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Editors-in-Chief: XZ Wu, PhD. Prof.
ISSN 2538-0583
9TMR Non-Drug Therapy TMR Non-Drug Therapy is an international peer-reviewed, Open Access journal. It is dedicated to report the research progress and discusses the idea and method in the natural therapies to regulate the organism's disorders which aim to contribute to human health, including acupuncture, cupping, exercise and behavior therapy, physical and mental therapy, massage, moxibustion and other therapy on non-drug treatments around the world. It set up basic research, clinical research, case reports, review and theoretical discussion. It seeks to promote international communication focusing on the latest developments, trends, experiences and achievements on non-drug therapy in clinical practice and scientific research. It has been included in DOAJ, ScienceOpen, China Science and Technology Journal Database (CSTJ), and Google Scholar. ... More


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Current Issue     06 December 2019, Volume 2 Issue 4 Previous Issue   
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Mirror therapy, an important but underappreciated rehabilitation treatment
Xiong-Zhi Wu
9TMR Non-Drug Therapy. 2019, 2 (4): 108-108.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMRND201902024
Abstract ( 13 )   HTML ( 1 )     PDF (226KB) ( 2 )  

Mirror therapy is a treatment method that uses flat-panel imaging combined with rehabilitation training programs to allow patients to observe the motion of the unaffected limbs, and to visualize and drive the motion of the limb on the affected side through optical illusion, visual feedback, and virtual reality. The development of mirror therapy has been widely used today in all aspects of rehabilitation programs, such as the recovery of dysfunctions, sensation, dyskinesia and language, especially the improvement of pain and exercise capacity. This review focused the mechanisms of mirror therapy, reported the possible mechanisms that may involve in the therapy.

The possible mechanisms were concluded in this review. The first one was the neurons appeared in the F5 area before the ventral movement, which also was called mirror neurons. In mirror therapy, the movement of the contralateral side of the limb mirror allows the patient to observe the movement of the limb in the mirror and activate the mirror neuron by imagining that the affected limb is moving, thereby replacing the proprioception to a certain extent. The input, which plays an important role in the recovery of motor cortex function. Due to the mirror neuron mechanism, the excitability of the corticospinal tract and the resulting facilitation effect can facilitate the rehabilitation of the motor function of the affected limb. At the same time, the patient's cerebellar hemisphere is also activated, which promotes the rehabilitation of limb hemiplegia. Mirror therapy can improve the presence of the affected limb through a mirrored visual illusion. Mirror therapy also can improve the presence of the affected limb through a mirrored visual illusion, which prevents the learned disuse of the affected limb. Mirror therapy also could active limbs to achieve the illusion of bilateral activities, thereby restoring motor function. The facilitative motor neural pathway is mainly based on the theory of interactive hemisphere inhibition. Under normal circumstances, the inhibition and promotion of bilateral brains is in a dynamic equilibrium.

This review also have investigated the effects of mirror therapy, which are mainly in the rehabilitation of various diseases, such as in the recovery of stroke, the relief of pain, and the improvement of cognitive dysfunction and speech dysfunction. At present, there are no evidence-based treatment protocols for mirror therapy to be used in clinical settings because of a lack of studies investigating clinical indications, treatment duration and frequency, or characteristics of mirror therapy intervention. This means that techniques are likely to vary considerably among practitioners and patients. Evidence for clinical efficacy is encouraging but not yet definitive. Nevertheless, mirror therapy is inexpensive, safe and easy for the patient to self-administer following initial training. Contraindications and side effects are few. These characteristics make mirror therapy a potential treatment option. Mirror therapy has been used in clinical practice for over two decades but it is still not widely accepted as a treatment option in our country. Through this review we hope that more clinical attention should be paid to this therapy. Link: https://www.tmrjournals.com/ndt/EN/10.12032/TMRND201902019

Review
Mirror therapy: a potential rehabilitation treatment
Xin Liu, Tian-Yang Xing, Ran Liu, Shan- Shan Yang, Guo-Wei Wang
9TMR Non-Drug Therapy. 2019, 2 (4): 109-116.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMRND201902019
Abstract ( 99 )   HTML ( 2 )     PDF (398KB) ( 71 )  

Highlights

As a safety and operable therapy, mirror therapy is very helpful for the recovery of stroke, the relief of pain, and the improvement of cognitive dysfunction and speech dysfunction though activating mirror neuron. It is a supplementary treatment in the rehabilitation process, which is very conducive to the widespread use and application.

Editor’s Summary

The development of mirror therapy has been widely used today in all aspects of rehabilitation programs, such as the recovery of dysfunctions, sensation, dyskinesia and language, especially the improvement of pain and exercise capacity. This review focused the mechanisms of mirror therapy, reported the possible mechanisms that may involve in the therapy such as the activated mirror neuron, prevention of learned disuse of the affected limb, and facilitating motor pathways. This review also introduced the application in the rehabilitation of various diseases, such as in the recovery of stroke, the relief of pain, and the improvement of cognitive dysfunction and speech dysfunction, which provided new directions for the study of mechanisms and the treatment of diseases.

