1. Liver and kidney are the mainly toxic target organs of traditional medicine.
2. Recently, zebrafish embryoes are popular to evaluate the safety of traditional medicine.
3. The safety assessment of Aconitum, Tripterygium, Strychnine, etc. is still hot issue.
This annual review summarized different analysis methods of toxicology research, common evaluated models, toxic target organs, toxic mechanisms, and popular research issues and herbs in 2018. China, India, USA and Morocco were ranked from the first to fourth important countries researching the toxicology of traditional medicine.
There were many researches concerning toxicology of traditional medicine (TM) and active natural products during the past 12 months. This annual toxicology review summarized different analysis methods of toxicology research, common evaluated models, toxic target organs, toxic mechanisms, and popular research issues and herbs in 2018. The emphasis was on hepatorenal toxicity induced by TM through cell apoptosis, metabolic disorder, oxidative stress, inflammatory damage, liver and renal fibrosis and even inducing carcinogenesis. Meanwhile, traditional herbs were listed in this review. Taken together, the herbs mentioned in this paper should be used with caution. Combination of TM, processing drugs, quality control and dose control can be used in the prevention of TM toxicology in the future.
The present scoping review provides evidence for the application of leech therapy in the treatment of plastic and reconstructive surgery, musculoskeletal diseases, osteoarthritis, etc..
The first recorded report of the use of leeches is in a medical poem, Alexipharma, for Nicander of Colophon, born 200 B.C.. There is also evidence of the using leeches by large scholars such as Avicenna in The Canon of Medicine and Abd-el-Latif al-Baghdadi in Al-Mukhtarat fi al-Tibb. Barbers-surgeons in the middle ages used to use leeches to shed blood for treating some kind of diseases. With the development of modern medicine, the first use of medical leeches occurred in the 1960's, for intravenous congestion after reconstructive surgery. In 2004 the FDA approved leech therapy to accelerate tissue transplantation.
After the developments of modern medicine, leeches were not used as before, but in the late nineteenth century, leeches were still being used in many countries around the world. Until now, leeches have been used to treat a wide range of diseases. The present study, is a scoping review of the evidence of the indication of leech therapy. The results of this study are based on English articles and dissertations published in databases from 2000 up to July 10, 2017. The results showed that leech therapy could be used in different conditions including venous congestion in plastic and reconstructive surgery, osteoarthritis, cardiovascular diseases due to blood coagulation disorders, migraine headache, skin disorders, diabetic foot ulcers, macroglossia, priapism, cancer complications, and wounds. More researches are needed in wider areas with more precise methodologies to ensure the potential therapeutic effects of leech therapy.
Eryngium is the largest genus of Apiaceae family. Some remarkable biological and pharmacological activities of these species have been demonstrated in present scientific studies, including antimicrobial, cytotoxic and anticancer, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antinociceptive activities as well as antioxidant, antidiabetic, anti-snake and anti-scorpion venom effects.
Eryngium genus is one of the medicinal herbs mentioned in several Persian medicine references by the name of “Qaracaane”. It contains 274 accepted species that are distributed all around the world especially in Europe, Africa, America and Australia. Ten species of Eryngium have been identified in Iran including E. caeruleum M.B. (syn: E. caucasicum Trautv.), E. creticum Lam., E. bungei Boiss., E. billardieri F. Delaroche. (syn: E. kotschyi Boiss.), E. glomeratum Lam. (syn: E. parviflorum Sm.), E. bornumulleri Nab., E. pyramidale Boiss. & Husson., E. noeanum Boiss., E. wanaturi Woron. (syn: E. woronowii Bordz.), and E. thyrsoideum Boiss. These species are distributed in all regions of Iran and especially are abundant in the northern provinces such as Gilan and Mazandaran.
Objective: Eryngium with the 274 accepted species, is the largest genus of Apiaceae family which are distributed all over the world and have been used in traditional remedies to manage various ailments in different nations. Ten species of Eryngium have been identified in Iran including E. caeruleum M.B. (syn: E. caucasicum Trautv.), E. creticum Lam., E. bungei Boiss., E. billardieri F. Delaroche. (syn: E. kotschyi Boiss.), E. glomeratum Lam. (syn: E. parviflorum Sm.), E. bornumulleri Nab., E. pyramidale Boiss. & Husson., E. noeanum Boiss., E. wanaturi Woron. (syn: E. woronowii Bordz.), and E. thyrsoideum Boiss. The aim of the present research is to review pharmacological activity, and phytochemical constituents as well as ethnobotany and traditional uses of Iranian species of Eryngium. Materials and methods: Electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct (ISI Web of Knowledge) and Embase library were comprehensively searched for research on Eryngium. The search period was from 1966 to October 2018. The related articles were selected according to the inclusion and exclusion criterias in our study. Results: A total of 57 papers were enrolled in analyses. The findings showed that Iranian species of Eryngium, had a noticeable diverse of traditional medicinal uses and also broad range of pharmacological activities as well as various phytochemical compounds. Some remarkable biological and pharmacological activities of these species have been demonstrated in present scientific studies, including antimicrobial, cytotoxic and anticancer, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antinociceptive activities as well as antioxidant, antidiabetic, anti-snake and anti-scorpion venom effects. Conclusion: Iranian Eryngium species have enormous potential for prospective preparation of herbal medicinal products and are good candidates for discovering new drugs.
Objective: To explore the main chemical compounds in Xiaoer Qixing Cha Formulae (XQCF), and investigate its mechanisms for the treatment of infantile functional dyspepsia (IFD). Methods: The chemical components were identified by UPLC-QTOF/MS analytic technique. Targets of the compounds were screened from TCMSP and SWISS database, and disease targets were screened from OMIM and TTD online database. Candidate targets of compounds were mapped to the disease targets as predict therapeutic targets for XQCF. Several networks were constructed and analyzed by Cytoscape ver. 3.2.1. Meanwhile, prescription compatibility in XQCF was interpreted from the network perspective based on distribution of the number of targets. Furthermore, Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis and KEGG pathway analysis were operated via Clue Go to illustrate complex relationships between the potential targets and pharmacological mechanisms. Results: A total of fifty-three compounds were recognized or tentatively characterized belonging to XQCF based on MS data and online chemical database. Sixty-three therapeutic targets were screened. AKT1, FOS, SLC6A4, COMT and 5-HT receptors were focused as therapeutic targets of XQCF. Pathways including carbohydrate digestion and absorption, serotonergic synapse, calcium signaling pathway and cAMP signaling pathway were predicted as significant regulatory pathways. The results indicated that the predicted targets and pathways related in brain-gut axis to a great extent, which could be potential pharmacological mechanism of XQCF for the treatment of IFD. Conclusions: The findings in this study provided the experimental and theoretical basis for further research for XQCF. Those also illustrated a reasonable method worth intensive study on pharmacodynamic mechanisms of TCM Formulae.
HighlightsChemical components in Xiaoer Qixing Cha Formulae were firstly identified by UPLC-QTOF/MS analytic technique and collated into data source. Then the mechanisms of the Formulae for the treatment of infantile functional dyspepsia were predicted by interactive network pharmacology. The results suggested that targets and pathways related in brain-gut axis might exert regulating effects on digestive process and digestive system function.
Diabetic nephropathy is one of the most serious complications of diabetes mellitus. In the early stage, edema and proteinuria are the main clinical manifestations. In the later stage, glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis will occur. And the prognosis is poor. Nowadays, traditional Chinese medicine has a remarkable curative effect in the treatment of diabetic nephropathy. There are more and more studies on the treatment of diabetic nephropathy with traditional Chinese medicine, but most of them focus on the syndromes of diabetic nephropathy, which are short of in-depth research and summary on the mechanism of Chinese herbal prescriptions. In this paper, the traditional Chinese medicine inheritance support system and network pharmacology BATMAN-TCM software were used to collect and analyze the relevant literature. It was found that the core compatibility of Shanzhuyu, Fuling and Shuyu in the treatment of diabetic nephropathy is closely related to the signal transduction pathway and target of diabetic nephropathy, and has a positive effect on the improvement of clinical symptoms such as proteinuria, glycometabolism disorder, edema, etc. This paper explores the core compatibility of Shanzhuyu, Fuling and Shuyu on diabetic nephropathy, in order to provide reference for clinical treatment.
HighlightsDiabetic nephropathy is one of the most serious complications of diabetes mellitus, which seriously affects the quality of life of patients for the poor prognosis. Nowadays, Traditional Chinese Medicine has a remarkable curative effect in the treatment of diabetic nephropathy, which has brought some enlightenment to our research ideas. Traditional Chinese Medicine Inheritance Assistant Platform System (TCM Inheritance Assistant Platform) is an organic combination of computer science and TCM. By intellectualized processing of disease prescription, the data of disease information, syndrome information and compatibility of TCM can be more intuitive, which make Chinese herbal medicine and drug pairs for treating diseases more specialized and precise. Network pharmacology is based on system biology to analyze multi-target networks of drugs, and can combine Drug targets with diseases, which make the treatment of diseases more targeted. This paper collects and summarizes the prescriptions of traditional Chinese medicine for diabetic nephropathy in the past 10 years from China Knowledge Net, and uses the system of traditional Chinese Medicine Inheritance assistant platform and BATMAN-TCM database of network pharmacology to analyze the medication rules and action signal pathways. We concluded that Shanzhuyu（Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc）, Fuling (Poria cocos (Schw.) Wolf) and Shuyu (Dioscorea opposite) have certain positive effects on the compatibility in the prevention and treatment of diabetic nephropathy and hope to provide new ideas for the research and clinical treatment of diabetic nephropathy with TCM.
Objective: To observe the neuroprotective mechanism of water extract of Fomitopsis Pinicola on MPP+ induced apoptosis of mesencephala dopaminergic cells in vitro. Methods: The antioxidant activity of fungi was determined by FRAP method. The anti-inflammatory activity of the fungi was detected by LPS-induced NO release method. Mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons were labeled by TH staining to observe the survival of THir neurons. Results: In the anti-oxidant activity assay, the Trolox equivalent anti-oxidant capacity (TEAC) of water extract of Fomitopsis Pinicola was determined to be （165.80±7.13）μmol Trolox/g extract. Water extracts of Fomitopsis Pinicola treatment(100,50,25,12.5μg/ml) decreased NO formation significantly. MPP+ induced significant chromatin condensation in the nuclei of mesencephala dopaminergic neurons with nuclear lysis,the mitochondrial membrane potential decreased remarkably, and ROS production increased significantly. Compared with the MPP+ control group, the morphological changes of cell nuclei after apoptosis was reversed by water extract of Fomitopsis Pinicola. Water extract of Fomitopsis Pinicola treatment（50,25,12.5μg/ml） dramatically increased relative mitochondrial membrane potential compared with MPP+ control respectively. Compared with the MPP+ control, water extract of Fomitopsis Pinicola treatment (50, 25μg/ml) significantly decreased relative ROS formation respectively. Conclusions：Water extract of Fomitopsis Pinicola showed significant neuroprotective effect on mesencephala dopaminergic cells induced by MPP+. The water extract of Fomitopsis Pinicola showed antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The mechanism of neuroprotective effect of water extract of Fomitopsis Pinicola may be related to inhibitory on mitochondrial oxidative stress.
HighlightsFomitopsis Pinicola is characterized with anti-oxidant, anti-inflammation and immunostimulant properties. In the present study, primary dopaminergic cell cultures prepared from embryonic mouse mesencephala were used to determine the neuroprotective effects and the potential mechanisms of water extract of Fomitopsis Pinicola on the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons induced by MPP+. The results demonstrated that Water extract of Fomitopsis Pinicola protected dopamine neurons against MPP+. The water extract of Fomitopsis Pinicola showed antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The mechanism of neuroprotective effect of water extract of Fomitopsis Pinicola may be related to inhibitory on mitochondrial oxidative stress.
Objectives: Evaluating the quality of systematic reviews/meta-analysis of Wenxin granule in treating cardiac arrhythmia to provide evidence for clinical practice, and analyzing the problems in the research to identify potential research priorities for researchers. Method: The systematic reviews of Wenxin granule in treating cardiac arrhythmia were searched from 8 databases. The methodological quality and evidence quality were assessed by AMSTAR and GRADE respectively. Results: Nineteen eligible systematic reviews with 52,905 participants were included. The overall scores of AMSTAR ranged from 3 to 10 with a mean score of 6.5, the median score was 6. There were 9 (9/19, 47.37%) systematic reviews had the score of 7 or more. 6 of them with appropriate information were assessed the quality of evidence by GRADE. The results showed that the overall quality of evidence was limited (range from “very low” to “low”), no “moderate” or “high” quality of evidence existed. For the outcome reporting, no systematic reviews reported endpoints and limited evidence showed that there is causality between Wenxin granule and adverse effects/events. The outcome matrix showed that there are obvious heterogeneity and incompleteness for the outcome reporting in included systematic reviews, so that some included studies cannot be conducted meta-analysis. Meanwhile, there were studies excluded because of inappropriate outcome measures, such as outcome measures did not meet inclusion criteria, treatment time did not meet inclusion criteria, treatment time was unclear, incomplete data or the data cannot be extracted. Conclusions: Wenxin granule have limited efficacy and safety for treating arrhythmia. In the future, high quality of RCTs and systematic reviews should be conducted. Core outcome set for cardiac arrhythmia is needed to improve outcome reporting and decrease waste.
Highlights1. This is the first overview of systematic reviews for Wenxin granule in treating cardiac arrhythmia, which summarized the efficacy and safety of Wenxin granule in treating cardiac arrhythmia and strictly assessed the quality of methodology and evidence.2. Besides methodological quality and evidence quality assessment, this overview also analyzed some other problems, such as outcome reporting in systematic reviews and RCTs, so that researchers may identify potential research priorities from the results.3. The outcome matrix of included reviews showed that there was heterogeneity in outcome reporting, and some clinical trials cannot be included in systematic reviews or cannot be conducted meta-analysis in systematic reviews because of inappropriate outcomes reporting. These problems reduce the value of clinical trials and systematic reviews. This research presents that core outcome set for cardiac arrhythmia is necessary to solve these problems.
Mental disorders are considerate "the evil of the century" by renowned researchers, because a large part of the population in many countries is a diagnosticated, and currently affect youth and children. Among the numerous therapeutic interventions, the music therapy is a non-invasive approach. However, there are very few people who are professionally engaged in research and studies on the subject. Therefore, this article is a literature to talk about the benefits of music therapy sessions for people with stress, depression and anxiety disorders.
Network pharmacology study on the mechanism of the tong xie yao fang in treating irritable bowel syndrome
Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the effective compounds and molecular mechanism of Tong Xie Yao Fang (TXYF) in the treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) based on network pharmacology. Method: The effective components in TXYF were screened using the TCMSP database, and the targets were predicted and analyzed with the PharmMapper server. The potential targets were imported into the MAS 3.0 database for target annotation and analysis. Finally, the KEGG database was used for pathway analysis. Result: Forty-three compounds were identified in the TXYF, corresponding to 247 targets. Among these, a total of 33 targets were found to be closely related to IBS. Pathway enrichment analysis identified 22 significant pathways to be associated with TXYF and its treatment. The results showed that components such as polyphenols, flavonoids, and terpenoids can enhance the immune function and alter hypoxia-induced stress by regulating cell proliferation, oxidative reactions, endocrine metabolism, and inflammatory reactions. Conclusion: The mechanism of TXYF in treating IBS is closely related to metabolic reactions, cell proliferation, inflammatory reactions, immune regulation, and endocrine hormone metabolism.
Characteristic TCM therapies including acupuncture, moxibustion, and cupping, etc. have therapeutic effects on obese patients by interfering with the intestinal flora.
Traditional Chinese medicine therapy aiming at regulating intestinal flora is expected to become one of the main treatment methods for obese patients.
