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Immunoregulation and anti-tumor effects of Polyporusus Bellatus: a review of recent research
Lin Miao-Miao, Cui Mei-Yu, Cao Hai-Yan, Wu Xue-Song, Cai Li-Jing, Zhang Li-Hui, Zhang Guo-Wei
TMR Modern Herbal Medicine    2018, 1 (3): 181-188.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMRmhm2017B25
Abstract ( 353 HTML PDF (433KB) ( 203 )  

We summarized the Polyporusus Bellatus (PPS) efficacy of immunomodulation, liver protection and anti-tumor, then provide scientific basis for further research and clinical application. This dissertation first overview relevant literatures of PPS recent years and describe comprehensively the research progress of the immunoregulation, liver protection and anti-tumor effects and mechanism of PPS. The review shows that the PPS play anti-tumor effects through antioxidation, scavenging free radicals, inhibiting tumor cell proliferation, inducing apoptosis, affecting tumor gene expressions and enhancing immune functions. PPS can exert immunoregulatory, hepatoprotective and anti-tumor effects through multiple pathways and multiple targets, which provides a good application prospect in clinic.

Highlights

Polyporusus Bellatus (PPS) is the major component of Zhuling (Polyporus). This dissertation first overview relevant literatures of PPS recent years. PPS has immunoregulation, liver protection and anti-tumor effect. PPS can exert immunoregulatory, hepatoprotective and anti-tumor effects through multiple pathways and multiple targets, which provides a good application prospect in clinic.

Antioxidative and antiapoptotic effects of (+)-clausenamide on acetaminophen-induced nephrotoxicity in mice
Yu Hong-Min, Wang Min, Yu Zong-Chao, Li Yi-Fang, Huang Chun-Xin, Han Fang-Xuan, Liu Fan-Na, He Rong-Rong
TMR Modern Herbal Medicine    2018, 1 (3): 127-135.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMRmhm2017A20
Abstract ( 410 HTML PDF (727KB) ( 190 )  

Objective: (+)-Clausenamide ((+)-CLA), the active ingredient of wampee, was isolated from the leaves of Clausena lansium (Lour.) Skeels. This study aimed to evaluate the protective potential of (+)-CLA against acetaminophen (APAP)-induced nephrotoxicity in mice. Methods: Mice were divided into control, APAP, high-dose (+)-CLA, and low-dose (+)-CLA groups. Then, mice were preadministered (+)-CLA (50 and 100 mg/kg) for 5 consecutive days. After the last treatment, the animals received a single intraperitoneal injection of APAP (600 mg/kg). Renal histopathology was evaluated by staining with hematoxylin and eosin. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) and the activities of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were determined using corresponding kits. Western blotting was used to analyze the expression of apoptosis-related proteins in renal tissue. Results: Administration of APAP increased serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels in comparison with the control group. An increase in renal MDA level, depletion of GSH, and reductions in CAT and SOD activities in renal tissue indicated that APAP-induced kidney injury was mediated by oxidative stress. The expressions of Bax and caspase-3, cleavage of caspase-3, and cytoplasm cytochrome c levels were up-regulated in renal tissue, whereas Bcl-2 expression and mitochondrial cytochrome c levels were down-regulated in the APAP group, which revealed that APAP-induced kidney injury significantly increased cell apoptosis in renal tubules. The histopathology of kidney tissue supported these biochemical mechanisms. (+)-CLA can reverse changes in most of the abovementioned parameters and nearly restore the normal structure of the kidney. Conclusion: Oxidative stress and apoptosis are considered to be the mechanisms underlying APAP-induced nephrotoxicity. (+)-CLA could be a promising antidote for APAP-induced acute renal damage owing to its antioxidative and antiapoptotic effects.

Highlights

(+)-Clausenamide ((+)-CLA), an acid amide isolated from the leaves of Clausena lansium (Lour.) Skeels, significantly decreases creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels and increases the antioxidative abilities. The underlying mechanisms of (+)-CLA were involved in improving the antioxidative and antiapoptotic effects. This study provides a basis to clinical application of (+)-CLA.

Evidence-based optimization of integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine therapies for prevention and treatment of coronary heart disease: design and implementation
Jiang Yin, Zhang Xiao-Yu, Tian Gui-Hua, Zhang Li-Jing, Zhang Ming-Xue, Wan Hai-Tong, Ye Min, He Rong-Rong, Sun Xin, Shang Hong-Cai
TMR Modern Herbal Medicine    2018, 1 (3): 124-126.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMRmhm2017B28
Abstract ( 323 HTML PDF (254KB) ( 174 )  

As a chronic disease that seriously endangers public health, the number of coronary heart disease (CHD) patients in China has increased in recent years. There is great potentiality to integrate traditional Chinese and Western medicine therapies to prevent and treat CHD in clinical practice. However, most of the current integrated therapies still lack sufficient high-quality evidence, and the key links in how to apply are unclear. It is urgent to optimize them through evidence-based research to further improve the effectiveness. Therefore, we propose strategies to conduct evidence-based optimization of integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine therapies in prevention and treatment of progressive cardiovascular diseases. These are integrated clinical trial design, attention to the key links of taking effect, combination of clinical and basic research. Based on the strategies, we started the national key research and development project "Evidence-based optimization research of TCM therapies in prevention and treatment of CHD (angina pectoris - myocardial infarction - heart failure)", which is expected to be a new paradigm in the field.

