On April 14, 2020, the State Council of China announced that “three proprietary Chinese medicines and three decoctions” of effective traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in the treatment of the novel coronavirus pneumonia have passed clinical practice screenings . Some scholars believe that early TCM intervention of mild and moderate cases and recovery period may reduce the ratio of mild cases progressing into severe and critical cases. Some data have also suggested that the combination of TCM and Western medicine may reduce the mortality rate in severe and critical cases [2, 3].
The “three proprietary Chinese medicines” are Chinese patent drug Jinhua Qinggan granules (approval number of State Food and Drug Administration of China (SFDA) Z20160001), Lianhua Qingwen granules (SFDA approval number Z20100040), and Xuebijing injection (SFDA approval number Z20040033) . In this regard, the National Medical Products Administration of China recently approved the inclusion of the treatment of the novel coronavirus pneumonia as a new indication of the “three proprietary Chinese medicines”, which have become the world’s first batch of drugs suitable for COVID-19 (Table 1) .
The “three decoctions” are empirical formula of Chinese medicine Qingfei Paidu decoction, Huashi Baidu decoction, and Xuanfei Baidu decoction (Table 2). Among them, Qingfei Paidu granules and Huashi Baidu granule have been recently approved for clinical trials .
Jinhua Qinggan granule is a proprietary Chinese medicine developed during the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic. Both Lianhua Qingwen capsule and Xuebijing injection were identified as proprietary Chinese medicines developed and listed during the SARS in 2003 [3–5]. At present, 22 TCM treatment programs have been registered for clinical trials.
However, because Lianhua Qingwen capsule contains Houttuynia cordata, Qingfei Paidu decoction contains Belamcandae Rhizoma, and both of them contain aristolochic acid, which can cause kidney injury and liver cancer [6–7]. Xuanfei Baidu decoction and Qingfei Paidu decoction contain Ephedrae Herba, which has cardiovascular toxicity and stimulative effect on central nervous system . Qingfei Paidu decoction contains Alismatis Rhizoma, which may cause kidney injury . Perhaps it is the above toxicity of herb that prohibits the import or clinical application of these six decoctions in Sweden, Singapore, the United States, Canada and other countries .
Based on folklore and traditional wisdom, when a shepherd purchases a few new sheep from an unknown seller or from a distant place, he keeps them away from his old flock of sheep for a period of 15 days. This, in other words, is a unique practice of herd quarantine. The new flock is permitted to mingle with the old flock only after the completion of the prescribed quarantine period. In case someone tries to violate the principle of herd quarantine, the herd council will impose a rigorous punishment.
Whenever traits of virus-causing diseases, like cowpox, sheeppox, and goatpox, appear in cattle herds, shepherds anticipate its inescapability of viral infection and its inevitable outbreak and visualize that herd quarantine may not be a practical solution in the long run. Although shepherds are not exposed to the term “virus,” they have a solid understanding of the very existence of a foreign specie that damages the health of their herds. To mitigate and militate the repulsive repercussions of the virus, they purposively evolve a typical method of treatment named, potthi kattu, known as herd immunity. This can be observed in all remote Indian villages until today.
In the modern framework, the idea of herd immunity was first adopted in 1923 to denote the premunity or immunity of a given total population, examining the rate of disease fatality among populace at various degrees of immunity in an experimental research. The study recognized herd immunity as a naturally occurring phenomenon. During the mid-1930s, A.W. Hedrich’s epidemiological study of measles in Baltimore noticed a substantial decline in new infections after several children had been conscientiously exposed and immune to measles. In light of this, mass vaccination is performed to develop premunity among the masses; this process is called herd immunity in our modern medical sciences, as everybody of us naturally develops immunity after a due course of time.
In contrast to modern science, the original idea of herd immunity is not a natural process since inoculation or variolation is a must. This happens when the virulence of the virus is considerably condensed with the help of natural substances, like herbs and plants, and then the attenuated virus will be inoculated into the body of a healthier animal, where the spurious virus enters through the medical intervention of shepherds which will eventually infect the flock one after the other. By this means, the infection becomes mild, unlike the natural attack. The inherent antigens in animals will quickly respond to face the attack of the mild virus by producing awe-inspiring antibodies in order to develop immunity within a stipulated period.
Our current study explored the potential mechanisms of Yin-Chai-Xiao-Du decoction, an empirical formula of traditional Chinese medicine derived from the classic ancient prescription Gan-Lu-Xiao-Du decoction, on COVID-19 and found its core herbs.
