This paper gives a brief overview of the evolutionary history of human diet, discusses various reasons why some modern humans choose to abstain from eating animal products, and explores the psychological effects occasioned by the eating of meat. The authors argue that when modern, scientifically literate humans choose to eat meat and animal-milk-based products, while being simultaneously aware of the associated poor outcomes in terms of personal health, environmental sustainability, and animal suffering, then psychological stress is an inevitable outcome. They highlight some key recent additions to the growing body of evidence which demonstrates that the choice to eat meat is a factor in environmental destruction, animal misery, and personal health risks, and explore the causes and consequences of the predictable psychological stresses that result for those individuals who continue to habitually eat meat.
Highlights: In this paper, various factors related to Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and thyroid cancer, especially papillary thyroid cancer, morbidity and lymph node metastasis, are reviewed concerning recent literature.
Editor’s Summary: In recent decades, it is very high for the incidence of HT and the thyroid cancer rate. This article is more likely that autoimmune thyroid inflammation such as HT is carcinogenic, and thyroid dysfunction related to HT may also promote tumor growth induced by stimulating TSH receptor.
Abstract: In recent years, the incidence of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and thyroid cancer has shown a rapid growth trend. These two diseases have severely affected the public health. Many epidemiological studies have shown that thyroid cancer is often associated with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Hashimoto’s thyroiditis may promote the occurrence of thyroid cancer, as well as affecting the progression of the tumor, lymph node metastasis, and even the prognosis of patients. In this paper, the relationship between Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and thyroid cancer and the pathogenesis of thyroid cancer are reviewed regarding molecular mechanism, clinical pathology, and serology.
Spleen deficiency is often accompanied by dampness. Cytokines, immunoglobulins, and gastrointestinal hormones play major roles in the pathogenesis of spleen deficiency and dampness.
The two TCM syndromes “spleen deficiency” and “dampness” were cause and effect to each other.
Objective: To explore the essence of spleen deficiency and dampness in Chinese medicine by successfully constructing a rat model with this syndrome. Methods: Rat models with the syndrome of dampness and spleen deficiency were established with the use of a high-fat, low-protein diet and excessive fatigue induced by loaded swimming. A total of 25 common clinical serological markers were tested. The T test, rank test, and partial least squares regression-discriminant analysis were used to analyze the data. Results: Total protein, albumin, motilin, interferon-γ, interleukin-2, immunoglobulin A, immunoglobulin G, and complement 3 levels in the model rats were lower than those in the control group (P = 0.029, P = 0.032, P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P < 0.001, respectively). The serum creatinine, total cholesterol, aldosterone, antidiuretic hormone, gastrin, interleukin-4, somatostatin, atrial natriuretic peptide, and vasoactive intestinal peptide levels in the model group were higher than those in the control group (P < 0.001, P = 0.015, P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P < 0.001, respectively). There was no statistical difference between the two groups in aspartate transaminase, alanine aminotransferase, globulin, albumin/globulin, blood urea nitrogen, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein. The model animal syndrome used two important variables in analysis with partial least squares regression-discriminant analysis. At the same time, the two dimensions were difficult to distinguish for each biological index. Conclusion: Spleen deficiency is often associated with dampness. The index that represents spleen deficiency can also represent dampness. Cytokines, immunoglobulins, and gastrointestinal hormones play a major causative role in both spleen deficiency and dampness.
Thunder-Fire moxibustion with ovulation monitoring significantly improved the pregnancy rate of patients diagnosed with adenomyosis- associated infertility.
Thunder-Fire moxibustion stemmed from the Taoism magic arts before the Yuan Dynasty of China (1271 A.D.-1368 A.D.) and took shape in the middle of the Ming Dynasty of China (1368 A.D.-1644 A.D.).
