of the lower limbs. it is on the threshold of the application of Chinese medicine for Arteriosclerosis Obliterans of lower extremities.
Objective: To observe the clinical efficacy and safety of WenYang HuoXue Washing Prescription (WYHX) in the treatment of upper limb edema after breast cancer surgery. Methods: Seventy-eight patients with upper extremity edema after operation of breast cancer with Yin Syndrome were given wet compress with prescription and nursing guidance. The symptom score of affected extremity was observed before and 14 days after treatment, and the total effective rate was evaluated. Results: Twenty-three cases were markedly effective, 41 cases were effective and 14 cases were Invalid. The total effective rate was 82.1%. There was no significant difference between the two groups according to stage I and stage II of edema (P > 0.05). Conclusion: WYHX can effectively improve the discomfort symptoms of upper limb edema and cold after breast cancer surgery, and is worthy of clinical application.
WenYang HuoXue Washing prescription can effectively improve the discomfort symptoms of upper limb edema and cold after breast cancer surgery. The DASH score can be evaluated purely from the perspective of traditional Chinese medicine. The therapy can improve the discomfort symptoms such as arm swelling, pain and numbness to a certain extent without adverse reactions
BuGuZhi (Psoraleae Fructus) is the dry mature peel of the leguminous plant. After ripening in autumn, the fruit is collected and dried to get its fruit, which has the effect of warming kidney and helping Yang, the effect of absorbing asthma, warming the kidney and relieving diarrhea, and treating vitiligo and alopecia. Because the clinical curative effect is exact, so it has been widely used in the treatment of clinical diseases. However, the recent reports and clinical cases reported that BuGuZhi has some toxic effects. According to domestic and foreign references, toxic effects are mainly divided into hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, phototoxicity, reproductive toxicity, and rare cases of retinal vagueness reported by clinical reports. the toxicity of BuGuZhi is summarized. The article analyzed the way of synergism and reduction of BuGuZhi, which was based on data mainly coming from the compatibility of drugs, pattern identification, constitution identification and drug processing. All o-f analyses and summaries are in order to make the clinical medication safer and more scientific.
BuGuZhi (Psoraleae Fructus),belonging to angiosperm, dicotyledoneae, rosidae , leguminosae, Psorslea L. Psoraleae Fructus, which was first recorded in “Kai Bao Ben Cao”, has been used widely in clinics for the functions of warming the kidney and helping the yang, calming the breath, warming the kidney, stopping the diarrhea. As the incidence of adverse reaction events accumulated in recent years, it has attracted the attention of domestic and overseas scholars. Thus, in order to provide a basis for doctors to use BuGuZhi safely, this article summarizes the literature on the toxicity of BuGuZhi, and analyzes the ways of enhancing efficacy and reducing toxicity.
Quality marker (Q-marker) of Chinese materia medica (CMM) plays an important role in quality control of CMM products. However, its research strategy and technique remain unclear. Based on the fact that quality standard of CMM should be associated with clinical efficacy, taking Jinqi Jiangtang tablet treating type 2 diabetes as an example, the Q-marker related to activity via the reverse analysis of drug metabolism in clinic and traceability of botanic biosynthetic pathways is discovered and validated. Therefore, we proposed a new research strategy of Q-marker of CMM with "Discovery of clinical active constituents as guidance, Reverse analysis of metabolic transformations as link, and Traceability of biosynthesis pathways as key", to improve quality control of CMM products.
Highlights: "Discovery of clinical active constituents as guidance, Reverse analysis of metabolic transformations as link, and Traceability of biosynthesis pathways as key", a new research strategy for discovering quality marker of Chinese materia medica (CMM), promotes quality standard of CMM.
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