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The Protective Effect of Jiujiuguiyi, a Medicine and Food Homologous Formula, on Acute Alcohol Poisoning Mice
Yang-Fan Zhou, Tian-Ze Zhang, Si-Qi Deng, Meng Zhang, Yu-Jiao Zhan, Yi-Fang Li, Rong-Rong He
6TMR Modern Herbal Medicine    2019, 2 (3): 121-130.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMRmhm2017A49
Abstract ( 258 HTML PDF (921KB) ( 144 )  

Abstract

Background: Nowadays, acute alcoholic intoxication has become the third public problem in China, and the anti-inebriation products mainly aimed at increasing the activity of enzyme involved in the alcohol metabolism, which is a single mechanism that can accelerate alcohol metabolism. Thus, a new formula, Jiujiuguiyi (JJGY) which could protect liver, relieve the abnormal excitability of the center and improve muscle retardation at the same time is designed by us. Methods: The model of acute alcoholic intoxication was established by intragastric administration with 0.12 ml/10g 50% alcohol in mice. JJGY was orally administrated (gavage) once a day for 20 consecutive days before the establishment of acute alcoholic model. Mice were randomly divided into 8 groups with 8 each: blank control group (CON), model group (M), Haiwangjinzun positive control group (HWJZ), experimental groups (AL, AH, BL, BH, AB). Giant, crawling time on the rota-rod, the activities of aspartate amino trans- ferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in both liver and serum, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) in liver as well as the HE staining of liver slices, the formation of malondialdehyde (MDA) in serum were determined after acute alcoholic intoxication. Results: Compared with model group, JJGY significantly decreased the AST and ALT activity in liver and serum and MDA activity in serum. Meanwhile, it enhanced the ADH and ALDH level in liver as well as the hepatic and serous SOD activity, indicating more efficient metabolism of alcohol and less hepatic injury. HE staining results also proved that JJGY could reduce alcoholic liver cell injury, and the effect was more obvious in the group medicated before alcohol administration. Moreover, JJGY significantly prolonged the crawling time on the rota-rod and improved the gait of mice and the effect was proved to be better than the widely used health product Haiwangjinzun. Conclusions: This study suggests that JJGY is able to protect liver, relieve the abnormal excitability of the center and improve muscle retardation after acute alcoholic intoxication. Its liver protection effect is likely related to its modulation on the alcohol metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes.

Highlights

In the present study, a new compound Chinese herbal medicine formula, Jiujiuguiyi, was designed by using the medicine and food homology theory. The formula aims at protecting liver, relieving the abnormal excitability of the center and improving muscle retardation at the same time. Acute alcoholic intoxication model in mice was built, then the ethology test and biochemical test were conducted to exam the efficacy of the formula in different preparations. The results suggest that JJGY can protect the acute alcoholic intoxication mice through multiple mechanisms, providing a new way to develop antialcoholismic drug homologous food.

Effect of Tanshinone IIA on LPS-induced inflammatory response in a ROS-NLRP3 inflammasome dependent manner in RAW264.7 cells
Dan Li, Shan Gao, Sarhene Michael, Yu-Ying Guo, Hao Deng, Shi-Xin Xu, Guan-Wei Fan
6TMR Modern Herbal Medicine    2019, 2 (3): 131-139.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMRmhm2017A48
Abstract ( 255 HTML PDF (652KB) ( 146 )  

Abstract

Emerging evidence has demonstrated that Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA) prevents cardiomyocytes injury, cardiac fibroblasts and atherosclerosis. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the effects of Tan IIA is still unclear. To investigate the role of Tan IIA in inflammatory response in a ROS-NLRP3 inflammasome dependent manner, RAW264.7 cells stimulated with LPS were recruited to produce a cell model of inflammatory response. Our results indicated that the production of NO was significantly increased after stimulated by LPS, and Tan IIA treated significantly decreased the level of NO. The mRNA expression of NLRP3, IL-1β and TNF-α was significantly inhibited by Tan IIA compared with LPS treated cells. The protein expression of NLRP3, IKBα, pp65/p65 and pp38/p38 was significantly decreased by Tan IIA, compared with LPS or LPS+ATP stimulated groups. Meanwhile, Tan IIA significantly inhibited the level of ROS induced by LPS+ATP. And NAC, a ROS inhibitor, could also inhibit the protein expression of NLRP3. Based on these findings, it could be speculated that the mechanism underlying the effect of Tan IIA may involve the regulation of ROS-NF-κB/ P38-NLRP3 pathway. This study further characterized the molecular mechanism of Tan IIA, and provided new thoughts to its clinical therapy.