This study evaluated the clinical efficacy of Thunder-Fire moxibustion combined with ovulation monitoring for the treatment of adenomyosis-associated infertility. A series of 120 patients diagnosed with uterine adenomyosis and infertility and cold coagulation blood stasis syndrome in traditional Chinese medicine (with the clinical manifestations of premenstrual or menstrual lower abdomen cold pain, pain reduction with heat application, and cold extremities) were randomized equally to treatment group with Thunder-Fire moxibustion and ovulation monitoring as well as control group with ovulation monitoring only. Treatment continued for six menstrual cycles. The pregnancy rate of the treatment group was significantly increased with the control group (50.0% vs. 23.3%, P = 0.021). Dysmenorrhea and the traditional Chinese medicine syndrome in the treatment group improved significantly compared with the control group (3.87 ± 2.03 vs. 5.70 ± 1.01, P = 0.002 and 7.33 ± 4.11 vs. 10.52 ± 2.33, P = 0.006, respectively), and there was also significant between-group differences in serum cancer antigen 125 (55.45 ± 14.65 vs. 63.34 ± 11.41, P = 0.031). However, the average uterus diameters in the treatment and control groups were not significantly different (67.13 ± 7.59 vs. 69.89 ± 5.30, P = 0.137). Thunder-Fire moxibustion with ovulation monitoring improved the pregnancy rate of patients diagnosed with adenomyosis-associated infertility.
The protocol attempted to systematically assess the long-term efficacy of Tianqi capsule for prevention of T2DM.
Tianqi capsule is an approved natural TCM compound in China (Approved No. Z20020089). This study may provide evidence for the long-term effect of Tianqi capsule intervention to prevent T2DM in people with impaired glucose tolerance.
Background:The rapid growth of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) remains a big challenge for clinicians worldwide. Traditional Chinese medicine may bring a new approach for solving this problem. The Tianqi Capsule Diabetes Prevention Study (REDUCES Study) reported that 1 years of therapy with Tianqi capsule reduced the risk of diabetes by 32.1% compared with the placebo. Here we aimed to assess the long-term effect of Tianqi capsule on prevention of T2DM in people with impaired glucose tolerance after discontinuation of active intervention. Methods/design: 420 subjects will be followed-up for 8 years to assess the long-term effect of Tianqi capsule intervention. The causes of death and the status of living subjects will be investigated. Follow-up data for living subjects will be collected by personal interview and clinical examination and medical record review to determine diabetes status. Questionnaires will be given to all the subjects to investigate the factors that probably affect the diabetes status during the 8-year of discontinuation of intervention. The primary outcome is the incidence of T2DM, and the secondary outcomes are body mass index, blood glucose, blood lipids and blood pressure. The Cox proportional hazards model will be used to estimate the hazard ratio for diabetes incidence. Analyses will be done with SAS 8.2 software package. Discussion: Results from this study may provide evidence for the long-term efficacy of Tianqi capsule in patients with prediabetes. The findings will provide a basis for further confirmatory studies. Ethics: The protocol has been approved by the Medical Ethics Committee of Guang’anmen Hospital of China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences (approval number 2016-046-KY-01). Study registration number: ClinicalTrials.gov; NCT02848053.
The Si-Jun-Zi decoction may exert a therapeutic effect on gastric precancerous lesions by intervening in the mucosal inflammation, cell apoptosis process, and cell proliferation.
Gastric mucosal inflammation has the potential to promote the proliferation of gastric mucosal epithelial cells and inhibit their apoptosis. However, Si-Jun-Zi decoction may exert a therapeutic effect on these process via the multi-target network level.
Objective: To find out the potential mechanisms of Si-Jun-Zi (SJZ) decoction in the treatment of gastric precancerous lesions (GPL). Methods: A network pharmacology approach was used to analyze the active compounds, drug targets and interacting pathways of SJZ decoction in treating GPL. The compounds and predicted targets of SJZ decoction were screened from TCMSP, and the disease targets were obtained from GeneCards. The therapeutic mechanisms of action of the SJZ decoction were analyzed by gene ontology (GO) enrichment, Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes pathway enrichment analyses. Results: The results show that 111 compounds and 90 targets were obtained in this work. These targets were further mapped to 654 GO biological process terms and 21 remarkably pathways. Active compounds, targets, and pathways were used to construct a compound-target network, a target-pathways network, and an integrated GPL pathway. These results indicated that SJZ decoction may treat the dysfunctions of GPL mainly from intervening in the mucosal inflammation, cell apoptosis process, and cell proliferation. Conclusion: This work provided a novel approach to understand the pathogenesis of GPL and revealed the therapeutic mechanisms of SJZ decoction, which facilitate the modernization of herbal medicine for complex diseases in the future.
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