Abstract

Mirror therapy was first proposed for the treatment of phantom limb pain after amputation. In recent years, it is widely used in many diseases, which shows greatly effective. As a safety and operable therapy, mirror therapy is very helpful for the recovery of stroke, the relief of pain, and the improvement of cognitive dysfunction and speech dysfunction though activating mirror neuron. It is a supplementary treatment in the rehabilitation process, which is very conducive to the widespread use and application. Therefore, this review elaborated on the mechanisms and clinical application of mirror therapy, with a view to providing a new direction for the study of mechanisms and the treatment of diseases.

The impact of inspiratory muscle training on exercise capacity and inspiratory muscle strength in heart failure patients: a meta-analysis
Meng-Ya Jing, Xiao-Yi Li, Xue-Yun Hao, Guo-Min Song
9TMR Non-Drug Therapy. 2019, 2 (4): 117-126.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMRND201902022
Abstract ( 11 )   HTML ( 2 )     PDF (642KB) ( 2 )  

Highlights

The evidence from a large number of trials with about 1,415 patients in total suggested that inspiratory muscle training in patients with heart failure improved cardiac functions, especially the 6-minute walking distance and maximum suction pressure.

Editor’s Summary

By searching PubMed, EMbase, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, CBM, WanFang, VIP, and CNKI databases about the effects of inspiratory muscle training on cardiopulmonary function in patients with heart failure, this meta-analysis analyzed 20 randomized controlled trials with 1,415 patients and concluded that inspiratory muscle training seemed to be a useful strategy for improving exercise capacity and inspiratory muscle strength in heart failure patients, which could improve 6-minute walking distance and maximum inspiratory pressure, but not the peak oxygen uptake, first second forced expiratory volume, and forced vital capacity. The conclusion could provide some reference and consultation for clinical practice. However, the quality of included studies was low, new large-scale randomized controlled trials were needed to confirm the findings of this systematic review.

Abstract

Objective: To systematically evaluate the therapeutic effects of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) on cardiopulmonary functions in patients with heart failure. Methods: PubMed, EMbase, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, CBM, WanFang Data, VIP, and CNKI databases were searched to collect randomized controlled trials about the effects of IMT on cardiopulmonary function in patients with heart failure. Meta-analysis was performed using RevMan 5.3 software after two researchers independently screened the literatures, extracted the data, and evaluated the risk of bias. Results: A total of 20 articles with 1,415 patients were included. Meta-analysis showed that IMT was able to increase the 6-minute walking distance (mean difference (MD) = 59.41, 95% confidence interval (CI) (51.02-67.80), P < 0.001) and maximum inspiratory pressure (MD = 15.59, 95% CI (12.96-18.21), P < 0.001) in patients with heart failure compared with the control group. But there was no statistical difference in peak oxygen uptake (MD = 1.37, 95% CI (-0.57-3.30), P = 0.17), first second forced expiratory volume (MD = -5.79, 95% CI (-12.23-0.65), P = 0.08) and forced vital capacity (MD = -0.45, 95% CI (-6.39-5.49), P = 0.88) between the control and the experimental group. Conclusion: Available evidence suggested that IMT seemed to be a useful strategy for improving exercise capacity and inspiratory muscle strength in heart failure patients. Limited by the quantity and quality of the included studies, the above conclusions need to be verified by more high-quality studies.

Quality evaluation and content analysis of non-drug guidelines on risk factors of secondary prevention of myocardial infarction
Wen-Jiao Li, Meng-Zhu Zhao, Chang Rao, Xue-Chao Liu, Qi Liu, Chang-De Jin, Yan Li
9TMR Non-Drug Therapy. 2019, 2 (4): 127-135.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMRND201902023
Abstract ( 14 )   HTML ( 1 )     PDF (311KB) ( 2 )  

Highlights

The recommendations mainly cover the relevant target values of risk factors, providing evidence-based support in three aspects, such as blood pressure, blood sugar, which providing the theory basis for patients’ self-monitoring. It is recommended that clinical practice should be based on best-evidence and fully put the individual factors into account.

Editor’s Summary

By searching the professional guideline websites, databases, and the related references, eight guidelines about risk factors associated with secondary prevention of myocardial infarction were included in the study. After evaluating the methodological quality of these guidelines with Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II, the authors summarized and analyzed the relevant recommendations for myocardial infarction patients in the aspects of blood pressure, blood sugar and blood lipid. Finally, the paper concluded that clinical practice on risk factors of myocardial infarction should be based on best evidence and fully put the individual factors into account.