In recent years, the prevalence of obesity has been increasing year by year, leading to a rise in serious complications. The pathogenesis of obesity is complicated in which the intestinal flora plays an important role. Intestinal micro ecology is composed of large and complex intestinal flora that participate in important physiological functions such as metabolism, energy conversion, maintaining intestinal mucosal defense function, and promoting immune system development and maturation and other important physiological functions; furthermore, they are influenced by the host’s genetic background, diet, and other factors. Therefore, intestinal microflora has potential as a new field of drug therapy. At present, it is found that traditional Chinese medicine therapy may prevent and treat obesity by interfering with the intestinal flora, which is expected to become one of the main treatment methods for obese patients. However, its mechanism of action remains unclear. The balance of intestinal flora can be adjusted by acupuncture, massage, and acupoint application. By analyzing the mechanism of obesity caused by intestinal micro ecology and the impact of obesity on the host’s intestinal micro ecological environment, this paper discusses the influence of oral Chinese medicine, acupuncture, massage, acupoint sticking, and other traditional Chinese medicine therapies on the intestinal microflora in obese patients and provides a scientific basis for its clinical application.
The present review summarizes the non-drug treatment of obesity in recent years, to analyze their underlying mechanism and provide further guidance for clinical practitioners.
For patients with obesity, weighing the advantages and disadvantages of various non-drug therapeutic methods and helping them choose the right method is the best way to fight obesity.
Obesity, which bring a great perplex to family and society, has significant contribution to the risk of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and other comorbidities. In past four decades, the incidence of obesity has been on the alarming rise and so far about a third of the world's adults are affected by obesity. Due to the side effects and adverse reactions of drug treatment, obesity patients tend to select non-drug treatment. The present review summarizes the non-drug treatment of obesity in recent years, including acupuncture, exercise, surgery, lifestyle intervention and psychological guidance, to summarize their underlying mechanism and provide further guidance for clinical practitioners. Auricular acupuncture was proved to have the positively influence in Ghrelin, a novel obesity-related peptide hormone. Exercise could treat obesity by reducing the inflammatory factors associated with obesity. Furthermore, obesity surgery can not only reduce fat intake and nutrient absorption, but also inhibit the generation of Neuropeptide Y (NPY) by increasing the secretion of Peptide YY (PYY). Besides, breaking down psychological and behavioral barriers to lifestyle treatment of obesity will have a significant effect.
This review covers the research progress during 2018 for pharmacological studies on traditional medicine and active natural products. The pharmacological reports on traditional medicine against cancers and diabetes were still hot issues.
This annual integrative pharmacology review analyzed the different growth rates and progress of traditional medicine in different diseases, which is able to provide a comprehensive description of the hot spot and development.
A number of researches concerning pharmacology of traditional medicine and active natural products over the past 12 months have outlined the importance of reviewing the progress. This annual integrative pharmacology review evaluates researches published during 2018 in different diseases including cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, cancers, diabetes and metabolic diseases, and so on. The emphasis is on bioactive compounds and extracts from traditional herbs, as well as the novel molecular targets and mechanisms. Moreover, some traditional prescriptions in China and other geographical locations have also been included.
This review summarizes the advances in research on cucurbitacins B, D, E, and I in inducing tumor cell apoptosis, cytoskeletal destruction, cell cycle arrest, and autophagy and in regulating various cancer-related signaling pathways.
Cucurbitacins are present in some traditional Chinese herbs (TCH) such as Gualou (Fructus Trichosanthis),Tianhuafen (Radix Trichosanthis), and Tianguadi (Pedicellus Melo). An ancient book named Shennong Bencao Jing (1602 A.D., Donghan Dynasty of China) has reported that TCH Tianguadi (Pedicellus Melo) and the dried fruit stalk of Cucumis melo L. have been used for treating jaundice because components present in these herbs induce vomiting and aid in expelling phlegm.
Cucurbitacins are highly oxidized tetracyclic triterpenoids that are widely found in plants belonging to Cucurbitaceae family and exert various pharmacological effects. Many cucurbitacin derivatives are available, of which cucurbitacins B, D, E, and I are important members of the cucurbitacin family and exert anticancer effects against various cancers. This review summarizes the advances in research on cucurbitacins B, D, E, and I in inducing tumor cell apoptosis, cytoskeletal destruction, cell cycle arrest, and autophagy and in regulating various cancer-related signaling pathways. In addition, this review summarizes the latest research on the synergistic effects of the combination of cucurbitacins and clinically approved chemotherapeutic drugs. The findings summarized in this review suggest that cucurbitacins are multi-targeting and multi-functional anticancer drugs and that their complex anticancer mechanisms should be examined in future studies. Because of their proven benefits, cucurbitacins have the potential to be used as anticancer drugs in the clinical setting.
This retrospective cohort study showed that long-term traditional Chinese medicine as an adjuvant therapy can improve disease-free survival of postoperative lung cancer patients, especially in patients with stage I and II disease.
This study provided sufficient evidence that long-term traditional Chinese medicine treatment is associated with 5-year disease-free survival in postoperative lung cancer patients, especially in patients with stage I and II disease.
Objective: Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been extensively used as one of popular alternative therapies for several cancers. However, it remains unclear whether TCM treatment is associated with longer survival in lung cancer patients. In this study, we explored the effect of long-term TCM treatment on patients with different stages of lung cancer. Methods: All information of lung cancer patients with stage I-III disease from January 2007 to September 2015 was collected for this retrospective cohort study. Those who were treated with TCM after surgery were divided into TCM group and the others were into the non-TCM group (control group). All patients were regularly followed up by clinic appointment or phone, and all survival data were collected from databases after the last follow-up in October 2017. Results: A total of 575 patients were included in this study, with 299 patients in the TCM group and 276 in the control group. For all patients, 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) was 62.2% in TCM group and 42.1% in the control group, and 6-year DFSs were 51.8% and 35.4%, respectively (HR = 0.51, 95% CI: 0.40 to 0.66, log-rank P ≤ 0.001). For patients with stage I, 5-year DFSs were 83.7% (TCM group) and 57.5% (control group) and 6-year DFSs were 73.7% and 51.9%, respectively (HR = 0.30, 95% CI: 0.18 to 0.50, log-rank P ≤ 0.001). For patients with stage II in the TCM group and the control group, 5-year DFSs were 59.4% and 17.6% and 6-year DFSs were 44.7% and 17.6%, respectively (HR = 0.31, 95% CI: 0.19 to 0.52, log-rank P ≤ 0.001), and for patients with stage III, 5-year and 6-year DFSs in the TCM group were 18.7% and 12.5% compared with 28.4% and 20.3% in the control group (HR = 1.06, 95% CI: 0.72 to 1.56, log-rank P = 0.76). Conclusions: This study demonstrated that long-term TCM treatment as an adjuvant therapy is able to improve the DFS of postoperative stage I-III lung cancer patients, especially in patients with stage I and II disease. However, these observational findings need being validated by large sample randomized controlled trials.
The compatibility of Chinese herbs is the focus and the difficulty in traditional Chinese medicine research, and it has an important guiding role for clinical medicine. Some scholars believe that the Fuzi (Radix Aconiti Lateralis Preparata, FZ) compatibility with Tubeimu (Rhizoma Bolbostemmatis, TBM)/Gualou (Trichosanthes kirilowii Maxim, GL) does not meet the Chinese medicine theory of “eighteen incompatibilities”. However, this combination has been used many times in many clinical medications. This study reviewed the research progress of pharmacological effects of FZ, and FZ compatibility with TBM/GL, in order to correctly understand and apply the “eighteen incompatibilities” drugs, and provide a reference for further exploration of the combined application in clinical treatment.
Objective: To explore the reversing resistance
mechanisms of Yiqi Fusheng Decoction (YQFS) on human multidrug-resistant
colorectal cancer cell HT-29/DDP. Methods:
Colorectal cancer cell HT-29/DDP was treated with YQFS for 48h and MTT assay
was used to detect the effect of HT-29/DDP cells on the sensitivity of
chemotherapeutic drugs. Cell apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry. The
effects of YQFS on the expression of HIF-1α, ERK1/2 and p-ERK1/2 in HT-29/DDP
cells were detected by Western blot. Results:
High concentration and low concentration YQFS groups can significantly inhibit
the proliferation of HT-29/DPP cells compared with the control group (P<0.01).
And the high concentration YQFS group has a more significant inhibitory effect on
cell proliferation. Compared with the cisplatin group, the proliferation of
HT-29/DDP cells in YQFS and cisplatin group decreased
dramatically and cell apoptosis increased significantly (P<0.01).
expressions of HIF-1α and p-ERK were reduced in the YQFS group compared
with the cisplatin group (P<0.01). Conclusion:
YQFS can increase the sensitivity of multidrug-resistant colorectal cancer
cells to chemotherapeutic drugs and promote cell apoptosis by down-regulating
the expressions of HIF-1α and p-ERK1/2.
Quality marker (Q-marker) of Chinese materia medica (CMM) plays an important role in quality control of CMM products. However, its research strategy and technique remain unclear. Based on the fact that quality standard of CMM should be associated with clinical efficacy, taking Jinqi Jiangtang tablet treating type 2 diabetes as an example, the Q-marker related to activity via the reverse analysis of drug metabolism in clinic and traceability of botanic biosynthetic pathways is discovered and validated. Therefore, we proposed a new research strategy of Q-marker of CMM with "Discovery of clinical active constituents as guidance, Reverse analysis of metabolic transformations as link, and Traceability of biosynthesis pathways as key", to improve quality control of CMM products.
Highlights: "Discovery of clinical active constituents as guidance, Reverse analysis of metabolic transformations as link, and Traceability of biosynthesis pathways as key", a new research strategy for discovering quality marker of Chinese materia medica (CMM), promotes quality standard of CMM.
Objective: To investigate the effect of Dingjifumai Decoction (DJFM) on Electrocardiogram (ECG) and sodium potassium pump in rats with ventricular arrhythmia. Methods: Forty healthy male SD rats (200 ± 20g) were randomly divided into blank group, model group, Metoprolol group and DJFM group. Ten rats in each group were fed with normal diet and free drinking water. Each group was given gavage, and the amount of gavage in each group was calculated according to body weight. In the model group, 0.001% Aconitine was injected into the tail vein at 30ug/kg. In the Metoprolol group, Metoprolol suspension was given according to the standard of 5.2mg/kg per day. In the DJFM group, DJFM was given at 17.6g/kg per day. After 2 weeks of administration, the biologic experiment system BL-420F was used to monitor the II lead ECG curve, and the ECG changes were observed and recorded. Then, the left ventricle of the rat was taken, and part of the heart tissue sodium potassium pump was detected. Results: (1) The effect of DJFM on ECG of rats with ventricular arrhythmia: After intravenous injection of aconitine, the incidence of Ventricular Premature beat (VP), Ventricular Tachycardia (VT), Ventricular Fibrillation (VF) in the model group was 100%, suggesting that the model building of rats with ventricular arrhythmia was successful. (2) VP, VT, and VF time: Compared with model group, DJFM group and Metoprolol group can significantly delay the VP, VT and VF, the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). The effect of DJFM group and Metoprolol group on delaying the appearance of VP, VT and VF was the same, there was no significant difference (P > 0.05). (3) The effect of DJFM on sodium potassium pump in rat ventricular arrhythmia heart tissues: Compared with the blank group, the sodium potassium pump value in the model group was significantly decreased, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Compared with the model group, the sodium potassium pump value of the tissues in the Metoprolol group and the DJFM group increased, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in sodium potassium pump between the Metoprolol group and the DJFM group (P > 0.05). Conclusion: 1. The rat model of ventricular arrhythmia can be successfully prepared by intravenous injection of Aconitine. 2. DJFM can prolong the occurrence time of cardiac arrhythmias caused by aconitine in rats, such as VP, VT, VF, et al. The mechanism may be related to fast Na+ channel, and it may prevent and control arrhythmias by inhibiting Na+ influx and reducing the fast response cellular self-discipline. 3. DJFM can protect the myocardial tissue sodium potassium pump, which can protect the myocardial cells and improve the myocardial metabolism.
Highlights In this study, the effects of Dingjifumai Decoction (DJFM) on Electrocardiogram and sodium potassium pump of rats with ventricular arrhythmia were observed, and the effects and mechanism of DJFM on ventricular arrhythmia were discussed. We found that DJFM can prolong the occurrence time of cardiac arrhythmias caused by aconitine in rats, such as VP, VT, VF, et al. The mechanism may be related to fast Na+ channel, and it may prevent and control arrhythmias by inhibiting Na+ influx and reducing the fast response cellular self-discipline. DJFM can protect the myocardial tissue sodium potassium pump, which can protect the myocardial cells and improve the myocardial metabolism
Medical cupping treatment can effectively alleviate metabolic indices and subcutaneous fat thickness at the abdomen in patients with metabolic syndrome and abdominal obesity.
The combination of cupping and Chinese medicine can help prolong the therapeutic effect and reduce the frequency of treatment in the management of metabolic syndrome.
Objective: To observe the clinical effects of medical cupping for metabolic syndrome (MetS) with abdominal obesity. Methods: In total, 75 patients with MetS with abdominal obesity were randomly divided into three groups: medical cupping, acupuncture, and waiting. Patients in the medical cupping group received smearing of Chinese medicine and cupping twice a week for 8 weeks. Patients in the acupuncture group received acupuncture on regulating the Dai meridian three times a week for 8 weeks. The waiting group was observed without any intervention. Changes in metabolic indices, including waist circumference (WC), blood pressure, fasting triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), fasting blood glucose (FBG), 2-h blood glucose (2hBG), and subcutaneous fat thickness were observed and compared before and after treatment among the three groups. Results: After the treatment, the WC, TG, FBG, and 2hBG in the medical cupping and acupuncture groups were lower than those in the waiting group. No difference was observed between the medical cupping and acupuncture groups. The subcutaneous fat thickness at the upper umbilicus, right side of the umbilicus, and waist in the medical cupping and acupuncture groups were lower than those in the waiting group. The subcutaneous fat thickness at the upper umbilicus and waist in the medical cupping group was lower than that in the acupuncture group. The MetS prevalence in the medical cupping and acupuncture groups was lower than that in the waiting group. Conclusion: medical cupping treatment can effectively alleviate metabolic indices and subcutaneous fat thickness at the abdomen in patients with MetS and abdominal obesity and decrease the MetS prevalence. Its efficacy was better than that of waiting and similar to that of acupuncture. The frequency of medical cupping is lower than that of the acupuncture. Meanwhile, it circumvents some patients’ fear of acupuncture. medical cupping should be clinically promoted.
This study shows that cupping therapy is effective in improving disability, stiffness and pain in patients with knee osteoarthritis.
Taking into account the side effects and complications resulted from many anti-inflammatory chemical drugs, cupping therapy is prone to become an effective and safe way for patients with knee osteoarthritis.
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hot intermittent cupping on pain, stiffness and inability of patients with knee osteoarthritis (KO). Methods: The present study was a clinical trial, which was performed on 38 patients with KO referring to Gonabad Rheumatology Specialty Clinic. Based on permutation block method, the research units were divided into cupping therapy and control groups. For the cupping therapy group, four sessions of cupping therapy were performed every four days. To collect data, the form of demographic information, Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and the Western Ontario and McMaster (WOMAC) osteoarthritis scale were used, and the data were analyzed by SPSS software v. 16 using descriptive statistics and independent t-test, paired t-test, Chi-square test and Fishers exact test with a significance level of P < 0.05. Results: Findings showed that there was no significant difference between the cupping therapy and control groups in terms of demographic characteristics and they were homogeneous. Findings indicated that, based on VAS, the mean pain intensity in the left (P < 0.001) and the right knees (P < 0.001), as well as based on WOMAC, stiffness (P = 0.006), pain intensity (P < 0.001) and disability (P < 0.001) in the cupping therapy group significantly decreased compared to the control group. Conclusion: Findings showed that hot intermittent cupping therapy reduced the pain intensity, stiffness and disability in patients with KO.