A novel natural compound Shikonin inhibits YAP function by activating AMPK
Yan Fang-Jie, Qian Mei-Jia, Luo Hong, Zeng Chen-Ming, Yuan Tao, He Qiao-Jun, Zhu Hong, Yang Bo
TMR Modern Herbal Medicine    2018, 1 (3): 136-142.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMRmhm2017A26
Abstract ( 625 HTML PDF (517KB) ( 172 )  

Objective: Yes Associated Protein (YAP) is a downstream effector that negatively regulated by Hippo kinase LATS1/2. As a transcriptional coactivator, YAP controls the transactivation of variety target genes to promote cell proliferation which is a critical survival input for cancer cells, thus the inhibition of YAP function is a promising strategy to treat cancer patients. The aim of this study was to explore YAP inhibitors derived from natural products using a cell-based YAP-TEADs luciferase reporter assay and investigate the functional activities of the novel inhibitor. Methods: natural compounds were used by 8×GTIIC luciferase reporter assay to screen YAP inhibitor. Phosphorylation of YAP and AMPK were detected by Western Blotting. The target genes of YAP were determined through RT-PCR. Inhibition on HepG2 cells of screened compounds were assessed by the Sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. Results: we found that Shikonin (derived from the traditional Chinese medical herb Zicao (Lithospermum erythrorhizon)) exerted significant suppression against the transcriptional activity of YAP (inhibition ratio=74.3%), accompanied with increased phosphorylation of YAP protein upon within short-exposure to cancer cells. Shikonin treated on HepG2 induced phosphorylation of AMPK. In HepG2 cell lines, Shikonin exhibited a profound cytotoxicity in a concentration manner. Conclusion: our results indicated that the inhibition activity of Shikonin on YAP function was probably due to the activation of AMPK by phosphorylation. Moreover, Shikonin exhibited potent cytotoxicity on cancer cells. In summary, the present study identifies Shikonin as a novel natural inhibitor of YAP function and could be an anti-cancer drug candidate for cancer treatment.

Highlights

Aberrant activation of YAP, a transcriptional co-activator, would result in the transactivation of target genes, and ultimately leading to the tumor development and malignance. Thus YAP has been regarded as a promising target for cancer therapy; however it has been challenged by the lack of effective inhibitors against YAP activity, particularly those origins from the natural resources. The current study identifies Shikonin, a natural compound derived from the traditional Chinese medical herb Zicao (Lithospermum erythrorhizon), as a potent inhibitor against YAP pathway so as to exert anti-cancer activities. And the YAP inhibitory effect was probably due to the activation of AMPK pathway.

Kangfuxin Fluid on the Treatment of Ulcerative Colitis with Retention Enema: a Systematic Review
Yang Si-Yuan, Jia Yuan, Guo Li-Min, Meng Fan-Jie
TMR Modern Herbal Medicine    2018, 1 (3): 171-180.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMRmhm2017B23
Abstract ( 316 HTML PDF (549KB) ( 170 )  

Objective: To systematically evaluate the effectiveness of Kangfuxin Fluid (KFX) in Ulcerative Colitis (UC) with retention enema. Methods: We searched The Cochanrane Library, Pubmed, EMbase, VIP, CNKI, CBM and WanFang Data from inception to December.2017, and retrospectively incorporated into the literature reference. And a systematic review of randomized controlled trials was performed. Meta-analysis was performed with RevMan5.3 software. Results: A total of 18 randomized controlled trials and 1417 patients were enrolled, among which 731 cases were in experimental group and 686 cases were in control group. The meta-analysis results revealed that the effectiveness of KFX on UC with retention enema was significantly superior to the controlled treatment (RR=1.22 95%CI: [1.16,1.27], Z=8.14, p<0.00001). And, the score of quality of life was significantly increased after KFX treatment (MD=11.12, 95% CI [7.00, 15.23], Z=5.30, p<0.00001). Conclusion: KFX on the treatment of UC with retention enema is potentially effective to improve patient's quality of life, and it is worth being popularized clinically. Depth researches and high quality randomized controlled trials on the efficacy of UC are necessary.

