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Leech therapy indications: a scoping review
Roshanak Ghods, Mojtaba Abdi, Matineh Pourrahimi, Fataneh Hashem Dabaghian
1Traditional Medicine Research    2019, 4 (3): 118-130.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMR20190225105
Abstract ( 1288 HTML PDF (468KB) ( 517 )  

Highlights

The present scoping review provides evidence for the application of leech therapy in the treatment of plastic and reconstructive surgery, musculoskeletal diseases, osteoarthritis, etc..

Traditionality

The first recorded report of the use of leeches is in a medical poem, Alexipharma, for Nicander of Colophon, born 200 B.C.. There is also evidence of the using leeches by large scholars such as Avicenna in The Canon of Medicine and Abd-el-Latif al-Baghdadi in Al-Mukhtarat fi al-Tibb. Barbers-surgeons in the middle ages used to use leeches to shed blood for treating some kind of diseases. With the development of modern medicine, the first use of medical leeches occurred in the 1960's, for intravenous congestion after reconstructive surgery. In 2004 the FDA approved leech therapy to accelerate tissue transplantation.

Abstract

After the developments of modern medicine, leeches were not used as before, but in the late nineteenth century, leeches were still being used in many countries around the world. Until now, leeches have been used to treat a wide range of diseases. The present study, is a scoping review of the evidence of the indication of leech therapy. The results of this study are based on English articles and dissertations published in databases from 2000 up to July 10, 2017. The results showed that leech therapy could be used in different conditions including venous congestion in plastic and reconstructive surgery, osteoarthritis, cardiovascular diseases due to blood coagulation disorders, migraine headache, skin disorders, diabetic foot ulcers, macroglossia, priapism, cancer complications, and wounds. More researches are needed in wider areas with more precise methodologies to ensure the potential therapeutic effects of leech therapy.

Advances in research on the anticancer mechanism of the natural compound cucurbitacin from Cucurbitaceae plants: a review
Jing Liang, Dan Chen
1Traditional Medicine Research    2019, 4 (2): 68-81.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMR20190225102
Abstract ( 1111 HTML PDF (469KB) ( 496 )  

Highlights

This review summarizes the advances in research on cucurbitacins B, D, E, and I in inducing tumor cell apoptosis, cytoskeletal destruction, cell cycle arrest, and autophagy and in regulating various cancer-related signaling pathways.

Traditionality

Cucurbitacins are present in some traditional Chinese herbs (TCH) such as Gualou (Fructus Trichosanthis),Tianhuafen (Radix Trichosanthis), and Tianguadi (Pedicellus Melo). An ancient book named Shennong Bencao Jing (1602 A.D., Donghan Dynasty of China) has reported that TCH Tianguadi (Pedicellus Melo) and the dried fruit stalk of Cucumis melo L. have been used for treating jaundice because components present in these herbs induce vomiting and aid in expelling phlegm.

Abstract

Cucurbitacins are highly oxidized tetracyclic triterpenoids that are widely found in plants belonging to Cucurbitaceae family and exert various pharmacological effects. Many cucurbitacin derivatives are available, of which cucurbitacins B, D, E, and I are important members of the cucurbitacin family and exert anticancer effects against various cancers. This review summarizes the advances in research on cucurbitacins B, D, E, and I in inducing tumor cell apoptosis, cytoskeletal destruction, cell cycle arrest, and autophagy and in regulating various cancer-related signaling pathways. In addition, this review summarizes the latest research on the synergistic effects of the combination of cucurbitacins and clinically approved chemotherapeutic drugs. The findings summarized in this review suggest that cucurbitacins are multi-targeting and multi-functional anticancer drugs and that their complex anticancer mechanisms should be examined in future studies. Because of their proven benefits, cucurbitacins have the potential to be used as anticancer drugs in the clinical setting.

Annual advances of integrative pharmacology in 2018
Ke-Wu Zeng
1Traditional Medicine Research    2019, 4 (2): 56-67.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMR20190304106
Abstract ( 1080 HTML PDF (464KB) ( 368 )  

Highlights

This review covers the research progress during 2018 for pharmacological studies on traditional medicine and active natural products. The pharmacological reports on traditional medicine against cancers and diabetes were still hot issues.

Traditionality

This annual integrative pharmacology review analyzed the different growth rates and progress of traditional medicine in different diseases, which is able to provide a comprehensive description of the hot spot and development.

Abstract

A number of researches concerning pharmacology of traditional medicine and active natural products over the past 12 months have outlined the importance of reviewing the progress. This annual integrative pharmacology review evaluates researches published during 2018 in different diseases including cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, cancers, diabetes and metabolic diseases, and so on. The emphasis is on bioactive compounds and extracts from traditional herbs, as well as the novel molecular targets and mechanisms. Moreover, some traditional prescriptions in China and other geographical locations have also been included.