The empirical formula Yin-Chai-Xiao-Du decoction has evolved based on the classic ancient prescription of Gan-Lu-Xiao-Du decoction, which was first mentioned in Wei Zhixiu’s Xu Mingyi Lei'an (Supplement to Classified Case Records of Celebrated Physicians) in the Qing Dynasty of China that was released in approximately 1770 C.E. Gan-Lu-Xiao-Du decoction could alleviate fever, cough and fatigue, which were the major clinical outcomes of COVID-19. However, the mechanisms of action of Yin-Chai-Xiao-Du decoction in the treatment of COVID-19 remain unclear.
Background: In this study, we preliminarily investigated the mechanism of Yin-Chai-Xiao-Du decoction for the treatment of COVID-19 by the method of network pharmacology. Methods: The potential targets and pathways of Yin-Chai-Xiao-Du decoction for the treatment of COVID-19 were examined using network pharmacology; the ingredient and active targets of Yin-Chai-Xiao-Du decoction were collected from the Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform and PharmMapper databases; the COVID-19-related targets were obtained from the online Mendelian inheritance in man, GeneCards, and GeneMANIA databases; the STRING database and Cytoscape were used to build a protein-protein interaction network, and a Network Analyzer tool was used to perform topology analysis to screen for the key ingredients and targets; the ClueGO and KOBAS 3.0 databases were for the enrichment analysis of gene function (Gene Oncology) and gene pathway (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes); the herb-ingredient-target-pathway network diagram was constructed by Cytoscape. Results: The core herbs screened by the network pharmacological analysis were Jinyinhua (Lonicerae japonicae flos), Lianqiao (Forsythia suspensa), Chaihu (Bupleuri radix), Huangqin (Scutellariae radix), Yinchen (Herba Artemisiae Scopariae), Guanghuoxiang (Pogostemonis herba), Roudoukou (Semen myristicae) and Qinghao (Artemisiae annuae herba). A total of 293 active ingredients were screened by Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform, and the key ingredients were quercetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, stigmasterol, beta-sitosterol, and luteolin. Yin-Chai-Xiao-Du decoction has 138 COVID-19-related targets, and the key targets were mitogen-activated protein kinase 3, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor, vascular endothelial growth factor A, and CC motif ligand 2. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis revealed 120 enriched gene pathways, and the key pathways were signaling by interleukins, immune system, cytokine signaling in the immune system, and the signaling pathways of interleukin-17, tumor necrosis factor, and relaxin. Conclusion: The core herbs of Yin-Chai-Xiao-Du decoction are Jinyinhua (Lonicerae japonicae flos), Lianqiao (Forsythia suspensa), Chaihu (Bupleuri radix), Huangqin (Scutellariae radix), Yinchen (Herba Artemisiae Scopariae), Guanghuoxiang (Pogostemonis herba), Roudoukou (Semen myristicae) and Qinghao (Artemisiae annuae herba). The key ingredients are quercetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, stigmasterol, and beta-sitosterol; the critical targets are luteolin, interleukin-6, mitogen-activated protein kinase 3, tumor necrosis factor, and CC motif ligand 2; and the core signaling pathways are those mediated by interleukin-17, tumor necrosis factor, and relaxin.
Patients with high course of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) assessment test scores, self-rating anxiety scale scores, or who live in rural areas, have a higher burden of anxiety and need more attention during the outbreak. As a pulmonary rehabilitation exercise, Liuzijue Qigong (LQG) can relieve anxiety in stable COPD patients, even during the coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak.
LQG has been used as a traditional Chinese Taoism (a Chinese philosophy attributed to Lao Tzu (500 B.C.E.) which contributed to the religion of the people in China) regimen for approximately 1,500 years. The six pronunciations of “Xu, He, Hu, Si, Chui, Xi” in LQG were first recorded as a treatment in the ancient book Yang Xing Yan Ming Lu (Records of Nourishing the Body and Prolonging Life) written by Tao Hongjing in the Southern and Northern Dynasties (420-589 C.E.) of China. It recorded that LQG can regulate the function of internal organs of the body to tend to balance through pronunciation, which was conducive to the health of the body. Until 2007, it became a complete Qigong exercise by General Administration of Sport of China. In recent years, it has been widely used in pulmonary rehabilitation for COPD patients in China.