Highlights

Tan IIA could inhibit the inflammatory response and NLRP3 expression stimulated by LPS or LPS+ATP. Acetylcysteine (N-acetyl-l-cysteine, NAC), a ROS inhibitor, could inhibit LPS+ATP-induced increase in NLRP3 level. The mechanism underlying the effects of Tan IIA may involve the regulation of ROS-NF-κB/ P38-NLRP3 pathway. This study further characterized the molecular mechanism of Tan IIA, and provided new thoughts to its clinical therapy.

Mitochondrial membrane stabilization by Angelica sinensis polysaccharide in murine aplastic anemia
Ping Zhong, Xing Cui
6TMR Modern Herbal Medicine    2019, 2 (3): 151-157.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMRmhm2017A50
Abstract ( 189 HTML PDF (647KB) ( 105 )  

Abstract

In order to investigate the mechanism of mitochondrial membrane stabilization by Angelica sinensis polysaccharide (ASP) in murine aplastic anemia (AA).ICR mice were randomly divided into control, AA and ASP-treated groups. The AA group mice were treated with 60Coγand intraperitoneal injections of cyclophosphamide and chloramphenicol. The control animals were treated with lead shielding irradiation and saline injection. The treated AA mice were fed with ASP for 2 wk. Mitochondrial ultrastructure of the bone marrow was observed by transmission electron microscopy, and the transmembrane potential of bone marrow-nucleated cells (BMNC)was examined by fluorescence spectrophotometry. The Cox and MDH contents of the medium were also studied in the three groups.The mitochondrial number and transmembrane potential of BMNC in the bone marrow decreased in the AA group as compared to the control group, but improved in the ASP-treated group as compared to the AA group. Complete mitochondrial cleavage in the ASP-treated group was significantly delayed (P < 0.05) as compared to the AA group. We conclude that ASP might improve mitochondrial membrane stabilization, and suppress the downregulation of transmembrane potential and apoptosis of BMNC in AA.

Highlights

Acquired deletions of mtDNA and abnormal mitochondrial function are crucial reasons in some blood disease include aplastic anemia. Angelica sinensis helps in tonifying the blood and promoting its circulation via anti-oxidative and neuroprotective effects. In this paper, we demonstrated that Angelica sinensis polysaccharide can improve improve the mitochondrial ultrastructure, and suppress the downregulation of transmembrane potential and apoptosis of myeloid element to cure bone marrow failure.

Bio-characteristic profiling related to clinic: A new technology platform for quality evaluation of Chinese materia medic
Li-Na Wen, Ai-Ting Wang, Na Guo, Yumei Han, Can Yan, Dan Yan
6TMR Modern Herbal Medicine    2019, 2 (4): 215-224.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMRmhm2017B54
Abstract ( 189 PDF (859KB) ( 137 )  
Quality evaluation is a bottleneck restricting the modernization and internationalization of Chinese materia medica (CMM). Due to characteristics of multi-component, multi-efficacy, multi-target, the existing quality evaluation system still cannot fully meet quality control needs of CMM. Hence, the author put forward “Bio-characteristic profiling related to clinic, BPRC” academic concept, meanwhile, fully take the advantage of analysis method with clinical monitoring superiority or profiling characteristics, build up "BPRC" new technology platform, in order to realize “real-time, dynamic and full-range monitoring” new technologies of CMM quality evaluation system and promote the further development of CMM industry.
Analysis of drug use law and mechanism of prostate cancer based on data mining and network pharmacology
Yao Yang, Ying Chen, Zhen-ning Yang, Guo-wei Zhang
6TMR Modern Herbal Medicine    2019, 2 (3): 140-150.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMRmhm2017A52
Abstract ( 182 HTML PDF (1065KB) ( 119 )  

Abstract

Objective: Excavate the medication rule of traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of prostate cancer, and predicting the biomolecular level mechanism of high-frequency drug compatibility. Methods: Relevant documents in CNKI, Wanfang Medical Network and VIP Chinese Biomedical Periodical Database Pubmed, EMbase were collected and collated systematically. Frequency statistics, association rule analysis and new party mining were carried out using TCMISSV2.5. BATMAN-TCM was used to analyze the interaction relationship and related pathways between high-frequency drug targets. Results: Huangqi (Astragalus membranaceus) was the single drug most used of the 102prescriptions included in the standard. There are 6 pairs of combinations with high confidence in association rule analysis. System entropy cluster analysis resulted in 20 core drug combinations and 9 new prescriptions. Through KEGG pathway analysis of Huangqi, Fuling (Poria cocos), Gancao (Glycyrrhiza uralensis) and Dihuang (Rehmannia glutinosa), it was found that the number of potential targets of the neural active ligand receptor rented pathway and purine metabolism pathway was the largest. Conclusions: Prostate cancer is mainly treated with deficiency-tonifying drugs, which are combined with drugs for promoting blood circulation, removing blood stasis, clearing heat, promoting diuresis, detoxifying and resolving hard mass. The mechanism of action of high-frequency traditional Chinese medicine may be realized by interfering with the neuroactive ligand receptor interaction pathway and purine metabolism pathway.