Effects of music therapy in depression and anxiety disorder
Ednaldo Antonio dos Santos, Esperanza Marchant Sanchez, Maria Angeles Niguez Ortiz, Maria Amparo Oliver Germes
90Life Research    2019, 2 (2): 64-70.   https://doi.org/10.12032/life2019-0425-003
Abstract ( 1053 HTML PDF (1019KB) ( 368 )  

Mental disorders are considerate "the evil of the century" by renowned researchers, because a large part of the population in many countries is a diagnosticated, and currently affect youth and children. Among the numerous therapeutic interventions, the music therapy is a non-invasive approach. However, there are very few people who are professionally engaged in research and studies on the subject. Therefore, this article is a literature to talk about the benefits of music therapy sessions for people with stress, depression and anxiety disorders.

The effect of long-term traditional Chinese medicine treatment on disease-free survival of postoperative stage I-III lung cancer patients: a retrospective cohort study
Su-Tong Liu, Su-Fang Zhang, Kai-Qi Su, Ying-Bin Luo, Zhi-Hong Fang, Yuan Fang, Jing Xu, Jian-Chun Wu, Yan Li
1Traditional Medicine Research    2019, 4 (2): 91-98.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMR20190225099
Abstract ( 1020 HTML PDF (616KB) ( 232 )  

Highlights

This retrospective cohort study showed that long-term traditional Chinese medicine as an adjuvant therapy can improve disease-free survival of postoperative lung cancer patients, especially in patients with stage I and II disease.

Traditionality

This study provided sufficient evidence that long-term traditional Chinese medicine treatment is associated with 5-year disease-free survival in postoperative lung cancer patients, especially in patients with stage I and II disease.

Abstract

Objective: Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been extensively used as one of popular alternative therapies for several cancers. However, it remains unclear whether TCM treatment is associated with longer survival in lung cancer patients. In this study, we explored the effect of long-term TCM treatment on patients with different stages of lung cancer. Methods: All information of lung cancer patients with stage I-III disease from January 2007 to September 2015 was collected for this retrospective cohort study. Those who were treated with TCM after surgery were divided into TCM group and the others were into the non-TCM group (control group). All patients were regularly followed up by clinic appointment or phone, and all survival data were collected from databases after the last follow-up in October 2017. Results: A total of 575 patients were included in this study, with 299 patients in the TCM group and 276 in the control group. For all patients, 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) was 62.2% in TCM group and 42.1% in the control group, and 6-year DFSs were 51.8% and 35.4%, respectively (HR = 0.51, 95% CI: 0.40 to 0.66, log-rank P ≤ 0.001). For patients with stage I, 5-year DFSs were 83.7% (TCM group) and 57.5% (control group) and 6-year DFSs were 73.7% and 51.9%, respectively (HR = 0.30, 95% CI: 0.18 to 0.50, log-rank P ≤ 0.001). For patients with stage II in the TCM group and the control group, 5-year DFSs were 59.4% and 17.6% and 6-year DFSs were 44.7% and 17.6%, respectively (HR = 0.31, 95% CI: 0.19 to 0.52, log-rank P ≤ 0.001), and for patients with stage III, 5-year and 6-year DFSs in the TCM group were 18.7% and 12.5% compared with 28.4% and 20.3% in the control group (HR = 1.06, 95% CI: 0.72 to 1.56, log-rank P = 0.76). Conclusions: This study demonstrated that long-term TCM treatment as an adjuvant therapy is able to improve the DFS of postoperative stage I-III lung cancer patients, especially in patients with stage I and II disease. However, these observational findings need being validated by large sample randomized controlled trials.

《古今录验》续命汤治疗急性大面积脑梗死体会
周天梅, 陈坤飞, 樊雅丽, 袁荣金
经典中医研究    2019, 2 (2): 23-26.   https://doi.org/10.12032/CCMR20190201
Abstract ( 999 PDF (737KB) ( 689 )  
通过《古今录验》续命汤加减治疗急性大面积脑梗死病例,分析其病因病机,阐述其合 理性与重要性。续命汤寒温并用,补泻兼施,效果显著。此方既切中中国传统医学的病机学说, 也符合现代医学的发病机理,确是治疗中风之良方。
The differences and similarities between regional ethnic medicine and traditional Chinese medicine in the prevention and treatment of cancer pain
Hui-Li Shui, Zhu Yang , Feng-Xi Long , Wen-Qi Huang , Bing Yang , Zhen Zhang , Dong-Xin Tang
93TMR Cancer    2019, 2 (3): 206-211.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMRC201800044
Abstract ( 993 HTML PDF (576KB) ( 611 )  

Highlights

Regional ethnic medicine (REM) and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) have unique experience in the treatment of cancer pain.

There are many different aspects of the treatment of cancer pain in REM and TCM.

Comments

TCM and REM are important cancer-assisted treatments in China. Especially for the treatment of cancer pain, TCM and REM are important alternatives.

Abstract

REM and TCMare both important parts of traditional medicine in China, and they have their own characteristics in the understanding and prevention of diseases. This article compares the understanding, the theoretical prevention and treatment guidance and the clinical application of the REM and TCMon the cancer pain.

