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Similarity measurement of Chinese medicine ingredients for cold-hot nature identification
Guo-Hui Wei, Xian-Jun Fu, Zhen-Guo Wang
6TMR Modern Herbal Medicine    2019, 2 (4): 183-191.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMRmhm2017A58
Abstract ( 92 PDF (478KB) ( 155 )  
Objective: Nature theory of Chinese medicine (CM) is the core basic theory of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), in which cold-hot nature is the focus of research. Studies have found that CM ingredients are the material basis for the production of medicine natures. Therefore, it is speculated that CMs with similar composition of substances should have similar medicinal nature. Modern work studies cold-hot medicine of CMs with chemical fingerprinting technology because the chemical fingerprint data of CM can reflect the whole composition of CM ingredients. Methods: To verify the hypothesis above, in this work, we study quantifying the similarity of CM ingredients to fingerprint similarity, and explore the relationship between the composition of CMs and cold-hot nature. Firstly, we utilize ultraviolet (UV) spectrum technology to analyze 61 CMs, which have clear cold-hot nature (including 30 ‘cold’ CMs and 31 ‘hot’ CMs). Secondly, with the constructed fingerprint database of CMs, a distance metric learning algorithm is studied to metric the similarity of UV fingerprints. Finally, a retrieval scheme is proposed to build a predictive identification model to identify cold-hot nature of CMs. Results: By means of numerous experiment analyses, ultraviolet spectrum data of petroleum ether solvent can better represent CMs to distinguish between cold and hot natures. Comparing with existing classical models, the proposed identification scheme has better predictive performance. Conclusion: The experimental results prove our inference that CMs with similar composition of substances should have similar medicinal nature. The proposed prediction model is proved to be effective and feasible.
Mechanism analysis of Traditional Chinese Medicine in treatment of Diabetic Nephropathy based on network pharmacology and Traditional Chinese Medicine inheritance support system
Yu-hui Ma, Li-na Zhang, Qian Cui, Lin-feng Li, Guo-wei Zhang
6TMR Modern Herbal Medicine    2019, 2 (2): 64-73.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMRmhm2017A44
Abstract ( 255 HTML PDF (886KB) ( 124 )  

Diabetic nephropathy is one of the most serious complications of diabetes mellitus. In the early stage, edema and proteinuria are the main clinical manifestations. In the later stage, glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis will occur. And the prognosis is poor. Nowadays, traditional Chinese medicine has a remarkable curative effect in the treatment of diabetic nephropathy. There are more and more studies on the treatment of diabetic nephropathy with traditional Chinese medicine, but most of them focus on the syndromes of diabetic nephropathy, which are short of in-depth research and summary on the mechanism of Chinese herbal prescriptions. In this paper, the traditional Chinese medicine inheritance support system and network pharmacology BATMAN-TCM software were used to collect and analyze the relevant literature. It was found that the core compatibility of Shanzhuyu, Fuling and Shuyu in the treatment of diabetic nephropathy is closely related to the signal transduction pathway and target of diabetic nephropathy, and has a positive effect on the improvement of clinical symptoms such as proteinuria, glycometabolism disorder, edema, etc. This paper explores the core compatibility of Shanzhuyu, Fuling and Shuyu on diabetic nephropathy, in order to provide reference for clinical treatment.

Highlights
Diabetic nephropathy is one of the most serious complications of diabetes mellitus, which seriously affects the quality of life of patients for the poor prognosis. Nowadays, Traditional Chinese Medicine has a remarkable curative effect in the treatment of diabetic nephropathy, which has brought some enlightenment to our research ideas. Traditional Chinese Medicine Inheritance Assistant Platform System (TCM Inheritance Assistant Platform) is an organic combination of computer science and TCM. By intellectualized processing of disease prescription, the data of disease information, syndrome information and compatibility of TCM can be more intuitive, which make Chinese herbal medicine and drug pairs for treating diseases more specialized and precise. Network pharmacology is based on system biology to analyze multi-target networks of drugs, and can combine Drug targets with diseases, which make the treatment of diseases more targeted. This paper collects and summarizes the prescriptions of traditional Chinese medicine for diabetic nephropathy in the past 10 years from China Knowledge Net, and uses the system of traditional Chinese Medicine Inheritance assistant platform and BATMAN-TCM database of network pharmacology to analyze the medication rules and action signal pathways. We concluded that Shanzhuyu(Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc), Fuling (Poria cocos (Schw.) Wolf) and Shuyu (Dioscorea opposite) have certain positive effects on the compatibility in the prevention and treatment of diabetic nephropathy and hope to provide new ideas for the research and clinical treatment of diabetic nephropathy with TCM.