Background: Anxiety is a common comorbidity associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but no well-recognized method can provide effective relief. Liuzijue Qigong (LQG) is a traditional Chinese fitness method, based on breath pronunciation. This study aimed to examine the efficacy of LQG to relieve anxiety in COPD patients and to explore the factors that influence anxiety, including whether LQG is effective during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak. Methods: We conducted an open-label, randomized, controlled, clinical trial. A total of 60 patients with stable COPD were randomly assigned to two groups. Both groups were given routine medical treatment, and the patients in the pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) group were given an extra intervention in the form of LQG, performed for 30 minutes each day for 12 weeks. Data collection was performed at baseline and 12 weeks (during the COVID-19 epidemic). The primary outcomes were the self-rating anxiety scale (SAS) scores, and the secondary outcomes were relevant information during the epidemic and analyses of the related factors that influenced SAS scores during the COVID-19 outbreak. Results: Compared with baseline, patients in both groups demonstrated varying degrees of improvements in their SAS scores (all P < 0.01). An analysis of covariance, adjusted for baseline scores, indicated that the SAS scores improved more dramatically in the PR group than in the control group (F = 9.539, P = 0.004). During the outbreak, the SAS scores for sleep disorder were higher than all other factors, reaching 1.38 ± 0.67, and the scores for “I can breathe in and out easily” for the PR group were lower than the scores for the control group (Z = -2.108, P = 0.035). Significant differences were identified between the two groups for the categories “How much has the outbreak affected your life”, “Do you practice LQG during the epidemic” and “Do you practice other exercises during the epidemic” (all P < 0.05). Compared with current reports, LQG had a relatively high adherence rate (80.95%). A multiple linear regression analysis revealed multiple predictors for SAS scores during the outbreak: group (b = -3.907, t = -3.824, P < 0.001), COPD assessment test score (b = 0.309, t = 2.876, P = 0.006), SAS score at baseline (b = 0.189, t = 3.074, P = 0.004), and living in a village (b = 4.886, t = 2.085, P = 0.043). Conclusion: LQG could effectively reduce the risks of anxiety among COPD patients, even during the COVID-19 outbreak. For those COPD patients with high COPD assessment test and high baseline SAS scores or who live in villages, we should reinforce the management and intervention of psychological factors during the epidemic.
Background: As described in Tao Te Ching, Tao does nothing but can accomplish everything. Methods: Exploring this artistic concept through the image “valley spirit dies not”, we see it produce “Names” from “Having No Name”. Results: The role of essence in the body is similar to the “Doing Nothing” way of Tao, and through strengthening Yang, Yang Qi can be unblocked so as to restore the nature of “Doing Nothing” and generate Qi, essence, blood, and bodily fluids to treat disease.
The current study applied network pharmacology analysis and molecular docking method to study the potential mechanisms of Chai-Ling decoction (CLD), an empirical formula derived from the classic ancient prescription Xiao-Chai-Hu (XCH) decoction and Wu-Ling-San (WLS), on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
The classic ancient prescription XCH and WLS decoctions originated from the ancient book of Chinese medicine Shang Han Za Bing Lun (Treatise on Cold Damage Disorders, 200-210 C.E.), written by Zhang Zhongjing. Previous studies have demonstrated that XCH can alleviate fever, cough, and fatigue, which were the primary clinical outcomes of COVID-19. Besides, WLS decoction has shown apparent effects on attenuating gastrointestinal symptoms. CLD, derived from a modification of XCH and WLS decoctions, is used to treat the early-stage of COVID-19 in the Prevention and Treatment Guidelines of Damp-Heat Syndrome of “Taiyin” Lung (respiratory system in the theory of traditional Chinese medicine) Epidemic Disease (coronavirus pneumonia). However, the mechanisms of action of CLD in COVID-19 remain unclear.