The three-step acupuncture and cupping method has a beneficial effect in the treatment of cervicogenic headache, which provides rapid benefits, has better short- and long-term efficacy.
Acupuncture and cupping therapy is proven to be effective as an alternative therapy in treating and strengthening the therapeutic effect of other therapeutic methods in the cervicogenic headache management.
Objective: To assess the clinical efficacy and safety of three-step acupuncture and cupping therapy for cervicogenic headache (CEH). Methods: A randomized, single-blind, multi-center, parallel controlled clinical trial was performed, including 63 patients with CEH who met the study criteria. They were randomly divided into treatment (n = 32) and control groups (n = 31). The treatment group was treated with three-step acupuncture and cupping therapy, and the control group was treated with sham acupuncture. The simplified McGill pain scores, comprising three parts: the pain rating index, visual analogue scale score, and present pain intensity, alongside head and neck stiffness and cervical vertebra range of motion, and a safety evaluation were recorded in the two groups before treatment, immediately after the first treatment, after 10 days of treatment, after 20 days of treatment, and 3 months after the end of treatment. Results: Compared with before treatment, the scores at each follow-up time point were significantly improved after treatment; moreover, the treatment group was significantly better than the control group. When the scores at the 3 months follow-up after the end of the treatment were compared with the scores after 20 days of treatment, there were no significant differences in the treatment group while significant differences from the scores of the control group, suggesting that the treatment group had better long-term benefits than the control group. Conclusion: Compared with the sham acupuncture group, the three-step acupuncture and cupping method has a beneficial effect in the treatment of CEH. It provides rapid benefits, has better short- and long-term efficacy than sham acupuncture, and is associated with a low recurrence rate.
The present article analyzes the main treatments used in the therapy of cerebral palsy in children and compares the advantages and disadvantages of various treatments.
Comprehensive treatment strategy containing rehabilitation treatment, drug therapy, stem cell therapy, etc., provides a reference for children with cerebral palsy.
Childhood cerebral palsy (CP) is one of the most serious and common diseases of the central nervous system. It results in high morbidity and treatment cost, and cannot be cured. It has a detrimental effect on families of children with CP, seriously affects the quality of life, causes significant mental stress, and places a great economic burden on society. At present, physical training and drug therapy are mainly used to treat CP in children at home and abroad. However, plentiful evidence has shown that the efficacy of drugs, surgery, and therapies used over the previous decades is limited. The use of more appropriate comprehensive treatment that involves improving the quality of life to social participation is helpful and meaningful for children with CP and their carers. Based on the literature and guidelines from home and abroad, this article analyzes the main treatments used, including rehabilitation treatment, drug therapy, stem cell therapy, surgical treatment, and the treatment of complications, and compares the advantages and disadvantages of various treatments. It provides a reference for patients with CP to help choose treatment methods and a new idea for research on the treatment of CP.
Quercetin self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system promotes apoptosis of SMMC-7721 cells in vitro.
Quercetin self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system inhibits the expression of STAT3 and Survivin in SMMC-7721 cells.
This study describes the role of Quercetin in promoting apoptosis of SMMC-7721. Quercetin self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system can also be used as a drug carrier, which providing ideas for precise treatment.
Objective: To study the mechanism of inhibition of SMMC-7721 liver cancer cells by quercetin self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (Q-SNEDDS) in vitro. Methods: The inhibitory effect of Q-SNEDDS on hepatoma cells was detected by MTT assay. The effect of Q-SNEDDS on apoptosis of hepatoma cells was detected by flow cytometry. The changes of Q-SNEDDS after hepatoma cells were observed by fluorescence microscopy. The effect of Q-SNEDDS on the expression of signal transduction and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and anti-apoptotic factor (survivin) protein in hepatoma cells was examined by Immunohistochemistry. Results: Q-SNEDDS significantly inhibited the proliferation of hepatoma cells in a concentration-dependent manner. After 24 h of Q-SNEDDS treatment, the total apoptosis rate was 25.8%; STAT3 and survivin protein expression was down-regulated in the Q-SNEDDS group. Conclusion: Q-SNEDDS may play a role in inducing apoptosis by inhibiting the expression of STAT3 and survivin proteins.
Network pharmacology is a new science and is becoming a new way for TCM study.
Network pharmacology combines with TCM is a new medical research model.
The network pharmacology approach is capable of describing complex interactions among biological system, drugs, and diseases, such as cancer from a network perspective. It helps us to understand how herbal medicine works on people with cancer and how a new indication of a given herbal formula can be predicted.
Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) emphasizes integrity and systematicity. Chinese Herbal Medicine (CHM) is characterized by multi-component, multi-target, multi-channel complex action. Cancer belongs to polygenic disease, and it is characteristic of complex traits of the disease which is determined by multiple genes. Network pharmacology integrates disease network, drug network, and biological system network, analyzes the interaction among diseases, drugs and specific nodes in the network, and studies the pathogenesis of cancer, the action mechanism of drugs and compatibility principle of prescription. In the field of cancer, by applying concepts and methods of network pharmacology, we are expected to find new type drugs-“biological networks regulatory drug”. It is helpful for individualized treatment, improved prognosis, and therapeutic effect.
The Si-Jun-Zi decoction may exert a therapeutic effect on gastric precancerous lesions by intervening in the mucosal inflammation, cell apoptosis process, and cell proliferation.
Gastric mucosal inflammation has the potential to promote the proliferation of gastric mucosal epithelial cells and inhibit their apoptosis. However, Si-Jun-Zi decoction may exert a therapeutic effect on these process via the multi-target network level.
Objective: To find out the potential mechanisms of Si-Jun-Zi (SJZ) decoction in the treatment of gastric precancerous lesions (GPL). Methods: A network pharmacology approach was used to analyze the active compounds, drug targets and interacting pathways of SJZ decoction in treating GPL. The compounds and predicted targets of SJZ decoction were screened from TCMSP, and the disease targets were obtained from GeneCards. The therapeutic mechanisms of action of the SJZ decoction were analyzed by gene ontology (GO) enrichment, Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes pathway enrichment analyses. Results: The results show that 111 compounds and 90 targets were obtained in this work. These targets were further mapped to 654 GO biological process terms and 21 remarkably pathways. Active compounds, targets, and pathways were used to construct a compound-target network, a target-pathways network, and an integrated GPL pathway. These results indicated that SJZ decoction may treat the dysfunctions of GPL mainly from intervening in the mucosal inflammation, cell apoptosis process, and cell proliferation. Conclusion: This work provided a novel approach to understand the pathogenesis of GPL and revealed the therapeutic mechanisms of SJZ decoction, which facilitate the modernization of herbal medicine for complex diseases in the future.
Network pharmacology is a new discipline based on the theory of systems biology and network analysis of biological systems to design the drugs. It comprehensively observes the intervention and influence of drugs on the disease network, and reveals the mystery of multi-molecular drugs synergistically acting on disease. These concepts reflect the ideas of multi-component, multi-target and system regulation, and have many similarities with the research ideas of traditional Chinese medicine, which focuses on syndrome differentiation and treatment, emphasizes the overall understanding of the etiology and pathogenesis. Network pharmacology can be used to predict and identify the target and active component of traditional herbal medicine, to clarify the mechanism of action, to scientifically explain the rules of the prescription, to explore the rules of real-world prescription, to discover new indications and new active compounds, and to study drug relocation, etc. The applications of network pharmacology in traditional herbal medicine were systematically summarized to demonstrate the significant value in these areas.
This paper proposed a hypothesis that camel milk could be helpful in the treatment of asthma.
Food is a double-edged sword of health. On the one hand, cow milk could lead to the occurence of asthma. On the other hand, camel milk could be used to treat asthma via its effects of immunoregulation, antiinflammation and antioxygenation.
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease with excessive irritability and airway narrowing and inflammation plays an important role in it. There are 300 million asthmatic people in the world currently. Main treatments for asthma include two groups of bronchodilators and inflammation controllers. Researches was continued in order to reach new treatments to reduce drug side effects and treatment-resistant cases or the types associated with weak treatment response. Today, World Health Organization recommends the application of traditional medicine especially in underdeveloped countries because of insufficient health resources and spread of diseases. Iranian traditional medicine (ITM) or Persian medicine is one of the oldest comprehensive traditional medicines with thousands years history which could help us to manage different diseases. The aim of this hypothesis is to investigate the camel milk as a complementary treatment of asthma because this chronic disease is sometimes resistant or response weakly to the treatment. In this article, the administration of camel milk in lung inflammatory diseases was studied by searching the PubMed and Scopus scientific databases. The results of this study indicated that camel milk due to having anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and anti-oxidant effects could decrease the levels of inflammatory factors such as tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-17 (IL-17), IL-6, IL-1B and transforming growth factor-β1 in a human and animal samples with inflammatory diseases. Besides, based on ITM, camel milk was used in treatment patients with asthma. But, clinical studies are needed to validate the effectiveness of camel milk in asthma and its mechanisms.
The research on the dose-effect relationship in Chinese materia medica is delayed due to the complexity of its composition, multi-efficacy, multi-targeting and other factors. Many experts put forward relevant research ideas and methods and worked out more and more research results in literature, experimental and clinical categories because of the progress of statistical methods and scientific and technological means in recent years. In this paper, these results were preliminarily combed to show the basic situation of dose-effect relationship research in Chinese materia medica.
The research on the dose-effect relationship in Chinese materia medica was delayed due to the complexity of its composition, multi-efficacy, multi-targeting and other factors. However, there are more and more research results in literature, experimental and clinical categories because of the progress of statistical methods and scientific and technological means in recent years. This paper aimed to present the current basic situation.
Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of acupuncture for the treatment of mammary gland hyperplasia. Methods: Randomized controlled trials before December 2017 in CNKI, China Biology Medicine disc, Chinese sci-tech periodical full-text database, Wanfang database, Cochrane Library, Pubmed, Embase and Web of Science were searched. The risks were evaluated by two investigators according to the Cochrane Handbook 5.1.0 criteria. Evaluation GeMTC was used for network-meta analysis. Results: A total of 43 articles were included, involving 5531 patients. Network meta-analysis results showed that there were differences in the comparison before and after treatment: acupuncture + Chinese herbal medicine vs acupuncture, acupuncture + Chinese herbal medicine vs Chinese herbal medicine, acupuncture + Chinese herbal medicine v s acupoint embedding, acupuncture + western medicine vs acupuncture, acupuncture + western medicine vs western medicine, acupuncture + western medicine vs Chinese herbal medicine, fire needle vs acupuncture, fire needle vs Chinese herbal medicine, moxibustion vs acupuncture, moxibustion vs Chinese herbal medicine, acupoint embedding line + Chinese herbal medicine vs Chinese herbal medicine, acupoint embedding line + Chinese herbal medicine vs western medicine, acupoint embedding line + Chinese herbal medicine vs acupuncture, acupoint embedding line + Chinese herbal medicine vs acupuncture + Chinese herbal medicine, acupoint embedding line + Chinese herbal medicine vs acupuncture + western medicine, acupoint embedding line + Chinese herbal medicine vs fire needle, acupoint embedding line + Chinese herbal medicine vs fire needle + Chinese herbal medicine, acupoint embedding line Chinese herbal medicine vs electroacupuncture, acupoint embedding line + Chinese herbal medicine vs acupoint embedding line, Acupoint embedding line + Chinese herbal medicine vs ear acupuncture, acupoint embedding line + Chinese herbal medicine vs moxibustion, acupoint embedding line + Chinese herbal medicine vs moxibustion + Chinese herbal medicine. Conclusion:Acupoint embedding + traditional Chinese medicine, acupuncture + western medicine is the best treatment for mammary gland hyperplasia, but the exact conclusion still needs high-quality clinical research to further verify.
Objective: The nursing master’s dissertation were analyzed to understand the situation of theintroduction of foreign language scales. Method: Bibliometric method and content analysis method were used to analyze the introduction of foreign languagescales in the current Chinese nursing master’s dissertation which have been collected from CNKI database and WanFang database before February 1, 2018. Results: The introduction of foreign language scales started late, which was from 2012. In 2013, the foreign scales were most introduced (16.2%). The main source of thesis is from Tianjin Medical University (11.6%). English was the most popular language of the foreign scales (93.8%). 80.2% of researchers did not use translation guides. 31.3% of translators comfort the requirements of the translation guidelines. The introduced scales have good reliability and validity. Conclusion: The number of nursing masters dissertation introducing foreign scales has increased year by year with more sources and high quality. It shows that the academic level of nursing postgraduate student in China has been improved. Postgraduate students have a higher ability to learn foreign nursing knowledge and skills and use foreign nursing research tools. However, the lack of translation guide and the ambiguity of the selection criteria of the translators are widespread.
Network pharmacology breaks through the traditional linear research model and coincides with the complexity of traditional Chinese medicine, provides technical support and new strategy in the research of traditional Chinese medicine.
Objective: To study the relationship between traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) research and network pharmacology. Methods: Discuss the common features of TCM and network pharmacology through the analysis of the characteristics of TCM, the background of network pharmacology, so as better interpretation of TCM and in-depth understanding of TCM research and network pharmacology. Results: Multicomponent and multitarget characteristics of TCM as same as the study thought of network pharmacology. Network pharmacology breaks through the research model of linear and coincides with the complexity of TCM, provides technical support for rational design of TCM formulae, both and a new way in the research of TCM. It becomes a new strategy for modern TCM research. Conclusion: Network pharmacology is an important breakthrough in TCM research, its research promote modernization and internationalization process of TCM conduce to the research and development of TCM and have important significance for the integration of Chinese and Western medicine.
Liuzijue respiratory exercise can better improve lung function, functional capacity, and life quality of COPD patients compared with conventional care. Compared with the whole body respiratory exercise, Liuzijue only improves the functional capacity of COPD.
As early as Qin and Han dynasties, the treatment of pulmonary diseases with guided breathing has already been recorded in the ancient book of Lüshichunqiu (B.C. 239, Warring States).
Objective: To evaluate the effects of Liuzijue respiratory exercise in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Method: Randomly controlled trials of Liuzijue respiratory exercise in the treatment of COPD were searched in the database, including PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, CNKI, Wanfang, CBM, and VIP. Study screening, data extraction, and quality assessment were conducted by two researchers independently. Data were analyzed using RevMan 5.3 software. Results: 11 studies with 915 COPD patients were included. Results of meta-analysis showed that compared with conventional care, Liuzijue respiratory exercise had shown better effects on FEV1 (Forced expiratory volume in 1 second) [MD = 0.18, 95% CI (0.06, 0.30), P = 0.004], FEV1% pred [MD = 10.21, 95% CI (7.25, 13.18), P < 0.001], FEV1 / FVC% (Forced vital capacity) [MD = 8.32, 95% CI (3.23, 13.40), P < 0.001], 6-minute walk distance [MD = 10.97, 95% CI (5.81, 16.12), P < 0.001] and life quality [MD = -10.07, 95% CI (-12.84, -7.30), P < 0.001]. However, no difference was observed in the effective rate between these two groups. Compared with whole body respiratory exercise, except for the better effects on 6-minute walk distance [MD = 37.82, 95% CI (6.51, 69.13), P = 0.02], no difference in FEV1, FEV1% pred, FEV1 / FVC% and life quality were observed between these two groups. Conclusion: Liuzijue respiratory exercise can better improve lung function, functional capacity, and life quality of COPD patients compared with conventional care. Compared with the whole body respiratory exercise, Liuzijue could improve the functional capacity of COPD patients significantly and showed similar effcets on lung function and life quality.
This paper expounds the scientific nature of “the co-treatment of the neck, chest, and waist” from the perspective of traditional Chinese medicine theory and modern medical research.
This review proposes a new approach in cervical diseases in terms of the co-treatment of the neck, chest, and waist, which not only improves clinical efficiency but also decrease recurrence rate.