Erahertz spectral analysis of Xiling Zhimu with different geological conditions and plant age
Li-Na Zhang, Yu-Hui Ma, Ze-Jia Zhang, Kai-Xuan Hou, Miao-Miao Lin, Guo-Wei Zhang, Cun-Guang Lou
6TMR Modern Herbal Medicine    2019, 2 (3): 158-166.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMRmhm2017A53
Abstract ( 121 HTML PDF (447KB) ( 122 )  

Abstract

Objective: In order to identify the quality of different geological conditions and plant ages of Xiling Zhimu. Methods: This article uses the terahertz spectroscopy to detect and analyze different geological conditions and ages of Zhimu (Anemarrhenae Rhizoma) from the same origin. Results: The terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of different geological conditions and ages has a decrease relative to the reference amplitude and has a delay. The refractive index has obvious differences, and the refractive index can be used as a way to identify the tablets. The absorption coefficients of different ages Zhimu samples has significant differences in the range of 1.0-2.0 THz. The absorption coefficients of different geological conditions Zhimu samples has significant differences in the range of 1.1-2.0 THz. Conclusions: The differences caused by different production methods should be considered in the identification of genuine regional drug. When the Zhimu is grown due to different geological conditions and plant ages, its efficacy will also change. we can detect this change by terahertz spectroscopy.

Highlights

The terahertzian time-domain spectrum of Zhimu (Anemarrhenae Rhizoma) at different plant ages and different geological environments decreased relative to the reference amplitude and showed a delay. The refractive index has obvious difference, which can be used as a way to identify the film. The absorption coefficients of Zhimu at different plant ages were significantly different in the range of 1.0-2.0THz, and the absorption coefficients of Zhimu in different geological environments were different in the range of 1.1-2.0THz. Therefore, the differences caused by different preparation methods should be considered in the identification of authentic medicinal materials. When Zhimu grows at different plant ages and in different geological environments, its pharmacodynamics will change, and we can detect this change by terahertz spectroscopy, which can provide a basis for the identification of Xiling Zhimu.

The Protective Effect of Jiujiuguiyi, a Medicine and Food Homologous Formula, on Acute Alcohol Poisoning Mice
Yang-Fan Zhou, Tian-Ze Zhang, Si-Qi Deng, Meng Zhang, Yu-Jiao Zhan, Yi-Fang Li, Rong-Rong He
6TMR Modern Herbal Medicine    2019, 2 (3): 121-130.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMRmhm2017A49
Abstract ( 215 HTML PDF (921KB) ( 116 )  

Abstract

Background: Nowadays, acute alcoholic intoxication has become the third public problem in China, and the anti-inebriation products mainly aimed at increasing the activity of enzyme involved in the alcohol metabolism, which is a single mechanism that can accelerate alcohol metabolism. Thus, a new formula, Jiujiuguiyi (JJGY) which could protect liver, relieve the abnormal excitability of the center and improve muscle retardation at the same time is designed by us. Methods: The model of acute alcoholic intoxication was established by intragastric administration with 0.12 ml/10g 50% alcohol in mice. JJGY was orally administrated (gavage) once a day for 20 consecutive days before the establishment of acute alcoholic model. Mice were randomly divided into 8 groups with 8 each: blank control group (CON), model group (M), Haiwangjinzun positive control group (HWJZ), experimental groups (AL, AH, BL, BH, AB). Giant, crawling time on the rota-rod, the activities of aspartate amino trans- ferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in both liver and serum, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) in liver as well as the HE staining of liver slices, the formation of malondialdehyde (MDA) in serum were determined after acute alcoholic intoxication. Results: Compared with model group, JJGY significantly decreased the AST and ALT activity in liver and serum and MDA activity in serum. Meanwhile, it enhanced the ADH and ALDH level in liver as well as the hepatic and serous SOD activity, indicating more efficient metabolism of alcohol and less hepatic injury. HE staining results also proved that JJGY could reduce alcoholic liver cell injury, and the effect was more obvious in the group medicated before alcohol administration. Moreover, JJGY significantly prolonged the crawling time on the rota-rod and improved the gait of mice and the effect was proved to be better than the widely used health product Haiwangjinzun. Conclusions: This study suggests that JJGY is able to protect liver, relieve the abnormal excitability of the center and improve muscle retardation after acute alcoholic intoxication. Its liver protection effect is likely related to its modulation on the alcohol metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes.