Background: Chai-Ling decoction (CLD), derived from a modification of Xiao-Chai-Hu (XCH) decoction and Wu-Ling-San (WLS) decoction, has been used to treat the early-stage of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the mechanisms of CLD in COVID-19 remain unknown. In this study, the potential mechanisms of CLD in COVID-19 were preliminarily investigated based on network pharmacology and molecular docking method. Methods: Initially, the active components and targets of CLD were screened based on Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform and PharmMapper database. The targets of COVID-19 were obtained from GeneCards database. The protein-protein interaction network was established using STRING database to analyze the key targets. Gene Oncology (GO) analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis were also conducted to evaluate the pathways related to the targets of CLD on COVID-19. Moreover, the compound-target-pathway network was established using Cytoscape 3.2.7. Subsequently, the molecular docking method was performed to select the active compounds with high binding affinity on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which is the key target of SARS-CoV-2 in entering target cells. The possible binding sites were also visualized by a three-dimensional graph. Results: Network pharmacology analysis showed that there were 106 active components and 160 targets of CLD. Additionally, 251 targets related to COVID-19 were identified, and 24 candidates of CLD on COVID-19 were selected. A total of 283 GO terms of CLD on COVID-19 were identified, and 181 pathways were screened based on GO and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analyses. CLD might alleviate the inflammatory response and improve lung injury to treat COVID-19 through interleukin 17 signaling, T helper cell 17 differentiation, tumor necrosis factor signaling, and hypoxia inducible factor-1 signaling. Besides, molecular docking indicated that beta-sitosterol, kaempferol, and stigmasterol were the top three candidates in CLD with the highest affinity to SARS-CoV-2 and ACE2. Conclusion: Our study identifies the potential mechanisms of CLD on COVID-19 and beta-sitosterol, kaempferol, and stigmasterol may be the key compounds that exert antiviral effects against SARS-CoV-2.
The paper reviewed the research progress of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and traditional medicine in other countries used as tumor therapies in 2019. The anti-tumor effects of Chinese herbal medicine-derived phytochemicals, such as polyphenols, polysaccharides, saponins, and alkaloids were the new research targets for 2019. The anti-tumor effects of TCM formula such as Sijunzi decoction and Xiaopi formula have attracted the most attention in the past year.
This annual review summarized the research progress of several traditional medicines used as tumor therapies in 2019. Studies of tumors treated with TCM are popular worldwide and obtain the most attention. In addition to TCM, we also focused on the anti-tumor studies of other traditional medicines, including traditional African medicine, traditional Korean medicine, traditional Japanese medicine, etc.
Today, the treatment of tumors remains a difficult problem. Traditional medicine has been used to treat cancer in different countries worldwide. However, while traditional medicine is popular globally, it is not yet accepted by Western medicine as some of the ingredients and the mechanism of action for the therapeutic effect have not been fully elucidated. Thus, scholars studying traditional medicine in the treatment of cancer have strived to solve this problem. In this review, we summarized the research progress of several traditional medicines used as tumor therapies in 2019 from the PubMed database. Studies of tumors treated with traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) are popular worldwide and obtain the most attention, which attracts more researchers to this field. The anti-tumor effects of Chinese herbal medicine-derived phytochemicals, such as polyphenols, polysaccharides, saponins, and alkaloids were the new research targets for 2019. The anti-tumor effects of TCM formula such as Sijunzi decoction, and Xiaopi formula have attracted the most attention in the past year. In addition to TCM, we also focused on the anti-tumor studies of other traditional medicines, including Thai traditional medicine, traditional medicine in Sri Lanka, traditional African medicine, traditional Korean medicine, and traditional Japanese medicine.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has recently become a public health concern worldwide. The use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) may have substantial impact on COVID-19. In this review, we summarize the disease pathogenesis, clinical outcomes, and current applications of TCM for the treatment of COVID-19.
The pathogenesis and clinical symptoms related to severe respiratory disease were described many years ago in TCM texts. The ancient book of TCM Huang Di Nei Jing (Inner Canon of Huangdi) was written during the Western Han Dynasty of China (dated approximately 99 B.C.E.-26 B.C.E.); the text recorded a plague that could transmit disease from human-to-human with symptoms that were similar to those described for COVID-19. Three additional texts, notably Shang Han Za Bing Lun (Treatise on Cold Damage Diseases) written by Zhang Zhongjing (200 C.E.-210 C.E.), Wen Yi Lun (Theory of Plague) and Wen Re Lun (Translated Theory of Warm) written by Wu Youke (1642 C.E.), recorded therapies and formulas that were effective at treating infectious diseases; among them, the classical prescription Da Yuan Yin and the use of human variolation were considered as means to prevent smallpox. Currently, the use of TCM has resulted in remarkable improvement and alleviation of symptoms in COVID-19 patients.