Highlights

This article found that deficiency-tonifying drugs, which are combined with drugs for promoting blood circulation, removing blood stasis, clearing heat, promoting diuresis, detoxifying and resolving hard mass are commonly used to treat prostate cancer. Core herbs may play their role by interfering with the neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction pathway and purine metabolic pathway.

Compatible stability study of XingNaoJing injection based on physical-chemical properties analysis
Dong-Li Qi, Chun-Xia Liang, Yue-Lin Zhang, Yan-Quan Gao, Yue Xing, Hong-Li Yan, Bing Zhang, Jia-Rong Xie, Zhi-Dong Liu
6TMR Modern Herbal Medicine    2019, 2 (4): 173-182.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMRmhm2017A55
Abstract ( 176 PDF (1140KB) ( 104 )  
Objective: The clinical treatment of brain diseases is urgent. Xingnaojing (XNJ) injection is often used in combination with other injection drugs. Due to the possible interaction between the injections in vivo, the particle size, osmotic pressure, pH value change and component stability decrease, that is one of the important factors causing various adverse reactions. Based on the above situation, this study investigated the physical properties and chemical composition changes of XNJ injection and its compatibility solvent and 13 kinds of clinical injection, speculated the possible interactions between the drugs in vivo from the perspective of in vitro compatibility stability, find out the safety risks of adverse reactions and provide guidance for the safe and rational use of XNJ injection. Methods: According to the clinical application, XNJ injection was mixed with 13 combination injections based on 250 mL 5% glucose injection, and placed at room temperature for 6 h. Then, the clarity, particle size, pH, osmolality, and the contents of camphor, d-borneol, and muscone of the compatible solutions were detected at 0, 1, 2, 4, and 6 h, respectively. Results: The results showed that the physical-chemical properties of compatibility solution were slightly influenced when XNJ was combined with Alprostadil injection and Danhong injection. The change of particle size and the degradation of muscone content were the main factors affecting the compatibility stability of XNJ injection, indicating that there are some problems in compatibility stability, which may be one of the causes of clinical adverse reactions. Conclusion: This study suggests that XNJ injection in combination with other injections during intravenous administration should be performed cautiously.
Erahertz spectral analysis of Xiling Zhimu with different geological conditions and plant age
Li-Na Zhang, Yu-Hui Ma, Ze-Jia Zhang, Kai-Xuan Hou, Miao-Miao Lin, Guo-Wei Zhang, Cun-Guang Lou
6TMR Modern Herbal Medicine    2019, 2 (3): 158-166.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMRmhm2017A53
Abstract ( 158 HTML PDF (447KB) ( 153 )  

Abstract

Objective: In order to identify the quality of different geological conditions and plant ages of Xiling Zhimu. Methods: This article uses the terahertz spectroscopy to detect and analyze different geological conditions and ages of Zhimu (Anemarrhenae Rhizoma) from the same origin. Results: The terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of different geological conditions and ages has a decrease relative to the reference amplitude and has a delay. The refractive index has obvious differences, and the refractive index can be used as a way to identify the tablets. The absorption coefficients of different ages Zhimu samples has significant differences in the range of 1.0-2.0 THz. The absorption coefficients of different geological conditions Zhimu samples has significant differences in the range of 1.1-2.0 THz. Conclusions: The differences caused by different production methods should be considered in the identification of genuine regional drug. When the Zhimu is grown due to different geological conditions and plant ages, its efficacy will also change. we can detect this change by terahertz spectroscopy.

Highlights

The terahertzian time-domain spectrum of Zhimu (Anemarrhenae Rhizoma) at different plant ages and different geological environments decreased relative to the reference amplitude and showed a delay. The refractive index has obvious difference, which can be used as a way to identify the film. The absorption coefficients of Zhimu at different plant ages were significantly different in the range of 1.0-2.0THz, and the absorption coefficients of Zhimu in different geological environments were different in the range of 1.1-2.0THz. Therefore, the differences caused by different preparation methods should be considered in the identification of authentic medicinal materials. When Zhimu grows at different plant ages and in different geological environments, its pharmacodynamics will change, and we can detect this change by terahertz spectroscopy, which can provide a basis for the identification of Xiling Zhimu.