Highlights

In the present study, a new compound Chinese herbal medicine formula, Jiujiuguiyi, was designed by using the medicine and food homology theory. The formula aims at protecting liver, relieving the abnormal excitability of the center and improving muscle retardation at the same time. Acute alcoholic intoxication model in mice was built, then the ethology test and biochemical test were conducted to exam the efficacy of the formula in different preparations. The results suggest that JJGY can protect the acute alcoholic intoxication mice through multiple mechanisms, providing a new way to develop antialcoholismic drug homologous food.

Effect of Tanshinone IIA on LPS-induced inflammatory response in a ROS-NLRP3 inflammasome dependent manner in RAW264.7 cells
Dan Li, Shan Gao, Sarhene Michael, Yu-Ying Guo, Hao Deng, Shi-Xin Xu, Guan-Wei Fan
6TMR Modern Herbal Medicine    2019, 2 (3): 131-139.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMRmhm2017A48
Abstract ( 188 HTML PDF (652KB) ( 110 )  

Abstract

Emerging evidence has demonstrated that Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA) prevents cardiomyocytes injury, cardiac fibroblasts and atherosclerosis. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the effects of Tan IIA is still unclear. To investigate the role of Tan IIA in inflammatory response in a ROS-NLRP3 inflammasome dependent manner, RAW264.7 cells stimulated with LPS were recruited to produce a cell model of inflammatory response. Our results indicated that the production of NO was significantly increased after stimulated by LPS, and Tan IIA treated significantly decreased the level of NO. The mRNA expression of NLRP3, IL-1β and TNF-α was significantly inhibited by Tan IIA compared with LPS treated cells. The protein expression of NLRP3, IKBα, pp65/p65 and pp38/p38 was significantly decreased by Tan IIA, compared with LPS or LPS+ATP stimulated groups. Meanwhile, Tan IIA significantly inhibited the level of ROS induced by LPS+ATP. And NAC, a ROS inhibitor, could also inhibit the protein expression of NLRP3. Based on these findings, it could be speculated that the mechanism underlying the effect of Tan IIA may involve the regulation of ROS-NF-κB/ P38-NLRP3 pathway. This study further characterized the molecular mechanism of Tan IIA, and provided new thoughts to its clinical therapy.

Highlights

Tan IIA could inhibit the inflammatory response and NLRP3 expression stimulated by LPS or LPS+ATP. Acetylcysteine (N-acetyl-l-cysteine, NAC), a ROS inhibitor, could inhibit LPS+ATP-induced increase in NLRP3 level. The mechanism underlying the effects of Tan IIA may involve the regulation of ROS-NF-κB/ P38-NLRP3 pathway. This study further characterized the molecular mechanism of Tan IIA, and provided new thoughts to its clinical therapy.

Pharmacologic mechanisms mining and prediction of Xiaoer Qixing Cha Formulae in the treatment of infantile functional dyspepsia based on chemical analysis by UPLC-QTOF/MS and interactive network pharmacology
Mei-Qi Wang, Zeren Dawa, Yu-Feng Yao, Fang-Le Liu, Run-Jing Zhang, Zi-Yuan Wang, Chen-Chen Zhu
6TMR Modern Herbal Medicine    2019, 2 (2): 48-63.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMRmhm2017A45
Abstract ( 249 HTML PDF (1413KB) ( 102 )  