Cervical diseases are frequently occurring diseases. Currently, the local physical therapy is the most commonly suggested treatment method. We believe that cervical spine lesion cause spinal instability and then the physiological function of the thoracic and lumbar spine is also affected by it. Therefore, the study on cervical lesions should not be limited to the local part of the cervical spine but should extend to the restoration of stability of the spine, to achieve the same curative effects on the chest and waist. Therefore, we propose a new concept for the co-treatment of the neck, chest, and waist. The concept of this proposed therapy is based on three theoretical aspects: syndrome differentiation, disease prevention, and Du meridian and its relationship with other meridians. This was elaborated from the perspective of spinal static balance, anatomy, epidemiological evidence, and biochemistry. The relationship between cervical vertebral lesions and thoracic and lumbar vertebral lesions indicates the scientific nature of the “co-treatment of the neck, chest, and waist”. This article also summarizes the methods of non-drug therapy under the guidance of this theory.
The current study aims at exploring the bioactive molecules in Siddha Polyherbal Nilavembu Kudineer alleviating symptoms of Dengue/ Chikugunya.
Nilavembu Kudineer is one of the thirty-two types of internal medicines described in the ancient Siddha system of medicine in south India which reduces fever and relieves body aches.
Dengue is the most prevalent arthropod-borne viral diseases in terms of morbidity and mortality in the recent decade with the classic symptoms of high fever, headache as well as muscle and joint pain. Nilavembu Kudineer (NK) is one among the 32 types of internal medicines described in the ancient Siddha system of medicine in south India which reduces fever and relieves body aches. NK, a polyherbal formulation made up of eight traditional herbs in equal parts, is also recommended for prevention and management of all types of viral infections including Dengue/Chikugunya. Exploration of bioactive compounds in the plants is the primary step for the standardization and bioactivity screening of plants and formulations. So the current study aims at recording the chemical constituents and medicinal activities of each ingredient of NK. The anti-pyretic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and immunostimulant effects of NK have been attributed to more than one ingredient in NK. The medicinal property of the NK can be also attributed to the combined effect of all phytochemicals present in these eight herbs. The current study encompasses the various chemicals and the activities of individual herbs but a thorough stereoscopic and chromatographic investigation is required to trace out the major phytochemical entities which are retained once the NK is prepared by the traditional methods.
The present computational biomechanical analysis suggest that enhanced lower extremity abduction motion can effectively reduce collapse risk and interrupt the disease pathway of femoral head necrosis deteriorated into osteoarthritis.
Femoral head necrosis is called Gushi, which was first recorded in Huangdineijing published on Xihan Dynasty of China (the third century B.C.). This study provided an unique biomechanical insight into the beneficial effects of lower extremity abduction motion in the treatment of femoral head necrosis.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate biomechanical behavior changes of femoral head necrosis (FHN) by increasing lower extremity abduction (LEA) angle, offering scientific basis on choosing the LEA procedure for the exact classifications. Methods: Thirty computational models were constructed and used to simulate six different abducent angles with five different progresses of FHN. The initial model was validated by the bony density distribution in X-rays images and the photograph of the cadaver bone in cross-section. The stress transfer path (STP) of each model was analyzed and the contact stresses were assessed. Results: During the midstance phase, STP of type A showed strong similarities with the healthy level; STP distribution was from the top of the femoral head to the calcar; the damage area of STP of type B was approximately 25% of the healthy. While STPs in both type C1 and C2 were broken off. As the increase of the abduction angle, STP of type B transformed into type A, STP of type C1 transformed into type B. STP of type C2 transformed into type C1. There was no significant difference in contact stress between the four settings of FHN and normal femoral head. Conclusions: We found computational biomechanical technique to be a sensitive and useful method for distinguishing the biomechanical difference of FHN during abduction gait. These results showed that LEA motion could effectively reduce collapse risk and interrupt the disease pathway of FHN deteriorated into osteoarthritis. Furthermore, our findings indicated that the LEA procedure was suitable for type A, B and C1, while type C2 of FHN involved surgical intervention might get a better clinical outcome.
Thunder-Fire moxibustion with ovulation monitoring significantly improved the pregnancy rate of patients diagnosed with adenomyosis- associated infertility.
Thunder-Fire moxibustion stemmed from the Taoism magic arts before the Yuan Dynasty of China (1271 A.D.-1368 A.D.) and took shape in the middle of the Ming Dynasty of China (1368 A.D.-1644 A.D.).
This study evaluated the clinical efficacy of Thunder-Fire moxibustion combined with ovulation monitoring for the treatment of adenomyosis-associated infertility. A series of 120 patients diagnosed with uterine adenomyosis and infertility and cold coagulation blood stasis syndrome in traditional Chinese medicine (with the clinical manifestations of premenstrual or menstrual lower abdomen cold pain, pain reduction with heat application, and cold extremities) were randomized equally to treatment group with Thunder-Fire moxibustion and ovulation monitoring as well as control group with ovulation monitoring only. Treatment continued for six menstrual cycles. The pregnancy rate of the treatment group was significantly increased with the control group (50.0% vs. 23.3%, P = 0.021). Dysmenorrhea and the traditional Chinese medicine syndrome in the treatment group improved significantly compared with the control group (3.87 ± 2.03 vs. 5.70 ± 1.01, P = 0.002 and 7.33 ± 4.11 vs. 10.52 ± 2.33, P = 0.006, respectively), and there was also significant between-group differences in serum cancer antigen 125 (55.45 ± 14.65 vs. 63.34 ± 11.41, P = 0.031). However, the average uterus diameters in the treatment and control groups were not significantly different (67.13 ± 7.59 vs. 69.89 ± 5.30, P = 0.137). Thunder-Fire moxibustion with ovulation monitoring improved the pregnancy rate of patients diagnosed with adenomyosis-associated infertility.
Highlights: In this paper, various factors related to Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and thyroid cancer, especially papillary thyroid cancer, morbidity and lymph node metastasis, are reviewed concerning recent literature.
Editor’s Summary: In recent decades, it is very high for the incidence of HT and the thyroid cancer rate. This article is more likely that autoimmune thyroid inflammation such as HT is carcinogenic, and thyroid dysfunction related to HT may also promote tumor growth induced by stimulating TSH receptor.
Abstract: In recent years, the incidence of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and thyroid cancer has shown a rapid growth trend. These two diseases have severely affected the public health. Many epidemiological studies have shown that thyroid cancer is often associated with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Hashimoto’s thyroiditis may promote the occurrence of thyroid cancer, as well as affecting the progression of the tumor, lymph node metastasis, and even the prognosis of patients. In this paper, the relationship between Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and thyroid cancer and the pathogenesis of thyroid cancer are reviewed regarding molecular mechanism, clinical pathology, and serology.
As early as 2000 years ago, ancient Chinese medical records had described the relationship between diseases and appearance in detail. Moreover, modern medicine has also constantly studied the relationship between facial features and health in evolutionary terms. It is well known that many hereditary diseases involve certain abnormal facial features and gene mutations. The tumor is also considered as genetic disorder to some extent, so what is the relationship between cancer genetics and congenital development of facial features? Here, we reviewed some clues to the appearance-gene-tumor relation, which might become the targets in the early prevention or gene therapy of cancer in the future. This summary provided us a new strategy for the cancer genetic screening and a new research direction for genetic diagnosis of the potential disease.
As a chronic disease that seriously endangers public health, the number of coronary heart disease (CHD) patients in China has increased in recent years. There is great potentiality to integrate traditional Chinese and Western medicine therapies to prevent and treat CHD in clinical practice. However, most of the current integrated therapies still lack sufficient high-quality evidence, and the key links in how to apply are unclear. It is urgent to optimize them through evidence-based research to further improve the effectiveness. Therefore, we propose strategies to conduct evidence-based optimization of integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine therapies in prevention and treatment of progressive cardiovascular diseases. These are integrated clinical trial design, attention to the key links of taking effect, combination of clinical and basic research. Based on the strategies, we started the national key research and development project "Evidence-based optimization research of TCM therapies in prevention and treatment of CHD (angina pectoris - myocardial infarction - heart failure)", which is expected to be a new paradigm in the field.
Objective: (+)-Clausenamide ((+)-CLA), the active ingredient of wampee, was isolated from the leaves of Clausena lansium (Lour.) Skeels. This study aimed to evaluate the protective potential of (+)-CLA against acetaminophen (APAP)-induced nephrotoxicity in mice. Methods: Mice were divided into control, APAP, high-dose (+)-CLA, and low-dose (+)-CLA groups. Then, mice were preadministered (+)-CLA (50 and 100 mg/kg) for 5 consecutive days. After the last treatment, the animals received a single intraperitoneal injection of APAP (600 mg/kg). Renal histopathology was evaluated by staining with hematoxylin and eosin. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) and the activities of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were determined using corresponding kits. Western blotting was used to analyze the expression of apoptosis-related proteins in renal tissue. Results: Administration of APAP increased serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels in comparison with the control group. An increase in renal MDA level, depletion of GSH, and reductions in CAT and SOD activities in renal tissue indicated that APAP-induced kidney injury was mediated by oxidative stress. The expressions of Bax and caspase-3, cleavage of caspase-3, and cytoplasm cytochrome c levels were up-regulated in renal tissue, whereas Bcl-2 expression and mitochondrial cytochrome c levels were down-regulated in the APAP group, which revealed that APAP-induced kidney injury significantly increased cell apoptosis in renal tubules. The histopathology of kidney tissue supported these biochemical mechanisms. (+)-CLA can reverse changes in most of the abovementioned parameters and nearly restore the normal structure of the kidney. Conclusion: Oxidative stress and apoptosis are considered to be the mechanisms underlying APAP-induced nephrotoxicity. (+)-CLA could be a promising antidote for APAP-induced acute renal damage owing to its antioxidative and antiapoptotic effects.
(+)-Clausenamide ((+)-CLA), an acid amide isolated from the leaves of Clausena lansium (Lour.) Skeels, significantly decreases creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels and increases the antioxidative abilities. The underlying mechanisms of (+)-CLA were involved in improving the antioxidative and antiapoptotic effects. This study provides a basis to clinical application of (+)-CLA.
Objective: Yes Associated Protein (YAP) is a downstream effector that negatively regulated by Hippo kinase LATS1/2. As a transcriptional coactivator, YAP controls the transactivation of variety target genes to promote cell proliferation which is a critical survival input for cancer cells, thus the inhibition of YAP function is a promising strategy to treat cancer patients. The aim of this study was to explore YAP inhibitors derived from natural products using a cell-based YAP-TEADs luciferase reporter assay and investigate the functional activities of the novel inhibitor. Methods: natural compounds were used by 8×GTIIC luciferase reporter assay to screen YAP inhibitor. Phosphorylation of YAP and AMPK were detected by Western Blotting. The target genes of YAP were determined through RT-PCR. Inhibition on HepG2 cells of screened compounds were assessed by the Sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. Results: we found that Shikonin (derived from the traditional Chinese medical herb Zicao (Lithospermum erythrorhizon)) exerted significant suppression against the transcriptional activity of YAP (inhibition ratio=74.3%), accompanied with increased phosphorylation of YAP protein upon within short-exposure to cancer cells. Shikonin treated on HepG2 induced phosphorylation of AMPK. In HepG2 cell lines, Shikonin exhibited a profound cytotoxicity in a concentration manner. Conclusion: our results indicated that the inhibition activity of Shikonin on YAP function was probably due to the activation of AMPK by phosphorylation. Moreover, Shikonin exhibited potent cytotoxicity on cancer cells. In summary, the present study identifies Shikonin as a novel natural inhibitor of YAP function and could be an anti-cancer drug candidate for cancer treatment.
Aberrant activation of YAP, a transcriptional co-activator, would result in the transactivation of target genes, and ultimately leading to the tumor development and malignance. Thus YAP has been regarded as a promising target for cancer therapy; however it has been challenged by the lack of effective inhibitors against YAP activity, particularly those origins from the natural resources. The current study identifies Shikonin, a natural compound derived from the traditional Chinese medical herb Zicao (Lithospermum erythrorhizon), as a potent inhibitor against YAP pathway so as to exert anti-cancer activities. And the YAP inhibitory effect was probably due to the activation of AMPK pathway.
Objective: To investigate the neuroprotective effect of Bu-Shen-Huo-Xue (BSHX) extract, a polyherbal formula, against High Glucose (HG)-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells. Methods: Cell viability assay, Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) assay, Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) detection, Hoechst 33258, Acridine Orange (AO)/Ethidium Bromide (EB) double stain and Mitochondrial Membrane Potential (MMP) assay were performed. In addition, Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-3, cleaved caspase-3, PARP, cleaved PARP, cytochrome c and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases (MAPKs) were detected by western blot. Results: BSHX extract increased cell viability and decreased LDH leakage in a concentration-dependent manner in HG-induced PC12 cells. Moreover, BSHX extract decreased the level of intracellular ROS, increased mitochondrial membrane potential, regulated the expressions of Bax and Bcl-2, and inhibited the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria. Furthermore, BSHX extract attenuated the activation of caspase-3 and PARP, and inhibited the phosphorylations of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 MAPKs. Conclusion: BSHX extract exhibited significant neuroprotective effect on HG-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells. This effect may be associated with the suppression of ROS generation as well as mitochondria-mediated caspase and JNK/p38 MAPK signaling pathways.
High glucose (HG)-induced neurotoxicity is implicated in the pathology of diabetic encephalopathy (DE). In our study, Bu-Shen-Huo-Xue extract (BSHX), a polyherbal formula, exhibits neuroprotective activity on HG-induced PC12 cells and the possible mechanisms may be associated with the suppression of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation as well as mitochondria-mediated caspase and JNK/p38 MAPK signaling pathways. This study provids a promising agent for the treatment of DE in clinical applications.
Objective: To observe the effect of paeoniflorin (PF), albiflorin (AF) on the hemogram, visceral index and hematopoiesis cytokine in the rats of syndrome of stagnation of liver qi and blood deficiency, and to discuss the material base and mechanism of effect of nourishing blood and smoothing the liver of Baishao (Radix Paeoniae Alba). Methods: Male SD rats were randomly divided into groups according to the sucrose preference test and body weight (n = 12). Except the normal control, the other groups were treated with the chronic stress stimulation combined with radiation respectively to establish the model of syndrome of stagnation of liver qi and blood deficiency. The body weight, visceral index and the quantity of Leucocyte, Red Blood Cells, Hemoglobin in peripheral hemogram were monitored, then plasma and serum were separated. Radioimmunoassay was used to analyze the levels of Lnterleukin-3, Granulocyte-macrophage Colony-stimulating Factor, Lnterleukin-6 and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α in plasma. Results: Compared with that of model group, 30 mg?kg-1 PF and 30 mg?kg-1 AF of the weight, spleen index, quantity of Leucocyte were increased significantly (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). The results of Radioimmunoassay showed that the levels of Interleukin-3 increased (P < 0.05, P < 0.05) and the levels of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α decreased in both 30 mg?kg-1 PF and 30 mg?kg-1 AF groups (P < 0.05, P < 0.05). Conclusion: The effect of PF and AF on the regulation of bone marrow hematopoietic system and immune system play a role in the blood of rats with syndrome of stagnation of liver qi and blood deficiency, which suggests that both of them are the main active ingredients of nourishing blood and smoothing the liver of Baishao.
Baishao (Radix Paeoniae Alba), a well-known Chinese herbal, has been widely used in Chinese Medicine for thousands of years. And Paeoniflorin (PF), albiflorin (AF) are the main active ingredients of Baishao. PE and AF can significantly increase the body weight, spleen index, WBC count and IL-3 level in models of Syndrome of Stagnation of Liver Qi and Blood Deficiency. Experimental results show that the effect of PF and AF on the regulation of bone marrow hematopoietic system and immune system play a role in the blood of rats with syndrome of stagnation of liver qi and blood deficiency, which suggests that both of them are the main active ingredients of nourishing blood and smoothing the liver of Baishao.