Since late December in 2019, the coronavirus disease 2019 has received extensive attention for its widespread prevalence. A number of clinical workers and researchers have made great efforts to understand the pathogenesis and clinical characteristics and develop effective drugs for treatment. However, no effective drugs with antiviral effects on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 have been discovered currently. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has gained abundant experience in the treatment of infectious diseases for thousands of years. In this review, the authors summarized the clinical outcome, pathogensis and current application of TCM on coronavirus disease 2019. Further, we discussed the potential mechanisms and the future research directions of TCM against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2.
The paper reviewed researches concerning toxicology of traditional medicine (TM) and active natural products during the past 12 months, and find that liver, kidney and heart are the mainly toxic target organs of TM. In addition, the drug safety for the maternal and child began to be focused on in 2019, and safety assessment of Aconitum carmichaeli Debx, Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. f., Strychnos nux-vomica L., Fallopia multiflora (Thunb.) Harald, etc. is still hot issue.
This annual review summarized the new toxicology study technology, common evaluated models, toxic target organs, safety evaluation of TM in different kinds of people and popular research issues and herbs in 2019. Compared to 2018, many counties like Australia, Germany and UK start to pay attention to the safety evaluation of TM.
There were many researches concerning toxicology of traditional medicine (TM) and active natural products during the past 12 months. This annual toxicology review summarized target organs of TM like liver, kidney and heart. Safety medication of TM has been concerned to different kinds of people, including infants, children, pregnancy and the postnatal period. Besides rodents, zebrafish embryoes have been regarded as common models to evaluate the safety of TM. New technologies in toxicology focus on rapidly screening and identification of toxins in TM. Multispectral optoacoustic tomography imaging the precise location of TM-induced liver injury with 3D information and integrating serum exosomal microRNA and liver microRNA profiles are used to explain the mechanism of TM-induced hepatotoxicity. Taken together, study on the toxicity mechanism of other target organs, drug safety in elders, new models and methods should be paid attention to in the prevention of TM toxicology in the future.
The annual review summarizes the research pertaining to different Chinese minority traditional medicine (CMTM) published in 2019. The focus of these studies is on the pharmacological effects and mechanisms of the ethnodrug and prescriptions/therapies used in ethnic areas.
CMTM is an important part of traditional Chinese medicine. It exhibits characteristics of nationality, region, and tradition. Tibetan medicine first appeared around 500 B.C.E. At the end of the 8th century C.E., the development of “Si Bu Yi Dian (Four Medical Tantras)” by the Tibetan medicine scientist Yutuo Ningma Yundan Gongbu provided a theoretical foundation for Tibetan medicine. Before the 7th century C.E., Mongolian medicine was in its infancy. In the 16th century C.E., Mongolian medicine assimilated several classical medical theories and useful experiences from Tibetan, Han, and other nationalities. This eventually leads to the development of a Mongolian medical theory system with Mongolian characteristics. Uyghur medicine has arduously developed over a period of more than 2,500 years. The origin of Uyghur medicine traces back to the ancient Neolithic period in the Western Regions. At the beginning of the 12th century, the Uyghur medicine scientist Alaodin Mohanmude Hetianni wrote the “Zubdatul Kawanil Ilaj (Zhi Liao Jing Hua, Healing Essences)” and “TibbiFitki (Fa Yi, Forensics)”. The copy of this handwritten work is circulating to this day.
Traditional medicine systems practiced by various ethnic minorities represent an important part of traditional Chinese medicine. The past 12 months have witnessed extensive research pertaining to different Chinese minority traditional medicine (CMTM). The annual CMTM review evaluates research published during 2019 in different CMTM including Tibetan medicine, Uyghur medicine, Mongolian medicine, Korean medicine and Zhuang medicine. Research in the field of Tibetan medicine focused on pharmacology, pharmacy, plant sciences, medicinal chemistry and integrated complementary medicine and the top three countries were China, USA and India. Research in Uyghur medicine mainly pertained to chemistry, pharmacology, pharmacy, and food science technology and the publications were mainly from China. Research in Mongolian medicine mainly pertained to pharmacology, pharmacy, analytical chemistry, biochemistry, molecular biology and experimental research; the publications were mainly from China and Mongolia. In short, research related to traditional medicine of various ethnic minorities was mainly conducted in China and the neighboring countries. The research focus for each minority medicine is essentially on the effects and mechanisms of action of the active ingredients of the ethnodrugs and the special prescriptions or therapies. The generated evidence will facilitate further developments in this field.