Objective: To explore the main chemical compounds in Xiaoer Qixing Cha Formulae (XQCF), and investigate its mechanisms for the treatment of infantile functional dyspepsia (IFD). Methods: The chemical components were identified by UPLC-QTOF/MS analytic technique. Targets of the compounds were screened from TCMSP and SWISS database, and disease targets were screened from OMIM and TTD online database. Candidate targets of compounds were mapped to the disease targets as predict therapeutic targets for XQCF. Several networks were constructed and analyzed by Cytoscape ver. 3.2.1. Meanwhile, prescription compatibility in XQCF was interpreted from the network perspective based on distribution of the number of targets. Furthermore, Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis and KEGG pathway analysis were operated via Clue Go to illustrate complex relationships between the potential targets and pharmacological mechanisms. Results: A total of fifty-three compounds were recognized or tentatively characterized belonging to XQCF based on MS data and online chemical database. Sixty-three therapeutic targets were screened. AKT1, FOS, SLC6A4, COMT and 5-HT receptors were focused as therapeutic targets of XQCF. Pathways including carbohydrate digestion and absorption, serotonergic synapse, calcium signaling pathway and cAMP signaling pathway were predicted as significant regulatory pathways. The results indicated that the predicted targets and pathways related in brain-gut axis to a great extent, which could be potential pharmacological mechanism of XQCF for the treatment of IFD. Conclusions: The findings in this study provided the experimental and theoretical basis for further research for XQCF. Those also illustrated a reasonable method worth intensive study on pharmacodynamic mechanisms of TCM Formulae.

Highlights
Chemical components in Xiaoer Qixing Cha Formulae were firstly identified by UPLC-QTOF/MS analytic technique and collated into data source. Then the mechanisms of the Formulae for the treatment of infantile functional dyspepsia were predicted by interactive network pharmacology. The results suggested that targets and pathways related in brain-gut axis might exert regulating effects on digestive process and digestive system function.

Bio-characteristic profiling related to clinic: A new technology platform for quality evaluation of Chinese materia medic
Li-Na Wen, Ai-Ting Wang, Na Guo, Yumei Han, Can Yan, Dan Yan
6TMR Modern Herbal Medicine    2019, 2 (4): 215-224.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMRmhm2017B54
Abstract ( 149 PDF (859KB) ( 94 )  
Quality evaluation is a bottleneck restricting the modernization and internationalization of Chinese materia medica (CMM). Due to characteristics of multi-component, multi-efficacy, multi-target, the existing quality evaluation system still cannot fully meet quality control needs of CMM. Hence, the author put forward “Bio-characteristic profiling related to clinic, BPRC” academic concept, meanwhile, fully take the advantage of analysis method with clinical monitoring superiority or profiling characteristics, build up "BPRC" new technology platform, in order to realize “real-time, dynamic and full-range monitoring” new technologies of CMM quality evaluation system and promote the further development of CMM industry.
Analysis of drug use law and mechanism of prostate cancer based on data mining and network pharmacology
Yao Yang, Ying Chen, Zhen-ning Yang, Guo-wei Zhang
6TMR Modern Herbal Medicine    2019, 2 (3): 140-150.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMRmhm2017A52
Abstract ( 132 HTML PDF (1065KB) ( 90 )  

Abstract

Objective: Excavate the medication rule of traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of prostate cancer, and predicting the biomolecular level mechanism of high-frequency drug compatibility. Methods: Relevant documents in CNKI, Wanfang Medical Network and VIP Chinese Biomedical Periodical Database Pubmed, EMbase were collected and collated systematically. Frequency statistics, association rule analysis and new party mining were carried out using TCMISSV2.5. BATMAN-TCM was used to analyze the interaction relationship and related pathways between high-frequency drug targets. Results: Huangqi (Astragalus membranaceus) was the single drug most used of the 102prescriptions included in the standard. There are 6 pairs of combinations with high confidence in association rule analysis. System entropy cluster analysis resulted in 20 core drug combinations and 9 new prescriptions. Through KEGG pathway analysis of Huangqi, Fuling (Poria cocos), Gancao (Glycyrrhiza uralensis) and Dihuang (Rehmannia glutinosa), it was found that the number of potential targets of the neural active ligand receptor rented pathway and purine metabolism pathway was the largest. Conclusions: Prostate cancer is mainly treated with deficiency-tonifying drugs, which are combined with drugs for promoting blood circulation, removing blood stasis, clearing heat, promoting diuresis, detoxifying and resolving hard mass. The mechanism of action of high-frequency traditional Chinese medicine may be realized by interfering with the neuroactive ligand receptor interaction pathway and purine metabolism pathway.

Highlights

This article found that deficiency-tonifying drugs, which are combined with drugs for promoting blood circulation, removing blood stasis, clearing heat, promoting diuresis, detoxifying and resolving hard mass are commonly used to treat prostate cancer. Core herbs may play their role by interfering with the neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction pathway and purine metabolic pathway.