Effect of Xuebijing injection on hematopoietic homeostasis of LPS induced sepsis in mice
Ping Wang, Jun Wang, Ying Hao, Xiao-Rui Li, Ya-Ru Feng, Lan Wang, Hong-Cai Shang, Jian-Xun Wang
6TMR Modern Herbal Medicine    2019, 2 (4): 206-214.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMRmhm2017A60
Abstract ( 156 PDF (1088KB) ( 123 )  
Objective: To explore the effect and mechanism of Xuebijing injection (XBJ) on the hematopoietic homeostasis of bone marrow (BM) in septic mice. Methods: BM cells stimulated with XBJ were analyzed by inverted optical microscope and qPCR, to evaluate the effect of XBJ on differentiation function of BM cells in vitro. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) 055:B5 at the dose of 20mg/kg was used to establish the sepsis model. To determine the hematopoietic stem cells homeostasis affected by LPS in mice, BM cells were isolated and analyzed by flow cytometry based on the immunophenotypic surface markers. 20ml/kg of XBJ was administered by tail vein once/day after peritoneal injection of LPS. All animals were sacrificed on the fifth day. The frequency of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and immune cells in mice were quantified by flow cytometry. The gene expression of transcription factors were detected by qPCR. Results: XBJ promoted myeloid differentiation of BM cells in vitro, which may be related to the mRNA expression of the transcription factors. The results in vivo showed the percentage of BM Lin-SCA-1+c-KIT+ (LSK) cells, and Long-term HSCs (LT-HSC) were significantly increased in LPS group. But the percentage of multipotential progenitors (MPPs), granulocyte-monocyte progenitor (GMP) and megakaryocytic-erythroid precursor (MEP) were significantly decreased in LPS group. Whereas, XBJ improved the immune function in sepsis mice by suppression the LSK expansion in vivo. The result of qPCR showed that LSD1 and PU.1 mRNA expression in XBJ group were significantly higher than LPS group and control group respectively. Conclusion: Xuebijing injection can improve immune function in sepsis mice by regulating hematopoietic homeostasis. Its mechanism may be related to the up-regulation of LSD1 and PU.1 gene expressions.
Identification of prognostic markers by integrating the genome and transcriptomics in ovarian cancer
Xin Wu, Dong-Xin Tang, Xia-Nan Sang, Kui-Long Wang, Min Hao, Gang Cao
6TMR Modern Herbal Medicine    2019, 2 (4): 192-205.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMRmhm2017A59
Abstract ( 154 PDF (5262KB) ( 122 )  

Objective: In order to find a genetic marker to predict the prognosis of patients with ovarian cancer based on multi-omics data. Methods: We download RNA-Seq SNP, CNV data and clinical follow-up information from TCGA database and randomly divide them into training set and test set. GSE17260 dataset in GEO is taken as an external validation set. Prognosis-related genes, copy number difference genes and mutant genes are screened in the training set. After the integration of genes, the random forest algorithm is further used for feature selection, ultimately obtaining a robust biomarker. On this basis, a gene-related prognostic model is established and verified in the test set and verification set. Results: We have obtained 2097 prognostic related genes, 447 copy amplification genes, 1069 copy deletion genes and 654 significant mutations genes. Through the feature selection of random forest algorithm, five feature genes (PSMB1, COL6A6, SLC22A2, KLHL23 and CD3G) are obtained by integrating these genes, some of which have been reported to be related to tumor progress. Furthermore, the prognostic risk assessment model of 5-gene signature is established by Cox regression analysis. The model can evaluate the risk of patient samples in training set, test set and external verification set. 5-gene signature shows strong robustness and clinical independence. The results of GSEA analysis also show that the pathway of 5-gene signature enrichment is significantly related to the pathway and biological process of the occurrence and development of ovarian cancer. Conclusion: In this study, 5-gene signature is constructed as a new prognostic marker to predict the survival of patients with ovarian cancer.

Network pharmacology based method for mechanistic investigation of the Compound Xintahua in the treatment of atherosclerosis
Yu-Che Wu, Yan-Ming Wang, Na-Bi Xinhua
6TMR Modern Herbal Medicine    2019, 2 (4): 225-236.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMRmhm2017B57
Abstract ( 140 PDF (683KB) ( 104 )  
Objective: To explore the pharmacological basis of the Compound Xintahua (XTH) action in Atherosclerosis (AS) therapy, a network interaction analysis was conducted at the molecular level. Methods: TCMSP database and literature mining were used to analyze the main effective components in XTH, and the targets were predicted by Swiss Target Prediction server according to AS mechanism. The potential targets were introduced into the FunRich database for target annotation and analysis, the path analysis was finally performed based on the FunRich databases. To determine the mechanism of action of XTH. Results: A total of 316 compounds, 117 targets, and 290 signaling pathways were identified. And 16 effective compounds, 39 common targets, and 43 pathways were associated with AS. Conclusions: The results showed that the flavonoids, phenols, organic acids and terpenoids of XTH could participate in the process of lipid metabolism, angiogenesis, oxidation, inflammation, endocrine metabolism, cell proliferation and apoptosis, It was further found that they could play the role of anti-Atherosclerosis through multi-component, multi-target, and multi-channel synergistically.

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