This paper takes stock from five aspects, namely, treatment methods, detection technology, new drug research and development, information data and traditional Chinese medicine, with a view to "from the point to the surface", "from the outside to the inside", and "the combination of Chinese and western", so as to explore the overall picture of cancer treatment and research.
The timely introduction and rapid development of precision medicine have provided strong theoretical support and technical support for tumor research. The treatment methods have been developed from single to multiple; the research technology has been transformed from macro to micro; the treatment drugs have been updated from systemic chemotherapy to targeted therapy and immunotherapy, and cancer has changed from a highly lethal disease to a "chronic disease". Based on the current international cancer research hotspots and treatment frontiers, this paper takes stock from five aspects, namely, treatment methods, detection technology, new drug research and development, information data and traditional Chinese medicine, with a view to "from the point to the surface", "from the outside to the inside", and "the combination of Chinese and western", so as to explore the overall picture of cancer treatment and research.
(1) The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is growing rapidly especially among younger female patients with cancer with higher education.
(2) Most patients with cancer consider CAM as a harmless option in their healing process, which is not always the case.
(3) Clinical-based evidence for mind-body therapies has been established, and this type of CAM can be recommended for patients with cancer during chemotherapy.
The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) plays an important role in the prevention and treatment of diseases since the ancient times. In the 16th-11th century B.C.E., there were earliest notes of tumors and their treatment methods were described by traditional Chinese practitioners. It has been known that herbal medicine are used in Egypt and in traditional Chinese medicine since 4500 B.C.E. Since the early 1970s, the use of CAM in cancer treatment has expanded worldwide. Numerous studies point to the benefits of Ayurveda yoga in patients with cancer, improving quality of life. China acupuncture has been shown beneficial in controlling vomiting and pain in patients with cancer. Reflexology, which was practiced for years by followers of Chinese, Egyptian, and Indian medicine, has been successfully used to relieve pain in patients with cancer. Mushroom Agaricus blazei has been mostly used in Japan but is currently in the first phase of the clinical trial in patients with cancer.
Besides conventional medicine, many patients with cancer seek complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) as an additional treatment option. Since the early 1970s, the use of CAM in cancer treatment has expanded worldwide. CAM, as a tempting option, was used by patients with cancer mainly due to easy accessibility. Patients with cancer used CAM to achieve better quality of life or to find a cure. As physicians are mainly unaware of CAM use by patients, doctor-patient communication about CAM use should be brought to a higher level. To identify circumstances in which CAM are preferred, further investigations are needed especially in biologically based therapies. Clinical-based evidence for mind-body therapies have been established, so this type of CAM can be recommended for patients with cancer during chemotherapy. Future studies are necessary to fill the gaps so that CAM users, as well as medical experts, are in position to clearly determine all the benefits and disadvantages of the mentioned therapy.
This paper takes stock from five aspects, namely, treatment methods, detection technology, new drug research and development, information data and traditional Chinese medicine, with a view to "from the point to the surface", "from the outside to the inside", and "the combination of Chinese and western", so as to explore the overall picture of cancer treatment and research.
The present review discusses the application of nanoparticles in the early diagnosis and treatment of tumors, through Western and traditional Chinese medicine, indicating the potential enhancement of biological effectiveness and target-specificity of the combination of nanoparticles and Western or Chinese medicine.
In the classical ancient Chinese medicine book of Huang Di Nei Jing (Yellow Emperor's Classic of Medicine) (221 B.C.E.-220 C.E.), the earliest known documents on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), a set of theories has already been established on the diagnosis and treatment of tumors. However, the traditional formulations of TCM, including decoctions, pills, and powders are associated with various shortcomings, including poor water solubility, low bioavailability, and short half-life, which limit their effectiveness in the treatment of tumors. Early research efforts in this area were dedicated to improving the targeted delivery of the active components of TCM monomers. By combining the active TCM monomers with nanomaterials, the bioavailability and targeted specificity of TCMs can be effectively increased.