Terahertz spectral analysis of Yunpian Lurong
Li-Na Zhang, Yu-Hui Ma, Kai-Xuan Hou, Ze-Jia Zhang, Yan-Ming Wu, Guo-Wei Zhang
6TMR Modern Herbal Medicine    2019, 2 (2): 83-90.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMRmhm2017A47
Abstract ( 183 HTML PDF (510KB) ( 82 )  

Objective: Provide a rapid and simple method to identify Yunpian Lurong. Method: Terahertz spectroscopy was used to detect Yunpian Lurong. Result: Compared with the reference wave, the spectral amplitude of Yunpian Lurong decreases significantly. The frequency - domain spectra of Yunpian Lurong are different from conventional Lurong. Compared with the spectrum of free space, both of them have obvious absorption to THz wave, but the intensity and location of absorption are different, which provides a basis for the identification of Yunpian Lurong. The refractive index of the two samples is obviously different, which may be related to the different internal structure and composition content of the samples. The absorption coefficient of the two samples are different as well, when the frequency ranges from 0 to 2.4 THz, the absorption coefficients of the two kinds of Lurong samples have obvious difference, which makes it easy to distinguish the Yunpian Lurong. Conclusion: This study proves that terahertz spectroscopy can be used as an efficient and convenient method to identify Yunpian Lurong.

Highlights
Yunpian Lurong is one of the "four wonders of Qizhou". It is of great significance to develop the method for testing its commercial specifications. At present, many scholars have applied the fingerprint technology of traditional Chinese medicine to identify the LuRong, which is complex, time-consuming and costly for sample pretreatment is needed before testing. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a nondestructive and rapid detection and analysis method to identify Yunpin Lurong. In the experiment, under the constant and dry room temperature, we used the terahertz spectroscopy to detect Yunpin Lurong, analyzed and compared the differentiation of erahertz time domain spectroscopy, frequency domain spectroscopy, refractive index and absorption spectroscopy between Yunpin Lurong and the conventional Lurong. The results show that Yunpin Lurong can be quickly identified by terahertz spectroscopy without destroying its surface and internal structure or complicated pretreatment. As a new detection technology, it has the advantages of simple operation, short time-consuming, low cost and pollution-free and a positive meaning for the rapid detection of Yunpian Lurong, which is a nondestructive testing method for quality analysis or identification of Chinese medicinal herb with a promising prospect.

Effect of Xuebijing injection on hematopoietic homeostasis of LPS induced sepsis in mice
Ping Wang, Jun Wang, Ying Hao, Xiao-Rui Li, Ya-Ru Feng, Lan Wang, Hong-Cai Shang, Jian-Xun Wang
6TMR Modern Herbal Medicine    2019, 2 (4): 206-214.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMRmhm2017A60
Abstract ( 95 PDF (1088KB) ( 82 )  
Objective: To explore the effect and mechanism of Xuebijing injection (XBJ) on the hematopoietic homeostasis of bone marrow (BM) in septic mice. Methods: BM cells stimulated with XBJ were analyzed by inverted optical microscope and qPCR, to evaluate the effect of XBJ on differentiation function of BM cells in vitro. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) 055:B5 at the dose of 20mg/kg was used to establish the sepsis model. To determine the hematopoietic stem cells homeostasis affected by LPS in mice, BM cells were isolated and analyzed by flow cytometry based on the immunophenotypic surface markers. 20ml/kg of XBJ was administered by tail vein once/day after peritoneal injection of LPS. All animals were sacrificed on the fifth day. The frequency of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and immune cells in mice were quantified by flow cytometry. The gene expression of transcription factors were detected by qPCR. Results: XBJ promoted myeloid differentiation of BM cells in vitro, which may be related to the mRNA expression of the transcription factors. The results in vivo showed the percentage of BM Lin-SCA-1+c-KIT+ (LSK) cells, and Long-term HSCs (LT-HSC) were significantly increased in LPS group. But the percentage of multipotential progenitors (MPPs), granulocyte-monocyte progenitor (GMP) and megakaryocytic-erythroid precursor (MEP) were significantly decreased in LPS group. Whereas, XBJ improved the immune function in sepsis mice by suppression the LSK expansion in vivo. The result of qPCR showed that LSD1 and PU.1 mRNA expression in XBJ group were significantly higher than LPS group and control group respectively. Conclusion: Xuebijing injection can improve immune function in sepsis mice by regulating hematopoietic homeostasis. Its mechanism may be related to the up-regulation of LSD1 and PU.1 gene expressions.

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