Objective: To observe the effects of the components of Zhilong Huoxue Tongyu Capsule (ZLHXTY) on the expression of NF-κB-P65 and ICAM-1 in blood vessels of rats, and to explore the effect and mechanism of ZLHXTY and its ingredients on vascular remodeling in hypertension. Methods: A rat model of renal hypertension was established by narrowing the left renal artery in the operation group. The corresponding drugs were given once a day respectively. The Normal group, Sham-operation group and Model group were administered with the same volume of normal saline. After 4 weeks of gavage, the thoracic aorta of rat was taken, followed by fixation, embedding, sectioning and HE staining, and NF-κB -p65 was detected by immunohistochemistry. Results: 1. The effect of drugs on the expression of NF-κB in thoracic aorta of hypertensive rats (immunohistochemistry): A small amount of NF-κB protein was expressed in the Normal group and the Sham-operate group. The NF-κB expression in the Model group was significantly increased, and the electron microscope image showed that the brown-yellow granule was distributed in the vascular smooth muscle of the membrane. After treatment, the expression of NF-κB in the Captopril group and the Whole prescription group was significantly reduced compared with the Model group, while the protein expression in other groups was decreased compared with the Model group. The protein expression of captopril group was decreased compared with that of the Whole prescription group. Compared with Promoting blood circulation for removing blood stasis group, the expression of NF-κB in Benefiting qi group was significantly decreased and was similar to that in Warming meridian group. Conclusion: The vascular remodeling mechanism of ZLHXTY on renal hypertension rats may be related to its effects on lowering blood pressure, antioxidant stress and anti-inflammation. After the compatibility of formula produced a significant synergistic effect, and its compatibility after embodies multiple targets for treatment of advantages of traditional Chinese medicine.
By observing the effect of each component of Zhilong Huoxue Tongyu Capsule （ZLHXTY） on the expression of blood vessel NF-κB -P65 and ICAM-1 in rats, to explore the effect of ZLHXTY and its ingredients on vascular remodeling in hypertension and its mechanism. The experimental results indicate that different components of ZLHXTY exert therapeutic effects on vascular remodeling in hypertensive rats from different aspects. Huangqi (Radix Astragali seu Hedysari) plays an important role in lowering blood pressure. The combination of Guizhi (Ramulus Cinnamomi) and Daxueteng (Caulis Sargentodoxae) has a significant effect on the expression of NF- induced B protein. Shuizhi (Hirudo) and compatibility of Dilong (Lumbricus) can lower blood pressure, the NF-κB protein expression. The synergistic effects of the combination of various components are significant, which reflects the therapeutic advantages of multiple targets of traditional Chinese medicine.
Objective: To systematically evaluate the effectiveness of Kangfuxin Fluid (KFX) in Ulcerative Colitis (UC) with retention enema. Methods: We searched The Cochanrane Library, Pubmed, EMbase, VIP, CNKI, CBM and WanFang Data from inception to December.2017, and retrospectively incorporated into the literature reference. And a systematic review of randomized controlled trials was performed. Meta-analysis was performed with RevMan5.3 software. Results: A total of 18 randomized controlled trials and 1417 patients were enrolled, among which 731 cases were in experimental group and 686 cases were in control group. The meta-analysis results revealed that the effectiveness of KFX on UC with retention enema was significantly superior to the controlled treatment (RR=1.22 95%CI: [1.16,1.27], Z=8.14, p<0.00001). And, the score of quality of life was significantly increased after KFX treatment (MD=11.12, 95% CI [7.00, 15.23], Z=5.30, p<0.00001). Conclusion: KFX on the treatment of UC with retention enema is potentially effective to improve patient's quality of life, and it is worth being popularized clinically. Depth researches and high quality randomized controlled trials on the efficacy of UC are necessary.
Nowadays, the treatment of Ulcerative Colitis remains complex. Kangfuxin Fluid, a kind of Chinese traditional medicine, which efficacy is evaluated in this meta-analysis on the treatment of Ulcerative Colitis with retention enema based on the latest and most available supports. According to those supportive data, Kangfuxin Fluid is potentially affective to improve the treatment of patients with Ulcerative Colitis, and it is worth being popularized clinically. Meanwhile, in-depth researches and high quality randomized controlled trials are still in need. We have systematically reviewed the final vision of the manuscript and plunk for the publication. To the best of our knowledge and belief, this manuscript has not been published in whole or in part nor considered for publication elsewhere.
We summarized the Polyporusus Bellatus (PPS) efficacy of immunomodulation, liver protection and anti-tumor, then provide scientific basis for further research and clinical application. This dissertation first overview relevant literatures of PPS recent years and describe comprehensively the research progress of the immunoregulation, liver protection and anti-tumor effects and mechanism of PPS. The review shows that the PPS play anti-tumor effects through antioxidation, scavenging free radicals, inhibiting tumor cell proliferation, inducing apoptosis, affecting tumor gene expressions and enhancing immune functions. PPS can exert immunoregulatory, hepatoprotective and anti-tumor effects through multiple pathways and multiple targets, which provides a good application prospect in clinic.
Polyporusus Bellatus (PPS) is the major component of Zhuling (Polyporus). This dissertation first overview relevant literatures of PPS recent years. PPS has immunoregulation, liver protection and anti-tumor effect. PPS can exert immunoregulatory, hepatoprotective and anti-tumor effects through multiple pathways and multiple targets, which provides a good application prospect in clinic.
Though no down-regulation effect on blood sugar was observed, astragalus polysaccharide could improve renal tubular interstitial injury in diabetic nephropathy rats and the early stage of renal function damage, which may be related to downregulation of the TGF-β1 and α-SMA.
The application of traditional Chinese medicine in the protection and treatment of the complication of diabetic nephropathy needs further research.
Object:To examine the effect of astragalus polysaccharide (APS) on kidney status and fibrosis indices of rats with diabetic nephropathy. Methods:72 male rats were randomly divided into three groups: negative control group (NC, n = 24); diabetic nephropathy model group (DNM, n = 24); and diabetic nephropathy model with APS group (DNM + APS, n = 24). Rats of the DNM and DNM + APS groups were subjected to both unilateral nephrectomy and administered streptozotocin (STZ) injection (65 mg/kg). DNM + APS group rats were administered 50 IU/kg/d APS by subcutaneous injection from the first week after operation until death. The NC and DNM group rats were subcutaneously injected with an identical volume of physiological saline. At weeks 3, 8, and 13 after the operation, 6 rats from each group were randomly sacrificed and blood was collected to measure serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. On the day before sacrifice, the rats were placed in a metabolic cage for 24 h to collect urine. At week 14 after the operation, 6 rats from each group were randomly selected to measure body weight and kidney index. Blood was collected to measure blood glucose. The kidneys were harvested to detect pathological changes by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Results:Histological assessment of DNM rats suggested damage symptoms as evidenced by hyperplasia of the glomerular mesangial matrix, atrophia of the kidney tubules, and thickening of the basement membrane. In contrast, STZ-induced diabetic nephropathy rats treated with APS (50 IU/kg/d) showed significantly improved histological results, suggesting that APS has beneficial effect on renal tissues in STZ-induced DNM rats. Our results also indicated that APS relieved renal injury and effectively improved body weight in DNM rats. The ratio of kidney weight to body weight was reduced and the early stage of renal function damage was improved after APS treatment. In the later stages of the disease, the 24 h urinary protein significantly decreased. Moreover, APS down-regulated TGF-β1 and α-SMA expression of the kidney.
Highlights The present study demonstrates the reliability of the highly efficient system for screening of active drug molecules with vascular induction function from Chinese medicines and confirmed the vascular induction function of alantolactone.
Editor’s Summary This cell screening model and verification experiment may provide methods for the rapid screening of more drug molecules with vascular induction function from Chinese medicines and verifying the potential of rMSCs to differentiate into blood vessels with suitable stimulants.
Abstract To promote efficient screening of active angiogenic drugs from traditional medicines, we constructed a human embryonic kidney-293 cell model using vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene promoter as the drug target. In this model, VEGF gene promoter may regulate the expression of the luciferase reporter gene by responding to the stimulation of drug molecules. This cell model allows rapid and efficient screening of vascular-inducing active components from several drug monomer molecules. Furthermore, we used rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs) to conduct a preliminary study on the activity of alantolactone. Using simvastatin as a positive control, we investigated the effects of alantolactone on the expression of vascular-related cell marker molecules such as VEGF and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in rMSCs. According to our results, 0.1, 1, 3 and 5 μM of alantolactone upregulated the transcriptional luciferase gene activity of VEGF promoter, and a significant difference from that in the control group was observed. Among them, 3μM of alantolactone showed the better effect than that of 3 μM of simvastatin (P = 0.036) and other concentrations of alantolactone and simvastatin showed similar effects. Compared with that in the control group, rMSCs induced with 1μM alantolactone for 3 days showed a significant increase in the relative mRNA expressions of VEGF and α-SMA genes. However, these effect of 5 μM alantolactone were weaker than those of 5 μM simvastatin (P < 0.05); rMSCs treated with 1 μM alantolactone for 3 days showed brighter green fluorescence (FITC marker) of α-SMA and VEGF in situ expression than that observed in the control group and similar fluorescence intensity than that of simvastatin group in an immunoradiometric assay. The above results demonstrate the reliability of the highly efficient system for screening of active drug molecules and confirmed the vascular induction function of alantolactone at the gene and protein levels.
Highlights This review summaries the recent progress on the main anti-tumor mechanism of Tongguanteng (Marsdenia tenacissima) and its extract.
Editor’s Summary Editor’s Summary Tongguanteng (Marsdenia tenacissima) belongs to the family Asclepiadaceae, which mainly distributed in the Guizhou, Yunnan, Sichuan, and Guangxi provinces of China and other areas in Southeast Asia.
Abstract Tongguanteng (Marsdenia tenacissima), which is mainly distributed in the Yunnan and Guizhou provinces of China, was first recorded in Diannanbencao by Lan Mao of the Ming dynasty of China. According to recent pharmacological studies, the chemical composition of Tongguanteng (Marsdenia tenacissima) is complex and contains C21 steroidal saponins, polysaccharides, alkaloids, and other molecules, which show anti-cancer effects on various tumor cell lines. It inhibits tumor cell proliferation and growth mainly by increasing the expression of apoptosis- and cell cycle-related proteins to promote apoptosis and arrest tumor cells in the G2/M or S phase. Downregulation of the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-2/A and matrix metalloprotease-2/9 suppresses the formation of the tumor microvasculature, leading to tumor malnutrition, increased expression of interleukin-2, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase, and decreased interleukin-10 and malondialdehyde expression, thereby enhancing immunity and antioxidation in the body. Additionally, inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor, hepatocyte growth factor receptor, and tyrosine-protein kinase receptor activation enhances the anti-tumor efficacy of epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors as well as inhibits P-glycoprotein and cytochrome P450 to increase the concentration of anti-tumor drugs in tumor cells.
This review introduced the origin, developing course and modern application of Chinese food therapy in traditional Chinese medicine to enrich our understanding of relevant concepts and ways.
Chinese food therapy, an important part of traditional Chinese medicine. The origins of Chinese food therapy can be traced back to the “Sanhuanwudi” period. It is essential to know Chinese food therapy plays a more important role in clinics and family health care.
Objective: This review introduced the origin, developing course and modern application of Chinese food therapy (CFT) in traditional Chinese medicine to enrich our understanding of relevant concepts and ways. Methods: PubMed, EMBASE, CBM, CNKI, VIP and Wanfang Databases were searched for papers on a range of terms relating to CFT. 41 references were finally selected for this review. Results: The development of CFT is comprised of five important periods in Chinese history. They are as following: the infancy period represented by the idea of homogeny of medicine and food; theoretical development period represented by Inner Canon of Yellow Emperor, Shennong’s Classic of Materia Medica and Treatise on Febrile and Miscellaneous Diseases; specialized volumes on CFT represented by Dietotherapy Worth a Thousand Gold; representative monographs on CFT represented by Dietetic Materia Medica and Principles of Correct Diet and the perfect period represented by integration of ancient food therapy practice and modern nutriology. Conclusion: CFT harbors a long and profound history, making great contribution to people’s health maintenance and illness prevention. With the further development of integrative medicine, CFT may play a more important role in clinics and family health care based on integration of syndrome differentiation and disease differentiation.
This meta-analysis systematically evaluatd the efficacy of mechanical tongue cleaning on halitosis, and showed that treatment combined with mechanical tongue cleaning could reduce risks of halitosis and Winkel Tongue Coating Index.
Mechanical tongue cleaning is effective in reducing volatile sulphur compounds. However, there is insufficient evidence indicate the effective of mechanical tongue cleaning on preventing halitosis. This article found that mechanical tongue cleaning could reduce Winkel Tongue Coating Index and improve improve overall oral health condition.
Objective: To systematically review the effects of mechanical tongue cleaning on halitosis. Methods: Searching and collecting the RCTs about treatment combine with mechanical tongue cleaning from inception to May 2017 in the databases, like CNKI, VIP, WanFang Data, PubMed, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, The Cochrane Library, Web of Science. Two reviewers screened the literatures according to inclusion and excluding criteria, extracted the data independenly, assessed bias risks. In case of disagreement, the discussion shall be settled by the third reviewer. Meta-analysis was conducted by RevMan 5.3. Results: A total of 4 RCTs with 185 volunteers were included. The results of Meta-analysis showed that treatment combine with mechanical tongue cleaning has an advantage over the control group in the levels of Winkel Tongue Coating Index [MD = 2.15, 95%CI(0.93,3.36), = 0.0006], Organoleptic Assessment [MD = -0.71, 95%CI(-0.95,-0.48), <0.00001], but no significant differences between two groups in Volatile Sulphur Compounds [SMD = -1.13, 95%CI(-2.91,0.65), = 0.21], Bleeding On Probing [MD = -1.01, 95%CI(-7.05,5.03), = 0.74]. Conclusion: Treatment combined with mechanical tongue cleaning could reduce risks of halitosis and Winkel Tongue Coating Index.
Objective: We evaluated the protective effects of berberine (BBR) combined with ginsenoside Rb1 (G-Rb1) on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in rats and futher investigated the underlying mechanisms. Methods: Rats were fed an HFD for 6 weeks and then randomly divided into four groups and treated with BBR (50 mg/kg), G-Rb1 (100 mg/kg), BBR (50 mg/kg)+G-Rb1 (100 mg/kg), or fenofibrate (40 mg/kg). Histological examination of liver tissue was performed. In human hepatocellular carcinoma cells HepG2, protein expression of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase was detected by western blotting, and the mRNA expression of carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl coenzyme A reductase was detected by quantitative PCR. Pharmacokinetic assessments included analysis of bioavailability of BBR and G-Rb1 in vivo and G-Rb1 metabolism by intestinal bacteria in vitro. Results: Compared to the single-use group, BBR combined with G-Rb1 significantly ameliorated hepatic fat accumulation in HFD-induced obese rats, as demonstrated by reduced hepatic triglyceride content, and histological evaluation of liver sections. Activation of hepatic AMPK and phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase were significantly elevated in hepatocytes treated with both BBR and G-Rb1. Consistent with the activation of AMPK, the mRNA expression of carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 was stimulated, while the mRNA expression of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl coenzyme A reductase was suppressed. Pharmacokinetic analysis revealed that BBR increased the bioavailability of G-Rb1 in Sprague-Dawley rats. Additionally, BBR prevented degradation of G-Rb1 in fecal solution in vitro. Conclusion: BBR combined with G-Rb1 improved NAFLD through the AMPK signaling pathway, and BBR enhanced G-Rb1 bioavailability via promoting the intestinal absorption of G-Rb1. This combination may be a useful therapeutic agent for NAFLD.