Abstract

Purpose: To strictly evaluate the quality of guidelines on risk factors related to secondary prevention of myocardial infarction (MI), and to summarize and analyze the relevant recommendations, and to provide evidence-based support for medical staff to develop interventions related risk factors for MI patients. Methods: The professional guideline websites and databases in English and Chinese were retrieved, and the references related guidelines were traced to get the published guidelines. Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II was used to evaluate the methodological quality of the guidelines. Then the relevant recommendations for MI were summarized and analyzed. Results: A total of 8 guidelines, including evidence-based guidelines and expert consensus were included in the initial review of 2,099 articles, among which 2 from the UK, 1 from the US and 5 from China. The overall quality of the included guidelines is moderate. However, some guidelines score relatively low in the dimensions of rigor of development, clarity of presentations and editorial independence. A total of 24 items were extracted, including three risk factors: blood pressure, blood sugar and blood lipid. The recommendations mainly cover the relevant target values of risk factors, providing evidence-based support for medical staff to control and guide the risk factors of patients with MI in three aspects, such as blood pressure, blood sugar and blood lipid, which providing the theory basis for self-monitoring. Conclusions: It is recommended that clinical practice on risk factors of MI should be based on best evidence and fully put the individual factors into account.

Non-drug therapies for acute gouty arthritis treatment
Hui-dan Li, Xing Wei
9TMR Non-Drug Therapy. 2019, 2 (4): 136-141.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMRND201902020
Abstract ( 41 )   HTML ( 1 )     PDF (289KB) ( 39 )  

Highlights

Non-drug therapies are now being increasingly evaluated for its role in acute and chronic gout with less side effects and better therapeutic effects. This review summarized the possible mechanisms of non-drug therapies for the acute gouty arthritis and provided the available evidence on the effectiveness of these modalities in acute gouty arthritis.

Editor’s Summary

Non-drug treatments include traditional therapies, such as acupuncture, puncture cupping, and modern therapies, such as laser therapy, electrotherapy, magnetic therapy and ultrasonic therapy. The non-drug therapies, especially the increasing varieties of modern physical therapies, have achieved good effects in the treatment of acute gouty arthritis with the characteristics of less toxicity and side effects, which is worthy of wide use. However, at present, these effects are from the clinical observation, and further researches on the specific mechanisms should be encouraged.

Abstract

The incidence and prevalence of acute gouty arthritis are increasing with the total prevalence of gout in China. Non-drug therapies are now being increasingly evaluated for its role in acute and chronic gout with less toxic and side effects and better therapeutic effects. This review summarized that activated coarse fiber, inhibited fine fiber, the influence on 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), increased K+ and the anti-inflammation factors were the possible mechanisms of non-drug therapies for the acute gouty arthritis; This review also introduced the traditional non-drug therapies and modern non-drug therapies; The traditional non-drug therapies, including acupuncture, puncture cupping can significantly alleviate acute inflammation of gout joints and prevent joint dysfunction without obvious toxic and side effects; Modern non-drug therapies, such as laser therapy, electrotherapy, magnetic therapy and ultrasonic therapy, also could effectively improve swelling and pain symptoms and joint function of patients with acute gouty arthritis, and reduce the levels of C-reactive protein, serum uric acid and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. To sum up, the non-drug therapies, especially the increasing varieties of modern physical therapies, have achieved good effects in the treatment of acute gouty arthritis with the characteristics of less toxicity and side effects, which are worthy of wide use.

Massage and spine correction therapy
Hidden in the hands-the special inner Bagua acupoints for pediatric massage
Lyu Cheng, Yun Ning, Wen-Jiao Li, Han Wang, Chang-De Jin
9TMR Non-Drug Therapy. 2019, 2 (4): 142-147.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMRND201902021
Abstract ( 26 )   HTML ( 2 )     PDF (356KB) ( 12 )  

Highlights

Inner Bagua acupoints (one of the clinically used acupoints in children's massage that locate in the palm of the hand and the periphery of the palm) are the commonly used acupoints in pediatric massage, which have the function of regulating Qi and eliminating phlegm (a kind pathologic fluid in TCM theory) and improving digestion. Inner Bagua acupoints massage has a unique curative effect on many diseases of digestive and respiratory system in children. This article summarized the origin, location, operation and clinical application of the inner Bagua acupoints.

Editor’s Summary

Pediatric massage is one of the external treatment methods that can improve children's constitution and immunity by regulating the viscera, dredging the meridians, regulating Qi and blood, and balancing Yin and Yang. Inner Bagua acupoints, located on the palm and back of the hand, are the most used specific massage acupoints in Children. This article introduced us the location, the operation and the clinical effects of inner Bagua acupoints, which provided a basis information for advocating and disseminating pediatric massage.

Abstract

Pediatric massage is one of the external treatment methods that can improve children's constitution and immunity by regulating the viscera (the basic organs in traditonal Chinese medicine theory), dredging the meridians, regulating Qi and blood, and balancing Yin and Yang. As one of the specific acupoints of pediatric massage, inner Bagua acupoint (one of the clinically used acupoints in children's massage that locate in the palm of the hand and the periphery of the palm) play a key role. Inner Bagua acupoints are the commonly used acupoints in pediatric massage, which have the function of regulating Qi and eliminating phlegm (a kind pathologic fluid in TCM theory) and improving digestion. Inner Bagua acupoints have a unique curative effect on many diseases of digestive and respiratory system in children. Therefore, this article attempts to elaborate and summarize the origin, location, operation and clinical application of the inner Bagua acupoints. This article hopes to provide a basis information for advocating and disseminating pediatric massage, which is favorable for wide-range popularization and development.

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