Acupuncture preconditioning protects against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury mediated apoptosis through miR-214/NCX1 activation: a hypothesis
Hai-Long Fan, Yu-Lan Ren, Li-Zhen Yang, Fei Wu
1Traditional Medicine Research    2019, 4 (4): 178-183.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMR20190306109
Abstract ( 842 HTML PDF (397KB) ( 279 )  

Highlights

This review provides evidences for the recommendation of acupuncture preconditioning at Neiguan (PC6) point in coronary heart disease patients as a non-pharmacological therapeutic method to activate the miR-214/NCX1 pathway.

Traditionality

The concept of acupuncture preconditioning is described in the ancient book of Fan Wang Fang (Eastern Jin Dynasty of China). It refers to the application of acupuncture before the occurrence of disease or when the disease is relatively mild. According to the record of the ancient book of Huang Di Nei Jing (Qin Han Period of China, 475 B.C.-221 B.C.), acupuncture at Neiguan (PC6) point can prevent and treat angina pectoris in coronary heart disease (CHD). The WHO also recommends acupuncture as one of the alternative and complementary therapies for the prevention and treatment of angina pectoris in CHD.

Abstract

Early reperfusion of ischemic cardiac tissue is usually the best option to improve clinical outcome of angina pectoris, especially of acute myocardial infarction. However, myocardial reperfusion may cause an abnormal increase of intracellular Ca2+-mediated cardiomyocyte death and consequent loss of cardiac function, which is referred to myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Recently, the microRNA-214 (miR-214)/Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) 1 co-expression is a key factor in cellular protection against myocardial apoptosis for myocardial I/R injury. Once activated, miR-214/NCX1 axis can inhibit several Ca2+ downstream signaling effectors that mediate cell death simultaneously. Studies have shown that acupuncture preconditioning has a protective effect on myocardial I/R injury, but its mechanism deserves further research. It has been proved that acupuncture preconditioning for ischemic myocardium successfully inhibit multiple Ca2+ handling related microRNAs that mediate cell death pathways, and miR-214 is one of its targets. In terms of clinical practice, coronary heart disease (CHD) patients benefit a lot from this intervention. However, there is barely no study correlating acupuncture preconditioning to the miR-214/NCX1 co-expression in patients with CHD. This review aims to discuss whether there is some evidence to justify a recommendation of acupuncture preconditioning in CHD patients as a non-pharmacological therapeutic method to activate the miR-214/NCX1 co-expression network model.

Sleep Paralysis - Cultural Significance and Its Management
Javed Ather Siddiqui, Shazia Farheen Qureshi, Abdul Khaliq Alghamdi, Waseem M Marei
92Psychosomatic Medicine Research    2019, 1 (2): 19-25.   https://doi.org/10.12032/psmr2019-0920-007
Abstract ( 764 PDF (259KB) ( 1045 )  
Sleep paralysis (SP) is a benign, transient episode of immobility and it lasts a few seconds to a few minutes. It can occur while falling asleep or on awakening. It is a condition of unknown etiology and all the skeletal muscles are almost ‘paralyzed’. It leads to an inability to speak or move but individual remains conscious. This review summarizes the existential clinical literature on sleep paralysis most relevant to practitioners; also summarizes the many historical and artistic manifestations of SP in different cultures. It also throws light on the available Arabic literature and others as per the aim of the review. For this review, literature search using engines was carried out, and review papers and original research articles were analyzed. We will start with a review which summarizes the collection of symptoms, prevalence rate, risk factors and etiological theories, characteristics and classification of the SP over the past years up to the present time, also the management in the form of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy as well as the cultural significances in different countries. SP plays an important role in the genesis and maintenance of many supernatural beliefs such as nocturnal alien abductions, demonic and ghost attacks in individuals with intact reality testing.
Natural products as a crucial source of anti-inflammatory drugs: recent trends and advancements
Yan-Hang Wang, Ke-Wu Zeng
1Traditional Medicine Research    2019, 4 (5): 257-268.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMR20190831133
Abstract ( 713 HTML PDF (758KB) ( 333 )  

Highlights

This review introduced the current major anti-inflammatory natural active molecules based on their chemical structures, and discussed their pharmacological mechanisms.

Abstract

Natural active molecules are key sources of modern innovative drugs. Particularly, a great amount of natural active molecules have been reported to possess promising therapeutic effects on inflammatory diseases, including asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, hepatitis, enteritis, metabolic disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. However, these natural active molecules with various molecular structures usually exert anti-inflammatory effects through diversiform pharmacological mechanisms, which is necessary to be summarized systematically. In this review, we introduced the current major anti-inflammatory natural active molecules based on their chemical structures, and discussed their pharmacological mechanisms including anti-inflammatory molecular signaling pathways and potential target proteins, which providing a referential significance on the development of novel anti-inflammatory drugs, and also revealing new therapeutic strategies for inflammatory diseases.