Highlights

Nowadays, the treatment of Ulcerative Colitis remains complex. Kangfuxin Fluid, a kind of Chinese traditional medicine, which efficacy is evaluated in this meta-analysis on the treatment of Ulcerative Colitis with retention enema based on the latest and most available supports. According to those supportive data, Kangfuxin Fluid is potentially affective to improve the treatment of patients with Ulcerative Colitis, and it is worth being popularized clinically. Meanwhile, in-depth researches and high quality randomized controlled trials are still in need. We have systematically reviewed the final vision of the manuscript and plunk for the publication. To the best of our knowledge and belief, this manuscript has not been published in whole or in part nor considered for publication elsewhere.

Neuroprotective Effect of Bu-Shen-Huo-Xue Extract against High Glucose-induced Apoptosis in PC12 Cells
Zhao Shao-Yang, Dong Xin, Tu Peng-Fei, Zeng Ke-Wu, Wang Xue-Mei
TMR Modern Herbal Medicine    2018, 1 (3): 143-154.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMRmhm2017A21
Abstract ( 373 HTML PDF (1116KB) ( 159 )  

Objective: To investigate the neuroprotective effect of Bu-Shen-Huo-Xue (BSHX) extract, a polyherbal formula, against High Glucose (HG)-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells. Methods: Cell viability assay, Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) assay, Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) detection, Hoechst 33258, Acridine Orange (AO)/Ethidium Bromide (EB) double stain and Mitochondrial Membrane Potential (MMP) assay were performed. In addition, Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-3, cleaved caspase-3, PARP, cleaved PARP, cytochrome c and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases (MAPKs) were detected by western blot. Results: BSHX extract increased cell viability and decreased LDH leakage in a concentration-dependent manner in HG-induced PC12 cells. Moreover, BSHX extract decreased the level of intracellular ROS, increased mitochondrial membrane potential, regulated the expressions of Bax and Bcl-2, and inhibited the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria. Furthermore, BSHX extract attenuated the activation of caspase-3 and PARP, and inhibited the phosphorylations of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 MAPKs. Conclusion: BSHX extract exhibited significant neuroprotective effect on HG-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells. This effect may be associated with the suppression of ROS generation as well as mitochondria-mediated caspase and JNK/p38 MAPK signaling pathways.

Highlights

High glucose (HG)-induced neurotoxicity is implicated in the pathology of diabetic encephalopathy (DE). In our study, Bu-Shen-Huo-Xue extract (BSHX), a polyherbal formula, exhibits neuroprotective activity on HG-induced PC12 cells and the possible mechanisms may be associated with the suppression of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation as well as mitochondria-mediated caspase and JNK/p38 MAPK signaling pathways. This study provids a promising agent for the treatment of DE in clinical applications.

Effect of TongFengNing Decoction on Uric Acid Levels and Xanthine Oxidase Activity in Hyperuricemia Rats
Wang Jian-hui, Guo Jie-mei, Li Bao-lin, Teng Fang-zhou, Zhu Ya-ju, Lin Jian-ping, Xiao Yan, Mao Xiao, Huang Lu-lu, Su You-xin
TMR Modern Herbal Medicine    2018, 1 (4): 189-197.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMRmhm2017A35
Abstract ( 353 HTML PDF (1926KB) ( 156 )  

Objective: To observe the effect of TongFengNing Decoction (TD) on uric acid levels, xanthine oxidase (XOD) activity, and XOD mRNA expression of hyperuricemia (HUA) model rats. Methods: 90 rats were randomly divided into 6 groups (n=15), and the HUA model in all groups except the blank group was established by administering hypoxanthine (HX) by gavage and injecting potassium oxonate (OAPS) intraperitoneally. Rats in all TD groups and allopurinol group were administered multiple doses of TD and a single dose of allopurinol by gavage twice daily for 21 days, while the blank group and the model group were administered normal saline. On the 7th, 14th, and 21st days of drug intervention, serum uric acid (SUA), urine uric acid (UUA), intestinal uric acid (IUA), as well as XOD activity and mRNA expression in the liver and small intestine were measured in randomly selected 5 rats of each group. Results: On the 14th and 21st days of intervention, all TD dose groups and the allopurinol group showed decreased SUA and IUA levels, increased UUA levels, as well as decreased XOD activity and mRNA expression in the liver and small intestine, compared with the model group (P < 0.05). The low- and high-dose TD group and the allopurinol group showed increased SUA and IUA levels, as well as XOD activity and mRNA expression in the liver and small intestine, and decreased UUA levels, compared with the moderate-dose TD group (P<0.05). Upon extending the drug intervention time of each TD dose group, SUA and IUA levels, XOD activity, and XOD mRNA expression in the liver and small intestine decreased and UUA levels increased (P < 0.05). Conclusion: TD reduces SUA levels in HUA model rats, which promotes uric acid excretion and inhibits XOD activity and XOD mRNA expression to reduce uric acid production. The reduction in uric acid level by the intermediate dose of TD was better than that by allopurinol and the low and high doses of TD.