This review recommends an integrative approach of acupuncture in combination with other therapeutic strategies in the weight management of women with obesity and the treatment of adiposity-incurred illnesses.
This literature review analyses 25 clinical studies, involving 2407 participants aged 13-65 in Africa, Asia, the Middle East, and North America, offering recommendations for the reliability and validity of acupuncture in the treatment of women’s obesity and adiposity-incurred illnesses.
In addition to higher risks of various obstetric and gynaecological illnesses among women with obesity or who are overweight, maternal adiposity threatens the lifetime health of their offspring. Diverse treatments are provided, including complementary and alternative medicine such as Chinese medical practices. Acupuncture, a traditional Chinese medicinal method, is increasingly being applied to this health problem. This literature review analyses 25 clinical studies, involving 2407 participants aged 13-65 in Africa, Asia, the Middle East and North America. This illustrates the use of acupuncture alone or with other approaches to control body weight, obesity-induced diseases, and gynaecological health. Although positive indicators are presented, this study offers recommendations for enhancing reliability and validity in further research. It therefore suggests the use of acupuncture in dealing with obesity due to its efficacy, and economic and safety benefits.
When combines with the deep breathing method, Tai Chi training achieves better therapeutic effect on international students with depression or depression tendency.
Taijiquankaoxinlu (2006, A.D.) pointed out that practitioners who combined Qi (the flow of internal energy) and Yi (thought) was getting better. It means that Tai Chi can integrate deep breathing with body movements to achieve the better effects in treatment of psychological diseases.
Objective:To evaluate the effect of different training methods of Tai Chi on Chinese medicine constitution of international students with depression or depression tendency. Methods: Thirty-eight Africa international students were randomly divided into the physical exercise group who receiving the simple physical exercise of simplified 24-form Tai Chi (physical exercise group) and the breathing group who receiving both deep breathing method plus simple physical exercise (breathing group). The average scores of Chinese medicine gentleness and various biased constitutional types in the two groups were compared. Results: The average score of thirty-eight students with biased constitution in both groups decreased significantly compared with that before training (P < 0.05). Compared with that before training, the average scores of biased constitutional types in the breathing group, including Qi deficiency, Yang deficiency, phlegm-dampness and Qi stagnation, were significantly decreased (P < 0.05). The average scores of Yang deficiency, blood stasis and Qi stagnation constitutional types of students in simple physical group after training were also significantly decreased after training (P < 0.05). Moreover, the average scores of biased constitutional types, including Qi deficiency, Yang deficiency, Yin deficiency, phlegm and dampness, Qi-stagnation, in the breathing group were significantly lower than those of the simple exercise group, suggesting the superior therapeutic effect of breathing training method (P < 0.01). Conclusion: When combines with the deep breathing method, Tai Chi training achieves better effect on improving the biased constitutional types which may be related to depression or depression tendency, including Qi deficiency, Yang deficiency, Yin deficiency, phlegm and dampness, Qi-stagnation.
Besides the well-known components which possess the glucocorticoids-like anti-inflammatory effect of Chinese herb Gancao (Radix Glycyrrhizae), there are still other components which possess the NSAIDs-like anti-inflammatory effect and their underling mechanism is related to the inhibition on COX-2.
Chinese herb Gancao (Radix Glycyrrhizae) possesses both the steroid-like and non-steroid anti- inflammatory effects, which reflects the multi- targets characteristics of the role of Chinese herb in the treatment of disease.
Objective: To explore the molecular basis of the effects of Gancao (Radix Glycyrrhizae, GC) on inflammation through the inhibition of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2). Methods: The Discovery Studio 4.5 System was used to predict the physicochemical properties of GC molecular compounds. The Ligand Profiler was used to screen for natural GC components that could combine with the COX-2 pharmacophores. The AutoDock Vina 1.1.2 software was used for the molecular docking of the natural GC components with the COX-2 protein. Results: The aromatics were the closest to the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in terms of the three properties, namely molecular weight, molecular surface area, and molecular solubility, followed by the flavonoids; whereas the terpenoids/saponins differed most from the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in terms of the three properties; and the aliphatics were inconsistent. One hundred and eighteen small molecules were obtained through the pharmacophore screening using GC. The molecular binding energy (MBE) results demonstrated that the MBE value of the flavonoids/aromatics, obtained from their binding with the COX-2 protein, was lower than that obtained from their binding with the substrate, metabolism of arachidonic acid, whereas the MBE value of the aliphatics/terpenoids, obtained from their binding with the COX-2 protein, was higher than that obtained from their binding with the substrate, arachidonic acid. Finally, further filtration, based on the physicochemical properties and the molecular binding energies of the small molecules, was carried out. Forty-two natural GC components, including 35 flavonoid and 7 aromatic constituents, with low binding energies and potential inhibitory effects on COX-2, were screened. Conclusion: Using the three-step program, pharmacophore screening, molecular docking, and physicochemical properties analysis, we screened out 35 flavonoid molecules and 7 aromatic molecules, which may be potential COX-2 inhibitors, from GC. Two of the 35 flavonoid molecules (licochalcone A and glabridin) have been confirmed in the laboratory to have inhibitory effects on COX-2. Our findings provide a material basis for the development of non-steroidal GC drugs.
The current study found that the polysaccharide extract of Daji (Cirsium japonicum) have a favorable therapeutic effect against oxidative stress and the underlying mechanism might be involved with MAPK pathway.
Daji (Cirsium japonicum) have been traditionally utilized by the Tibetan and Mongolian people since the Tang Dynasty of China (618 A.D. - 907 A.D.).
Daji (Cirsium japonicum) has been applied against gastric disorders, lung diseases, and cardiovascular problems in the traditional Chinese medicinal system. The present study was to investigate the protective effects of Daji (Cirsium japonicum) polysaccharide extracts (CJP) against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) shock in rat H9c2 myocardial cells. First, CJP was isolated by hot water extraction and ethanol precipitation; it was then characterized by high performance liquid chromatography and infrared spectrum analysis. Rat H9c2 cells were subjected to H2O2 treatment to establish a cell injury model. The 3- (4,5- dimethylthiazol- 2-yl)-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay showed that CJP pretreatment significantly ameliorated the H2O2 injury in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the cell apoptosis induced by H2O2 was markedly inhibited by CJP pretreatment, whereas the cleavage level of caspase-3, -8, and -9 was reduced. In addition, the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway might be involved in the protective effect of CJP on myocardial cells. Therefore, we conclude that polysaccharide extracts of Daji (Cirsium japonicum) protect rat H9c2 myocardial cells from oxidative stress induced by H2O2.
Banxia (Pinellia Ternate) and Huanglian (Coptis chinensis) drug pair has dual-directional regulatory effects on gastrointestinal movement in mice with atropine or neostigmine induced functional dyspepsia by modulating GAS, VIP, and SS levels in the intestine.
Banxia (Pinellia ternata) and Huanglian (Coptis chinensis) drug pair was derived from Banxiaxiexin soup, which was first recorded in the Shanghanlun composed by Zhang Zhongjing in the third century (Eastern Han Dynasty of China).
Objective: To evaluate the regulatory effects of Banxia (Pinellia ternata, P) and Huanglian (Coptis chinensis, C) drug pair, derived from Banxiaxiexin soup, on the gastrointestinal movement of mice with functional dyspepsia. Methods: Mice were treated with different proportions of the P and C drug pair (1:1, 3:1, and 4:1) for 10 days, and subsequently injected with atropine (ATR) or neostigmine (NEO). The effects of the different proportions of P and C were evaluated based on the alvine advance rate. In addition, we used the same modeling method used in the first experiment and administered P: C at ratio of 3:1 and at different doses respectively (4.68 g/L, 2.34 g/L, and 1.17 g/L), and tested levels of the gastrointestinal hormones, gastrin (GAS), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), and somatostatin (SS) in the small intestinal tissue using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: In the groups of NEO-induced mice, P:C at ratios of 1:1, 3:1, and 4:1 significantly reduced the alvine advance rate compared with the NEO model group (P = 0.003, P = 0.012 and P = 0.021, respectively). In the groups of ATR-induced mice, only P:1 at ratio of 3:1 significantly increased the alvine advance rate compared with the ATR model group (P = 0.007). After exposure to P: C at ratio of 3:1 and at different dose, the GAS level was lower in the low-, medium-, and high-dose NEO groups than that in the NEO model group (P = 0.001, P = 0.004, and P = 0.003, respectively). The VIP levels were higher in the medium-and high-dose NEO groups than that in the NEO model group (P = 0.004 and P = 0.002, respectively). In addition, the SS level increased in the NEO medium-dose group compared with that in the NEO model group (P = 0.002). The GAS level was higher in the ATR medium- and high-dose groups than in the ATR model group (P = 0.007 and P = 0.021, respectively). The VIP level was lower in the ATR low-, medium-, and high-dose than that in the ATR model group (P = 0.001, P = 0.001, and P = 0.001, respectively). Furthermore, the SS level was lower in the ATR medium- and high-dose groups than that in the ATR model group (P = 0.001 and P = 0.006). Conclusion: The PC drug pair bidirectionally adjusted the NEO- and ATR-induced functional dyspepsia in mice by modulating GAS, VIP, and SS levels in the intestine.
Objective:Antrodia camphorata (AC), a precious medicinal mushroom in Taiwan, is popularly used for adjuvant cancer therapy. This paper aims to clarify the metabolites which are present in tumor tissues after oral administration of AC in Sarcoma-180 tumor-bearing mice, as well as their contents in tumors. Methods:Tumors of Sarcoma-180 tumor-bearing mice were obtained at 1 h and 4 h after oral administration of AC extract, and the metabolites in the tumor homogenate samples were characterized using UHPLC-orbitrap/MS analysis. Then, a fully validated LC-MS/MS method was developed for quantitative analysis of the most abundant compounds in tumor tissues, namely (25R/S)-antcin H. Results:A total of 33 compounds were characterized in tumor homogenate samples including 28 prototypes of triterpenoids and 5 metabolites. Among them, (25R)-antcin H and (25S)-antcin H had the highest contents of 2.03 and 0.66 μg/g tumor tissues for the 1 h group, and 2.04 and 0.59 μg/g tumor tissues for the 4 h group, respectively. It was obvious that (25R)-antcin H had higher tumor affinity than (25S)-antcin H, since the content of (25R)-antcin H was lower than that of (25S)-antcin H in AC extract (P < 0.01). Conclusion:Triterpenoids can enter tumor tissues after oral administration of AC. Particularly, (25R)-antcin H showed higher exposure to tumor than (25S)-antcin H. These compounds could contribute to the anticancer activities of AC.
Metabolites of Antrodia camphorata in mice tumor tissues were profiled by UHPLC-orbitrap/MS analysis for the first time after oral administration, and a total of 33 compounds were characterized. The most abundant compounds in tumor tissues, namely (25R)-antcin H and (25S)-antcin H, were quantified by a fully validated LC-MS/MS method. The results indicated that (25R)-antcin H had higher tumor affinity than (25S)-antcin H.
Objective:The objective of this study is to evaluate the clinical efficacy of Xiaoyao Jieyu prescription (XJP) in the treatment of persistent postural-perceptual dizziness (PPPD). Methods:A total of 33 PPPD patients were randomly divided into test group and control group. Two groups of patients were given psychological treatment. The test group was given XJP and the control group was given escitalopram. The course of treatment was 12 weeks. Before and after 4 weeks and 8 weeks and 12 weeks, the dizziness handicap inventory (DHI), Hamilton anxiety scale (HAMA) and Hamilton Depression scale (HAMD) were used to evaluate the treatment effect. Results:The total scores of HAMA, HAMD, DHI and the respective factor scores of DHI significantly decreased in both groups after 4 weeks of treatment compared with those before the treatment (P < 0.01). The DHI scores and the score of function, physiology at 8-week, 12-week, as well as the HAMA and HAMD scores at 4-week, 8-week, 12-week in the test group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P < 0.05). The incidence of adverse reactions in the test group was significantly lower than the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusion:XJP can improve the clinical symptoms of patients with PPPD. It can both improve the physical and functional symptoms of PPPD and reduce anxiety and depression. In the course of treatment, the adverse reaction of the prescription is less and mild. It has the advantages of high efficiency, safety, low price and easy access to materials.
Persistent postural-perceptual dizziness is a new disease name. It was proposed by Stabb and Ruckenstein on the basis of chronic subjective dizziness and phobic postural vertigo in 2014. At present, the main treatment methods of PPPD is psychotherapy, vestibular balanced rehabilitation and drug therapy, but each method has its limitations. Xiaoyao Jieyu prescription was adjusted on the basis of the ancient formula “Xiaoyao San”. It can improve the clinical symptoms of patients with PPPD, which has the advantages of high efficiency, safety, low price and easy access to materials.
Intracranial vascular stenosis is closely related to transient ischemic attack (TIA) and cerebral infarction, early prevention and treatment of intracranial vascular stenosis can prevent cerebral infarction and improve the prognosis of stroke. Western medicine employs interventional surgery or vasodilator, antiplatelet drugs, lipid lowering drugs, plaque-stabilizing agents and other drugs for treating intracranial vascular stenosis. No corresponding disease name with “intracranial vascular stenosis” is found in Chinese medicine literature. Based on the characteristics of syndromes, symptoms and diseases, “intracranial vascular stenosis” is summarized as weakened body resistance and prevailed pathogenic factors, phlegm with blood stasis and “obstruction (Bi) syndrome” in the brain. The self-made Chinese herbal “Naomaitong” prescription treating for bilateral middle cerebral artery stenosis in 1 case got satisfactory efficacy by transcranial doppler (TCD) and computed tomography angiography (CTA) examination.
“Intracranial vascular stenosis” has no corresponding name in Chinese medicine literature. The writer summarized it as vessel impediment which location was in the brain with weakened body resistance and pathogenic stagnation, phlegm with blood stasis, based on the characteristics of its symptoms, syndromes and disease. The present study suggested the self-made Chinese herb “Naomaitong” prescription treating for bilateral middle cerebral artery stenosis can get satisfactory effect in clinic.
Objective: To assess the efficacy and safety of acupuncture for hyperlipidemia in adults. Methods: We searched electronic databases, including PubMed, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, CBM, CNKI, and VIP. All included studies were assessed in terms of quality and risk bias. The Review Manager 5.3.3 software was used for the data analyses, and the GRADE profiler software was applied to classify the systematic review results. Results: Seventeen studies were identified (n = 1,408). Acupuncture (electro-acupuncture or magnetic needle) was equally as effective as sham treatment (needle acupuncture) (relative risk [RR], 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.72-1.24). Acupuncture (needle acupuncture, electro-acupuncture, moxibustion, and acupoint catgut embedding) was as effective as statin therapy (RR 0.10; 95%CI, 0.97-1.24). Acupuncture was as effective as Chinese herbal preparations (electro-acupuncture and auricular acupoint) (RR, 0.97; 95%CI, 0.89-1.06). However, insufficient evidence was available to demonstrate whether acupressure was effective compared with acupuncture plus other treatments (RR, 1.04; 95%CI, 0.87-1.25). Conclusion: Acupuncture may improve hyperlipidemia levels. However, additional large, properly randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind studies are required.
1. This manuscript has not been published or submitted elsewhere, in whole or in part.2. Comprehensive and systematic study using the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of acupuncture therapy for hyperlipidaemia in adults.3. GRADE profiler software was applied to classify the systematic review quality of evidence.4. We found limited evidence to suggest that acupressure decreased TC, LDL-C, and increased HDL-C compared with either placebo or sham acupuncture.5. Acupuncture may increase total effective rate when compared against pravastatin, but no difference in total effective rate when compared against simvastatin and atorvastatin.6. Acupressure may increase HDL-C to a greater degree than statin treatment, but there was no statistical difference.
