Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has recently become a public health concern worldwide. The use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) may have substantial impact on COVID-19. In this review, we summarize the disease pathogenesis, clinical outcomes, and current applications of TCM for the treatment of COVID-19.
The pathogenesis and clinical symptoms related to severe respiratory disease were described many years ago in TCM texts. The ancient book of TCM Huang Di Nei Jing (Inner Canon of Huangdi) was written during the Western Han Dynasty of China (dated approximately 99 B.C.E.-26 B.C.E.); the text recorded a plague that could transmit disease from human-to-human with symptoms that were similar to those described for COVID-19. Three additional texts, notably Shang Han Za Bing Lun (Treatise on Cold Damage Diseases) written by Zhang Zhongjing (200 C.E.-210 C.E.), Wen Yi Lun (Theory of Plague) and Wen Re Lun (Translated Theory of Warm) written by Wu Youke (1642 C.E.), recorded therapies and formulas that were effective at treating infectious diseases; among them, the classical prescription Da Yuan Yin and the use of human variolation were considered as means to prevent smallpox. Currently, the use of TCM has resulted in remarkable improvement and alleviation of symptoms in COVID-19 patients.
Since late December in 2019, the coronavirus disease 2019 has received extensive attention for its widespread prevalence. A number of clinical workers and researchers have made great efforts to understand the pathogenesis and clinical characteristics and develop effective drugs for treatment. However, no effective drugs with antiviral effects on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 have been discovered currently. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has gained abundant experience in the treatment of infectious diseases for thousands of years. In this review, the authors summarized the clinical outcome, pathogensis and current application of TCM on coronavirus disease 2019. Further, we discussed the potential mechanisms and the future research directions of TCM against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2.
Mental disorders are considerate "the evil of the century" by renowned researchers, because a large part of the population in many countries is a diagnosticated, and currently affect youth and children. Among the numerous therapeutic interventions, the music therapy is a non-invasive approach. However, there are very few people who are professionally engaged in research and studies on the subject. Therefore, this article is a literature to talk about the benefits of music therapy sessions for people with stress, depression and anxiety disorders.
The present scoping review provides evidence for the application of leech therapy in the treatment of plastic and reconstructive surgery, musculoskeletal diseases, osteoarthritis, etc..
The first recorded report of the use of leeches is in a medical poem, Alexipharma, for Nicander of Colophon, born 200 B.C.. There is also evidence of the using leeches by large scholars such as Avicenna in The Canon of Medicine and Abd-el-Latif al-Baghdadi in Al-Mukhtarat fi al-Tibb. Barbers-surgeons in the middle ages used to use leeches to shed blood for treating some kind of diseases. With the development of modern medicine, the first use of medical leeches occurred in the 1960's, for intravenous congestion after reconstructive surgery. In 2004 the FDA approved leech therapy to accelerate tissue transplantation.
After the developments of modern medicine, leeches were not used as before, but in the late nineteenth century, leeches were still being used in many countries around the world. Until now, leeches have been used to treat a wide range of diseases. The present study, is a scoping review of the evidence of the indication of leech therapy. The results of this study are based on English articles and dissertations published in databases from 2000 up to July 10, 2017. The results showed that leech therapy could be used in different conditions including venous congestion in plastic and reconstructive surgery, osteoarthritis, cardiovascular diseases due to blood coagulation disorders, migraine headache, skin disorders, diabetic foot ulcers, macroglossia, priapism, cancer complications, and wounds. More researches are needed in wider areas with more precise methodologies to ensure the potential therapeutic effects of leech therapy.
Regional ethnic medicine (REM) and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) have unique experience in the treatment of cancer pain.
There are many different aspects of the treatment of cancer pain in REM and TCM.
TCM and REM are important cancer-assisted treatments in China. Especially for the treatment of cancer pain, TCM and REM are important alternatives.
REM and TCMare both important parts of traditional medicine in China, and they have their own characteristics in the understanding and prevention of diseases. This article compares the understanding, the theoretical prevention and treatment guidance and the clinical application of the REM and TCMon the cancer pain.
This review provides evidences for the recommendation of acupuncture preconditioning at Neiguan (PC6) point in coronary heart disease patients as a non-pharmacological therapeutic method to activate the miR-214/NCX1 pathway.
The concept of acupuncture preconditioning is described in the ancient book of Fan Wang Fang (Eastern Jin Dynasty of China). It refers to the application of acupuncture before the occurrence of disease or when the disease is relatively mild. According to the record of the ancient book of Huang Di Nei Jing (Qin Han Period of China, 475 B.C.-221 B.C.), acupuncture at Neiguan (PC6) point can prevent and treat angina pectoris in coronary heart disease (CHD). The WHO also recommends acupuncture as one of the alternative and complementary therapies for the prevention and treatment of angina pectoris in CHD.
Early reperfusion of ischemic cardiac tissue is usually the best option to improve clinical outcome of angina pectoris, especially of acute myocardial infarction. However, myocardial reperfusion may cause an abnormal increase of intracellular Ca2+-mediated cardiomyocyte death and consequent loss of cardiac function, which is referred to myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Recently, the microRNA-214 (miR-214)/Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) 1 co-expression is a key factor in cellular protection against myocardial apoptosis for myocardial I/R injury. Once activated, miR-214/NCX1 axis can inhibit several Ca2+ downstream signaling effectors that mediate cell death simultaneously. Studies have shown that acupuncture preconditioning has a protective effect on myocardial I/R injury, but its mechanism deserves further research. It has been proved that acupuncture preconditioning for ischemic myocardium successfully inhibit multiple Ca2+ handling related microRNAs that mediate cell death pathways, and miR-214 is one of its targets. In terms of clinical practice, coronary heart disease (CHD) patients benefit a lot from this intervention. However, there is barely no study correlating acupuncture preconditioning to the miR-214/NCX1 co-expression in patients with CHD. This review aims to discuss whether there is some evidence to justify a recommendation of acupuncture preconditioning in CHD patients as a non-pharmacological therapeutic method to activate the miR-214/NCX1 co-expression network model.
This review introduced the current major anti-inflammatory natural active molecules based on their chemical structures, and discussed their pharmacological mechanisms.
Natural active molecules are key sources of modern innovative drugs. Particularly, a great amount of natural active molecules have been reported to possess promising therapeutic effects on inflammatory diseases, including asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, hepatitis, enteritis, metabolic disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. However, these natural active molecules with various molecular structures usually exert anti-inflammatory effects through diversiform pharmacological mechanisms, which is necessary to be summarized systematically. In this review, we introduced the current major anti-inflammatory natural active molecules based on their chemical structures, and discussed their pharmacological mechanisms including anti-inflammatory molecular signaling pathways and potential target proteins, which providing a referential significance on the development of novel anti-inflammatory drugs, and also revealing new therapeutic strategies for inflammatory diseases.
Copyright © TMR Publishing Group. 津ICP备15006701号