Highlights

The effect of TongFengNing Decoction (TD) on xanthine oxidase (XOD) activity and mRNA expression in the liver and small intestine of a hyperuricemia (HUA) rat model was explored as the possible mechanism of action for reducing serum uric acid (SUA). The experimental results show that TD reduces SUA levels in HUA model rats by promoting uric acid excretion and inhibiting XOD activity and mRNA expression. These results demonstrate the probable mechanism by which TD lowers uric acid, highlight its clinical application, and reflect the therapeutic advantage of using traditional Chinese medicine.

HPLC Fingerprinting and Spectrum-antitumor Effect Relationship for Discrimination between Mylabrisphalerata Pallas and Mylabriscichorii Linnaeus
Zhang Jian-Yong, Chen Qi-Hong, Pei Xian, Yan Rong, Duan Can-Can, Liu Yun, Li Xiao-Fei
TMR Modern Herbal Medicine    2018, 1 (1): 11-18.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMRmhm2017A11
Abstract ( 437 HTML PDF (764KB) ( 149 )  

Objective: Evaluation of discrimination between two Mylabris Species based on HPLC fingerprinting and spectrum-antitumor effect relationship. Methods: In this study, a simple and efficient high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method integrating with chemometric analysis and spectrum-antitumor effect relationship was developed for discrimination between two species ofMylabris: Mylabrisphalerata Pallas (MP) and MylabriscichoriiLinnaeus (MC).Results: In the fingerprint analysis, 14 characteristic peaks were selected to assess the differences between MP and MC using the similarity and pattern recognition analysis using PCA and OPLS-DA. The HPLC chromatograms of samples from 10 regions of China showed differences between MP and MC, and 7 characteristic chemical markers were found. In the spectrum-antitumor effect relationship analysis, 4 activity markers played a vital role in decreasing the IC50 and might be the antitumor components of Mylabris by grey relational analysis and multivariate linear regression analysis. The chemometric analysis in combination with spectrum-effect relationship results indicated that peaks 2(cytosine), 4 (unknown) and 14 (unknown) were important differential markers for distinguishing the two species of Mylabris. Conclusion: The method is applicable, credible and more efficient to discriminate MP and MC, and will offer a new way for facilitating quality control of insect medicines.

Highlights

This study provides an applicable, credible and more efficient HPLC method for discriminating two Mylabris species. And, the HPLC fingerprinting and spectrum-antitumor effects were integrated and the three important differential markers were found for new marker ofMylabris.

The progress in the chemical constituents of the genus Picrasma during 2007-2017
Zhang Jie, Yang Jian, Wang Chuan-Xi, Gao Hao, Yao Xin-Sheng
TMR Modern Herbal Medicine    2018, 1 (4): 220-232.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMRmhm2017B34
Abstract ( 282 HTML PDF (1249KB) ( 148 )  

The plants of the genus Picrasma, comprised of nine species, are mainly distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of America and Asia. Some species of this genus are used as traditional medicine resources to cure anemopyretic cold, sore throat, dysentery, eczema, nausea, loss of appetite, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and so on. A total of 157 chemical constituents identified from Picrasma were reviewed by Jiao WH et al. in 2007. Since then, 101 compounds were reported from the plants of the genus Picrasma. These compounds are assigned to alkaloids, quassinoids, triterpenoids, and others. This review aims to provide an updated overview on the chemical constituents of the plants of the genus Picrasma during 2007-2017.

Highlights

The plants of the genus Picrasma comprise of nine species and are mainly distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of America and Asia. The bark, roots, stems, branches, or leaves of some species in the genus Picrasma are used as traditional herbal medicines for the treatment of anemopyretic cold, sore throat, dysentery, eczema, nausea, loss of appetite, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and so on. The chemical constituents of the plants of this genus were carried out to isolate 157 compounds before 2007, which were reviewed by Jiao WH et al. From then on, some significant progresses on the plants of the genus Picrasma have been achieved over the last decade, and another 101 compounds with various biological activities are reported. These compounds are assigned to alkaloids, quassinoids, triterpenoids, and others. So far, the chemical investigation on the plants of the genus Picrasma only focus on three species (P. quassioides, P. javanica and P. excelsa). Among them, the most studies on chemical constituents concentrate on the plants of P. quassioides, followed by the plants of P. javanica. Little researches have been done on the plants of P. excelsa. The current results show that there are large differences in the chemical constituents between the species of the genus Picrasma. The updated overview on the chemical constituents of the plants of the genus Picrasma is provided herein after the systematic review by Jiao WH et al. in 2007.

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