Objective:To systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety of Yiyiren Decoction combined with western medicine and western medicine alone in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Methods:Databases of CNKI, VIP, Wanfang Data, PubMed, Medline, Cochrane Library, and Embase were retrieved by computers. The references of the included studies, relevant dissertations, and conference proceedings were manually retrieved. The search intervals were from the database inception until July 2017. The retrieval and screening of studies were carried out respectively by 2 researchers, and the quality and data were evaluated and extracted according to Jadad quality scale. Meta-analysis was performed with RevMan5.3 software. Results:(1) A total of 7 randomized controlled trials and 485 patients were enrolled, among which 262 cases were in experimental group and 223 cases were in control group. The point of 2 studies was 3, other studies were 1-2. The studies included indicated that the group baselines were comparable. (2)The total effective rate of Yiyiren Decoction with western medicine group was higher than that of western medicine group (RR = 0.85, 95%CI [0.78, 0.92]. Improved Conditions of tender joint count (MD = -2.79, 95%CI [-3.47, -2.12]); erythrocyte sedimentation rate (MD = -9.5, 95%CI [15.67, -3.33]); and C-reactive protein (MD = -3.36, 95%CI [-5.45, -1.27]) were superior to control group. There was no significant difference on the side effects of drugs and the rheumatoid factor between the two groups. Conclusion:Yiyiren Decoction with western medicine had advantages in alleviating clinical symptoms and laboratory index of rheumatoid arthritis patients. While, the quality of included studies was low and possible publication bias was present, further multi-center double-blind randomized control trials with larger sample are needed.
The article systematically evaluated the efficacy and safety of Yiyiren Decoction combined with western medicine and western medicine alone in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. The results of this meta-analysis showed that Yiyiren Decoction combined with western medicine had certain advantages over the clinical symptoms and laboratory indicators of rheumatoid arthritis.
Atrial fibrillation is of public health importance and profoundly increases morbidity, mortality and health-related expenditures. Morbidities include the increased risks of cardiovascular outcomes such as heart failure and stroke, and the deleterious effects on quality of life, functional status and cognition. Our purpose is to understand the molecular mechanism of atrial fibrillation, a model under pathological conditions should be established. Acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter in the vagus nerve, has been established with numerous atrial fibrillation models. We will discuss the established model of atrial fibrillation which induced by acetylcholine, aiming to seek a model which are more close to the clinical condition. The underlying mechanisms will be discussed in order to observe the mechanism of antiarrhythmic drugs.
Acetylcholine as a neurotransmitter of the vagus nerve which plays an important role in the occurrence and maintenance of atrial fibrillation, is important in basic researches. The acetylcholine is another novel candidate target for atrial-specific drug therapy. The constitutively active form of this current increased in human atrial fibrillation and pharmacological inhibition might be of therapeutic value.
Alzheimer’s disease as one of the neurodegenerative diseases, its pathological mechanisms still remains unclear. There’s evidence that diabetes is associated with Alzheimer’s disease. However, the fundamental cause of diabetes is abnormal glucose metabolism. There may be an inseparable relationship between glucose metabolism regulating hormones and Alzheimer’s disease. Here, we review the studies that connect the glucose metabolism regulating hormones to Alzheimer’s disease, and that suggest the quality of Alzheimer’s patients is improved by regulating glucose metabolism.
This article reviews the studies that connect the glucose metabolism regulating hormones to Alzheimer’s disease, and that suggest the quality of Alzheimer’s patients is improved by regulating glucose metabolism. Because there are a substantial epidemiological studies that have established clearly association between metabolic and neurodegenerative disorders in general, and it has also been found that the pathologic changes of insulin resistance and glucose metabolism disorder in AD are similar with that in diabetes, it is promising to find a new pathway to consider the research strategy on exploring the nootropics candidates rooting in herbal medicine and its formula.
Objective: This meta-analysis evaluated the efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) combined with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and/or angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARBs)for treatment of incipient diabetic nephropathy(IDN). Methods: Nine data bases were searched for randomized controlled trials of Chinese herbal medicine(CHM) and ACEI/ARB for treatment of IDN. Included articles were published between January2006 and December 2016. All studies were divided into prescriptions containing both Astragali Radix and Rehmanniae Radix (i subgroup), Astragali Radix(Huangqi) or Rehmanniae Radix(Dihuang) (ii subgroup), neither Astragali Radix nor Rehmanniae Radix (iii subgroup). Review Manager 5.3was used for subgroup analysis. Results: In total, 28 RCTs with 2017 patients were included. The results showed 1)the urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) can be reduced significantly using CHM with ACEI or ARB for treatment of IDN compared to ACEI or ARB alone, and reduction of the UAER of the i subgroup was superior to that of the other two subgroups;2)serum creatinine (Scr) levels can be reduced significantly using CHM combined with ACEI or ARB, and reduction of Scr in the ii subgroup was superior to that in the iii subgroup;3)reduction of BUN in group A was not better than that in group B. Conclusion: In summary, CHMs combined with ACEI/ARB can decrease UAER and Scr significantly compared to the use of ACEI/ARB during IDN treatment. The effect was more significant in the CHM group containing Astragali Radix or Rehmanniae Radix. The application of Astragali Radix and Rehmanniae Radix should be emphasized in third stage diabetic nephropathy.
Objective: To explore and identify the concept of adherence in the context of cardiac rehabilitation. This concept analysis will provide a framework for clinical decision-making and intervention to improve patients’ adherence to cardiac rehabilitation programme. Method: Walker and Avant’s framework was used to analysis the concept of adherence. Results: Adherence is defined as patients collaboration with health care provider, active involvement in the treatment regimen, and persistence in practice characterized by self-efficacy and relapse-prevention. Defining Attributes of adherence include collaboration relationship; self-efficacy promotion and relapse-prevention. Antecedents of adherence include health care provider’s prescription, illness perceptions, social-economic and environmental factors. Patients adherence to cardiac rehabilitation programme can improve clinical outcomes. However, there is no standard instrument to measure adherence. Conclusion:Based on the concept analysis, in order to improve patients’ adherence to cardiac rehabilitation, health care provider should invite patients active involvement in making rehabilitation plan and promote patients’ self-efficacy and prevention relapse.
Objective: To explore and analyze the concept of intensive care unit (ICU) delirium. Method: Walker and Avant’s strategy of analysis was adopted to this research. Results: ICU delirium is defined as the presence of an acute cognitive impairment, accompanied by a disturbance of consciousness with fluctuating inattention, and the array of dysfunctions only developed for a short period of time in ICU. The antecedents of ICU delirium include (1) the high severity of illness, (2) pain, (3) sedative use, (4) immobilization, (5) sleep deprivation and (6) unpleasant awareness. The consequences involve (1) promoting the risks of self-extubation and unplanned removal of catheters, (2) prolonging the length of ICU stay, (3) increasing the mortality of critical patients and (4) Some different ICU delirium assessment instruments are gathered. Confusion Assessment Method for Intensive Care Unit assessment tool (CAM-ICU) was the most popular diagnostic tool used by nurses. Conclusion: Concept analysis as an extension and development of nursing theory can create a linkage between practice and theory. It will create a knowledge foundation of ICU delirium and provide a theoretical basis to construct nursing theory. This study can help ICU nurses to understand and recognize ICU delirium. ICU nurses will be enlightened to develop effective interventions of ICU delirium to improve critical patients’ clinical outcomes.
This study identifiedthe attributes of ICU delirium emerged from a number of literature: acute cognitive impairment, acute disturbance of consciousness, fluctuating inattention, and developed for a short period of time.The presentation of a model case and a contrary case has shown the differences related to attributes between effective or invalid ICU delirium.
Though a growing number of research publications made great contributions to understand ICU delirium, serious under-recognized issues still remain in healthcare providers globally. This study carry out an assessment, a professional judgment, and a concept analysis of ICU delirium.
Objective: To identify and clarify the existing definitions of quality of life in head and neck cancer survivors. This concept analysis will inform healthcare professionals of promoting nursing care for head and neck cancer survivors and eventually improve their quality of life. Method: Concept analysis based on Walker and Avant’s framework. Results: Quality of life is a subjective and personally derived cognitive evaluation of global well-being by perceiving a feeling of overall life satisfaction in his/her own value, happiness, and the independence to manage daily activities and life experience. Three defining attributes for quality of life were identified: a feeling of overall life satisfaction in his/her value, global personal well-being, and independence. An improvement of quality of life means an improvement of clinical outcome. However, the variety of instruments for measuring life quality makes it difficult for healthcare professionals to select a standard one for head and neck cancer survivors. Conclusion: By proposing a comprehensive definition of the concept, this analysis contributes to the advancement of knowledge about quality of life in the context of head and neck cancer survivorship. Through a sound understanding of the phenomenon, healthcare professions will recognize or measure head and neck cancer survivors’ life conditions in a more accurate way and to implement intervention where necessary, eventually, improve patients’ life quality in survivorship.
Objectives: The aim of this paper is to analyse the concept of coping in the cancer context. This concept analysis will provide a theoretical framework for oncology nurses to help patients cope with the influences of cancer and adapt to their new situations. Methods: The concept analysis of coping was conducted according to Walker and Avant's method. Results: Coping is defined as a process of dealing with stressful events by means of cognitive appraisal, purposeful efforts, and use of available supports and resources in order to achieve physiological and psychological adjustment. Antecedents to coping involve stressful events, individual personality, individual experience, and available supports and resources. Different coping strategies based on patients’ responses to suffering from cancer bring about positive or negative results. Effective coping means being well-adapted, which is conducive to patients’ health and optimum quality of life. Roy’s middle range theory of coping and adaptation processing provides a theoretical framework for the study of coping.The Mental Adjustment to Cancer scale and the 15-item Coping and Adaptation Processing Scale are considered practical and effectual instruments to measure coping in the cancer context. Conclusions: This concept analysis contributes to understanding the process of coping with cancer. Oncology nurses should identify cancer patients’ coping patterns, provide timely and proper professional support and educate effective coping strategies in order to help patients adapt to their new situations both physiologically and psychologically.
Background:Slow arrhythmia, a common clinical condition, has a higher incidence in the elderly population. Shenxian Shengmai Oral Liquid has been shown to improve the symptoms of patients with slow arrhythmia in many clinical studies and systematic reviews. Sixty participants with slow arrhythmia will be randomized to treatment group (Shenxian Shengmai Oral Liquid) and control group (Shenxian Shengmai Oral Liquid Placebo) in a 2:1 ratio. This clinical trial is a pilot study to compare the effects of Shenxian Shengmai Oral Liquid and the control groups; to analyze the effect of Shenxian Shengmai Oral Liquid for slow arrhythmia.
1.This is the clinical trial plan of oral liquid of Chinese medicine for the treatment of slow arrhythmia.2.This study is a pilot study. Sixty patients with slow arrhythmia were randomly divided into observation group (40 cases) and control group (20 cases) to explore the safety and effectiveness of Shenxian Shengmai Oral Liquid.3.The study will be a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.
Objective: To establish a simple, effective and high-purity primary culture method for fetal rat hippocampal neurons. Methods: Wistar rats of gestational age 18 days were taken and the brain tissue was separated under the microscope. Single neuronal cells were obtained by digestion with Brain Dissociation Kit, and then were seeded in cell plates to observe the basic morphologic structure after 24h, 3d, and 5d. Immunofluorescence of microtubule associated protein 2 was applied to assess cell purity of the culture. Results: The hippocampal neurons obtained in this culture method are in good condition and grow vigorously. On the 7th day after culture, the purity of neurons was up to 99.62%. Conclusion: The method is simple and effective for obtaining the high-purity and stable neurons.
This report reviews the etiology, pathogenesis, treatment, and prevention of recurrent miscarriage discussed in the traditional Chinese medicine literature and lists the pharmacological studies that evaluated traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions for recurrent miscarriage.
The first cases of recurrent miscarriage as a fertility abnormality were reported in Chanjing, written during the Nanbei Dynasty of China (420 A.D. - 589 A.D.).
Recurrent miscarriage (RM) as a gynecological disorder was recognized by traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) practitioners long before the age of modern medicine. TCM physicians reported and recorded RM in the canonical TCM literature, which dates back more than 1500 years. The first cases of RM as a fertility abnormality were reported in Chanjing, which was written during the Nanbei Dynasty of China (420 A.D. - 589 A.D.). Some prescriptions for the treatment of RM are still actively used by modern TCM practitioners. In addition, many recent pharmacological and clinical studies have focused on the TCM therapy for RM. To identify the new therapeutic targets for RM and further promote the interest in treating RM with TCM, we reviewed the etiology, pathogenesis, treatment, and prevention of RM discussed both in the TCM literature and in contemporary pharmacological and clinical studies.
This article summarizes the application of Chinese medicines and their mechanisms of action in the treatment of diabetic retinopathy.
More and more Chinese formulaes have been used by China FDA for the prevention and treatment of diabetic retinopathy. And their mechanisms of action have gained increasing attention around the world.
Diabetic retinopathy is one of the main causes of visual impairment and blindness on a global scale. At present, the limitations of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents, steroids, laser photocoagulation, and vitreous surgery have led to a growing awareness of the role of Chinese medicines in the treatment of diabetic retinopathy. This review first describes the ingredients and characteristics of the formulae including Chinese herbal formulaes, Chinese patent drugs and ancient processed drugs and summarizes the application of Chinese medicines and their mechanisms of action in the treatment of diabetic retinopathy. Due to the complexity of Chinese medicines, in-depth mechanisms, side effects of herb, and drug interactions need to be elaborated in future research. Chinese medicines have the potencial to protect the residual eyesight and delay the progression of disease, thereby offering a beneficial, exploitable option in the treatment/prevention of diabetic retinopathy.
The proceeding of cancer development seems to be driven by the complex interaction among cells, stroma and adjacent tissue. Here we advocate a new conception, cancer field, to describe the development of cancer, a complex adaptive system. Cancer field may be divided into center of tumor, periphery of tumor and adjacent tissue. The balance of inhibitors and inducers, including the interaction among cancer cells, niche and adjacent tissue, governs the switch of development of cancer field, which mimic embryonic development, a dynamic process of self-organization. The radial component of intra-tumor heterogeneity raises the field change effects in cancer field. Research strategy may be changed from single cancer cell to cancer field, from malignant transform to cancer development biology. Highlights：The proceeding of cancer development seems to be driven by the complex interaction among cells, stroma and adjacent tissue. Here we advocate a new conception, cancer field, to describe the development of cancer, a complex adaptive system. Editor’s Summary：The radial component of intra-tumor heterogeneity raises the field change effects in cancer field. Research strategy may be changed from single cancer cell to cancer field, from malignant transform to cancer development biology.
Pancreatic cancer is among the most lethal malignancies resistant to conventional therapies. The urgent need for new therapies has turned the spotlights on immunotherapy. In recent years, a growing body of evidence has already been gathered regarding the efficacy of genetic engineering modified T-cells, checkpoint inhibitors of T-cells, killer cells induced by dendritic cells and cytokine in patients with pancreatic cancer. Cryoimmunotherapy in situ and extra-tumor and immunotherapy combined with chemotherapy could also increase the effectiveness. Research of pancreatic cancer vaccine has made some progress. The immunity enhancing function of some traditional herbs have been reported, such as Ginsenoside Rg3, which could enhance T-cell subsets and NK cell activity in pancreatic cancer patients with chemotherapy.
Background and Objectives: the effects of oral enteral nutrition (EN) in lung cancer patients receiving chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy were controversial, so we made a systematic review to analyze the clinical efficacy of EN in lung cancer patients after chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. Methods and Study Design: Pertinent studies were identified by searching in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), WanFang Database, China Biomedical Literature database (CBM) and Chinese Science and Technology Periodical Database (VIP). Energy intake, protein intake, weight and other data were extracted. Results: Finally, 5 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included in this systematic review. Patients in 3 studies received chemotherapy, in 1 with radiotherapy and in 1 with chemo-radiotherapy. The combined results showed that EN significantly increased energy and protein intake in lung cancer during chemotherapy, while there was no significant effect on other results after patients had received chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. Conclusions: Limited evidence is available to judge whether EN can improve clinical effect of lung cancer with or without chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy, as clinical heterogeneity and other potential variation existed in this review. Further studies are needed.
Objective: Evaluation of discrimination between two Mylabris Species based on HPLC fingerprinting and spectrum-antitumor effect relationship. Methods: In this study, a simple and efficient high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method integrating with chemometric analysis and spectrum-antitumor effect relationship was developed for discrimination between two species ofMylabris: Mylabrisphalerata Pallas (MP) and MylabriscichoriiLinnaeus (MC).Results: In the fingerprint analysis, 14 characteristic peaks were selected to assess the differences between MP and MC using the similarity and pattern recognition analysis using PCA and OPLS-DA. The HPLC chromatograms of samples from 10 regions of China showed differences between MP and MC, and 7 characteristic chemical markers were found. In the spectrum-antitumor effect relationship analysis, 4 activity markers played a vital role in decreasing the IC50 and might be the antitumor components of Mylabris by grey relational analysis and multivariate linear regression analysis. The chemometric analysis in combination with spectrum-effect relationship results indicated that peaks 2(cytosine), 4 (unknown) and 14 (unknown) were important differential markers for distinguishing the two species of Mylabris. Conclusion: The method is applicable, credible and more efficient to discriminate MP and MC, and will offer a new way for facilitating quality control of insect medicines.
This study provides an applicable, credible and more efficient HPLC method for discriminating two Mylabris species. And, the HPLC fingerprinting and spectrum-antitumor effects were integrated and the three important differential markers were found for new marker ofMylabris.
Objective: To explore the direct and/or the enhancing antihypertensive effects of wind-dispelling herbs involving Fangfeng(Saposhnikoviae Radix) and Baizhi(Angelicaedahuricae Radix)using liver-yang hyperactivity renal hypertension rat.Methods: Model rats with hyperactivity of liver-yang hyperactivity were prepared using male SD rats. Once successful, the rats were randomly divided into groups and given medicine by gavage for 4 weeks. Blood was collected from the abdominal aorta to prepare serum. Serum nitric oxide (NO) concentration was determined by chemical colorimetry. The contents of ET, TXB2 and 6-K-PGF1a were determined byenzyme linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA).Results: Compared withthe control model group, the blood pressure, serum ET and TXB2 of rats in the wind dispelling medicine group was not significantly reduced, while those of rats in captopril group, TianmaGoutengDecoction I group (TGD group) decreased significantly (P<0.05 for both). Interestingly, the blood pressure, serum ET and TXB2 of rats in the combination group (wind dispelling medicine& TGD) decreased significantly compared with both wind dispelling medicine group and TGD group. Meanwhile, the levels of serum NO and 6- K-PGF1a in the combination group was much higher than those in the wind dispelling medicine group or TGD group (P<0.05 for both). However, the levels of serum NO and 6- K-PGF1a in the wind dispelling medicine group was not significantly increasedcompared with the model group. Conclusion: There is no direct pressure lowering effects of wind dispelling medicine alone, while wind dispelling medicine could potentiates theantihypertensive effects of TianmaGoutengDecoction I. Besides, thesynergistic effects may be related to decreased ET and TXB2 levels and the increased NO and 6- K-PGF1a levels.
Using liver-yang hyperactivity renal hypertension rat, the author explored the direct and/or the enhancing antihypertensive effects of wind-dispelling herbs. They found that, there was no direct pressure lowering effects of wind dispelling medicine alone as the blood pressure was not decreased after the treatment. However, wind dispelling medicine could potentiate theantihypertensive effects of TianmaGoutengDecoction I, as the blood pressure, serum ET and TXB2 of ratsin the combination group were much lower than those in any of the single drug group. Besides, they found thesynergistic effects may be related to decreased ET and TXB2 levels and the increased NO and 6- K-PGF1a levels.
Biosensor is an instrument which is sensitive to biological material and converts its concentration into electrical signals. Organisms such as enzymes, antibodies, tissues, cells and so on can selectively identify specific substances. These molecular recognition functions can be combined with the target, such as the binding of antibodies and antigens, and the binding of enzymes to the substrate through the recognition process. Biosensor has the advantages of high specificity, high sensitivity, fast reaction speed, low cost and easy operation. It has wide application prospect in food, pharmacy, chemical industry, clinical examination, biomedicine, environmental monitoring and so on,especially as a new technology means, in the field of modern herbal medicine research influence. Studies have demonstrated that the biosensing technology has been applied to, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) targets, isolation and purification of TCM, the mechanism of TCM, quality control of TCM, the active ingredients detection of TCM and other basic researches. Biosensor technology has made an important contribution to the research of modern herbal medicine, and has become a Hot-spot in future research.
The current application of biosensors as a new technology in purification, identification of active compound, study of mechanism and quality control of traditional Chinese medicine were summarized and a prospect for biosensors in traditional Chinese medicine study was given as well.
Objective: Mangiferin (MF) is a polyphenol isolated from the root of AnemarrhenaasphodeloidesBge.. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of MF on hyperglycemia in animal models of insulin resistance and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. Methods: The diabetes mellitus model was established in mice by receiving a multiple hypodermic injection of hydrocortisone sodium succinate (HCSS) (70 mg/kg) or a single intravenous injection of STZ (130 mg/kg). Meanwhile MF at different dosage (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) were oral administrated for consecutive 10 days. Data of blood glucose were collected at different time after intraperitoneal injection of insulin (0.5 U/kg) to investigate the insulin resistant. As well as the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of kidney were measured. The in vitro experiment was established to investigate the inhibitory capacity of MF to α-glucosidase.Results: Oral administration of MF significantly prevented insulin resistance caused by HCSS injection. STZ-induced diabetic symptoms were also improved, including fasting blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, plasma triglycerides, hepatic glycogen, kidney SOD and ORAC level. The in vitro experiment demonstrated that MF had potent α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Conclusion: The obtained results demonstrate that MF ameliorates insulin resistance and STZ-induced glucose metabolism disturbance. The MF exerts the protective effects through improving the antioxidant ability, promoting hepatic glycogen synthesis and inhibiting α-glucosidase activity.
Mangiferin (MF), a polyphenol extracted from the root of AnemarrhenaasphodeloidesBge., significantly ameliorates insulin resistance and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic symptoms. Potential mechanisms were involved in improving the antioxidant ability and inhibiting α-glucosidase activity. This study provides corresponding evidence for the clinical application of mangiferin.
Clinical trials have shown that early enteral nutrition supplemented with probiotics may have potential of benefit for SHI patients; however, conflicting conclusion obstacle the decision-making. This protocol will provide approach to resolve this issue.
Although early enteral nutrition combined with probiotics were supposed to have potential of treating SHI patients, conclusive results have not yet been generated. This protocol will address this issue with quantitative synthesis method.
Objective: The aim of this systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) is to determine the effects of early enteral nutrition supplemented with probiotics on clinical outcomes in patients with SHI. Methods and analysis: A systematic search will be carried out in PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), WanFang database, and Chinese Biomedical Literature (CBM) in order to identify the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigated the potential of early enteral nutrition supplemented with probiotics on patients with severe head injury, as well as we will also manually check the bibliographies of eligible studies and topic-related reviews. We will assign two investigators to independently search all potential citations, extracted data, and appraised risk of bias accordingly, and then STATA software version 12.0 will be used to statistically analyze all data.Ethics and dissemination: The ethics approval and patient written informed consent will not be required because all analyses in the present study will be performed based on data from published studies. We will submit our systematic review to a peer-reviewed scientific journal for publication.
This meta-analysis systematically evaluated the efficacy of TCM washing combined with massage for neonatal jaundice, and showed TCM washing combined with massage can accelerate the excretion of meconium, shorten the time for transformation of meconium, and decrease transcutaneous bilirubin index and the level of serum bilirubin.
TCM washing combined with massage is one of the common therapies avoiding the side effects of common treatments. However, the potential of TCM washing combined with massage remains debate. This article found that TCM washing combined with massage may be an effective therapy for the treatment of neonatal jaundice.
Objective: To systematically assess the effect of traditional Chinese medicine washing (TCM washing) combined with massage for the treatment of neonatal jaundice. Methods and analysis: Databases, including PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Embase, Web of Science, the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), CNKI, and Wanfang Data were electronically searched for randomized controlled trials (from inception to July 2017). The methodological qualities of included trials were evaluated by the Cochrane risk of bias assessment tool. The meta-analysis was performed by using RevMan 5.3 software.Results: Overall, thirteen trials with a total of 1998 participants were included. The results of meta-analysis indicated that TCM washing combined with massage group was significantly superior to the control group in the first meconium time (MD, -16.67; 95% CI, -24.59 to -8.74; P<0.001), time for transformation of meconium (MD, -15.44; 95% CI, -23.59 to -7.28; P<0.001), transcutaneous bilirubin index changes [after treating three days (MD, -1.99; 95% CI, -2.57 to -1.40; P<0.001), after treating four days (MD, -1.86; 95% CI, -2.77 to -0.95; P<0.001), after treating five days (MD, -2.44; 95% CI, -3.47 to -1.42; P<0.001), after treating six days (MD, -2.23; 95% CI, -3.30 to -1.16; P<0.001), and the changes of serum bilirubin levels [after treating five days (MD, -3.17; 95% CI, -5.83 to -0.50; P=0.02), after treating six days (MD, -1.63; 95% CI, -3.10 to -0.16; P=0.03), after treating fifteen days (MD,-1.20; 95% CI, -1.99 to -0.41; P=0.003).Conclusions: TCM washing combined with massage may be an effective therapy for the treatment of neonatal jaundice. It can accelerate the excretion of meconium, shorten the time for transformation of meconium, and decrease transcutaneous bilirubin index and the level of serum bilirubin. But it should be careful to interpreting these findings. Well-designed RCTs are needed to further clarify the conclusion.
This review summarized the toxicity and carcinogenesis of aristolochic acids and the underlying mechanisms.
The mutational signature of aristolochic acids is related to the occurrence of HCC. However, the frequency of administration and dose, exposure time to aristolochic acids, and infectious situations of hepatitis B virus should also be further identified.
Aristolochic acids (AAs), a natural mixture of 8-methoxy-6-nitro-phenanthro-(3,4-d)-1,3-dioxolo-5-carboxylic acid (AAI) and 6-nitro-phenanthro-(3,4-d)-1,3-dioxolo-5-carboxylic acid (AAII), derived from aristolochiaceae species, has been reported to cause AAS-induced nephropathy and upper urothelial cancer. In this review, we summarize the information on the nephrotoxicity and carcinogenesis of AAs and their derivatives. AAs nephrotoxicity can lead to apoptosis and oxidative stress of renal tubular cells, and inhibition of the expression of aquaporins. AAs can also reduce the capability for renal tubular epithelial cell repair after acute injury and further produce renal fibrosis by activating TGF-β-Smad signaling and promoting the migration of macrophages. Moreover, AAs-induced carcinogenesis may be due to the formation of covalent adducts with DNA which can lead to the mutation in certain tumor suppressor genes or proto-oncogenes and the different catalyzing capacity of the microsomal cytochrome P450 of individuals in AAI metabolism.
Melittin can inhibit the growth of tumors and angiogenesis by blocking the Cathepsin S-VEGF-A signaling pathway.
The earliest literature recording on bee venom appeared in the book of Jishenlu, which published in Song Dynasty by Xu Xun (916 A.D. - 991 A.D.) and referenced the use of bee venom in the treatment of rheumatism.
Objective: To study the anti-angiogenesis effect of melittin on human hepatoma Mock/MHCC97-H cells by regulating the expression of cathepsin S (CatS) in vivo. Methods: Models of in situ transplantation tumor of Mock/MHCC97-H cells and silencing cathepsin shRNA-CatS/ MHCC97-H cells in nude mice were established. The model mice were randomly divided into four groups. In the A1 group, the mice were inoculated with shRNA-CatS/MHCC97-H cells and treated with melittin. In the A2 group, the mice were inoculated with shRNA-CatS/MHCC97-H cells and treated with saline. In the B1 group, the mice were inoculated with Mock/MHCC97-H cells and treated with melittin. In the B2 group, the mice were inoculated with Mock/MHCC97-H cells and treated with saline. The A1 and B1 group were injected with melittin (80 mg/kg) intraperitoneally every day. The A2 and B2 group were injected with 0.2 mL normal saline intraperitoneally every day. After administration for 25 days, the animals were sacrificed. The tumor size and weight in nude mice in each group were recorded. The expression of CD34 protein in the xenograft tumor tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry. The expression of Cat S, VEGF-A, p-VEGFR2, Ras, Raf, p-Raf, MEK1, p-MEK1, ERK1/2 and p-ERK1/2 proteins were detected by western blot. Results: The B1 group had significantly smaller tumor volumes and lower tumor weights than the B2 group (both P < 0.001). There was no significant difference between the A1 group and A2 group in tumor volumes and weights. The number of CD34-positive microvessels in the B2 group was significantly higher than that in the A2 group (P < 0.001). The number of CD34-positive microvessels in the B1 group was significantly lesser than that in the A1 group (P < 0.001). Most strikingly, in the model featuring inoculation of Mock/MHCC97-H cells, CatS, VEGF-A, p-VEGFR2, Ras, Raf, p-Raf, MEK1, p-MEK1, ERK1/2 and p-ERK1/2 expression were inhibited when treated with melittin. However, in the model featuring the inoculation of shRNA-CatS/MHCC97-H cells, no such effects were observed with similar treatments. Conclusion: Melittin can inhibit the growth of tumors and angiogenesis by blocking the CatS-VEGf-A signaling pathway.
This work analyzed and summarized the opportunities and challenges for the development of traditional Chinese medicine nursing under the new healthcare reform.
TCM nursing as a young subject is in the primary stage of development, simultaneously also entered the reform and professional development new time.
Based on the “Opinions on Deepening the Reform of Medicine and Health”, “Strategic planning outline of the development of Traditional Chinese Medicine (2016-2030)” and the other relevant polices announced by State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine of the People’s Republic of China, this paper analyzes and summarizes the opportunities and challenges for the development of Traditional Chinese Medicine nursing (TCM nursing) under the new healthcare reform, in order to provide reference and thinking for the professional development of TCM nursing.
This article introduced the concept of stigma level, the related theory of stigma, measuring tools, the effect of stigma on the rehabilitation and the basic strategies for reducing the stigma of urinary incontinence in women.
Stigma seriously affects the quality of life and mental health of women with urinary incontinence. It should be enough attention.
In recent years, stigma has become a social problem because it seriously affects the quality of life and mental health of women with urinary incontinence. This article reviews stigma of urinary incontinence in women and its influencing factors. We also introduced the concept of stigma level, the related theory of stigma, measuring tools, the effect of stigma on the rehabilitation and the basic strategies for reducing the stigma of urinary incontinence in women to provide clinical workers the relevant basis for research on the stigma of urinary incontinence.
This paper analyzed a misdiagnosed case with sudden elevation of blood pressure resulting from syndrome differentiation faults of traditional Chinese medicine.
This study proposed the usage note of Fuzi (Radix Aconiti Carmichaeli）in clinic use.
A 71-year-old woman suffered the pains from her finger joints, arms, shoulders and neck. The first prescription was the add and subtract of Guizhishaoyaozhimu decoction, which could warm Yang via Fuzi (Radix Aconiti Carmichaeli). After three oral doses of medication, she felt sleepy with a blood pressure of 180/60 mmHg. The second prescription was the add of Shengmai Powder which could nourish Yin. The next day, her blood pressure was reduced to 130/65 mmHg.
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