Objective: Malignant tumors pose a serious threat to human life and health. Despite recent developments in modern medical techniques, the early diagnosis and treatment of tumors remain difficult due to their asymptomatic nature in the early stages of disease and the limitations in current clinical diagnostic methods. Advancements in nanotechnology, particularly in the area of multi-functional diagnostic nanomaterials, can help effectively resolve present inadequacies via concurrently achieving early diagnosis, image-guided intervention, and real-time monitoring and treatment of tumors. The development of nanomaterials and nanotechnology may also aid in the area of anti-cancer drug development by improving the safety and side-effect profile, as well as by enhancing the targeted specificity of the drugs, which are two of the long-standing challenges in Western medicine. The progress in the field of nanomaterials has also uncovered novel approaches for the clinical application of traditional Chinese medicine because the combination of traditional Chinese medicine components with nanoparticles overcomes various drawbacks, including poor water solubility, low bioavailability, and short half-life, of the former. Moreover, nanoparticles also enhance the biological effectiveness and targeted specificity of these medicines. In this review, we discuss the application of nanoparticles in the early diagnosis and treatment of tumors, through modern and traditional medicine.
The identification of syndrome conditions had different impacts on CRC prognosis, and which may be related with different mRNA expression levels. Our results prelimitarily uncovered that some oncogenes and pro-inflammatory cytokines were highly expressed in Dampness Heat group but not other syndrome types and CRC patients with Dampness Heat syndrome might have a poor prognosis.
TCM syndrome is a kind of pathological profiles that reflect signs and symptoms at a certain stage of a disease, which is the most essential guidelines for the prescription of Chinese herbal formulae and also an important classification for CRC TCM therapy. A clear understanding biological basis of TCM syndrome will help the clinical diagnosis and the treatment for CRC patients hopefully.
Background: Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndrome, also named syndrome, are comprehensive and integral analyses of clinical information which helps to guide different individualized treatment prescriptions. Methods: Thirty healthy controls and 80 colorectal cancer (CRC) patients (including 33 Spleen Qi Deficiency syndrome, 23 Dampness Heat syndrome, 17 Blood Stasis syndrome and 7 other syndrome) were enrolled into this study. Human mRNAs were extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The gene expression for CRC patients with different TCM syndrome was determined by microarray and qRT-PCR. Results: Spleen Qi Deficiency, Dampness Heat and Blood Stasis were the most common syndromes in CRC patients. There is a significant difference was found in mRNA expression levels (especially for PIK3CA, STAT3, SOX9 and KDM5C) among Spleen Qi Deficiency, Dampness Heat and Blood Stasis syndrome groups. The higher mRNA levels of JNK1, TP53, MLH1, MSH6, PMS2, SOCS3, TCF7L2, FAM123B, PSAP, FBXW7, SALL4 and the lower expression of inflammatory cytokine IL-6 were found in Spleen Qi Deficiency group but not other syndrome types. The higher mRNA levels of KRAS, MUC16, EGFR, GRASP65, PIK3CA, MAPK7, CD24, STAT3, SLC11A1, Bcl-2, TXNDC17 and some inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-23, TNF-a, CXCR4) were found in Dampness Heat group but not other syndrome types. Blood Stasis syndrome showed higher expression of SOX9, MLH1, MSH6, KDM5C, PCDH11X, PSAP and SALL4, and lower mRNA levels of PIK3CA, CD24, STAT3, CXCR4, TXNDC17 and TP53. The CRC patients with Dampness Heat syndrome might have a poor prognosis than other syndrome types. Conclusion: The identification of syndrome conditions had different impacts on CRC prognosis, and which might be related with different mRNA expression levels. Some oncogenes and pro-inflammatory cytokines were highly expressed in Dampness Heat group but not other syndrome types, suggesting that the CRC patients with Dampness Heat syndrome might have a poor prognosis. Our results prelimitarily uncovered the molecular basis of syndrome differences in CRC prognosis, a better understanding for TCM treatment of CRC.
As an adjuvant treatment of colorectal cancer, a Chinese patent medicine Astragalus injection can reduce the toxicity and improve the efficiency of the conventional Western medicine.
The herb Huang Qi (Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bge.) was first recorded in the the classical ancient Chinese medicine book entitled Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing (Shennong’s Classic of Materia Medica) (Three Kingdoms period of China, 25 C.E.-220 C.E.). Huang Qi (Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bge.) was considered as one of the representative herb with the function of tonifying the Qi (one of the vital energies in the traditional Chinese medicine theory that circulates around the body at all times). Pharmarcology studies have found that Huang Qi (Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bge.) plays an anti-cancer role by regulating immunity, inducing apoptosis of tumor cells, and inhibiting the growth and metastasis of tumor cells. Astragalus injection, a Chinese patent medicine approved by the State Food and Drug Administration of China with the serial number of 2001ZFB0171, contains Huang Qi (Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bge.) and other ingredients that are widely used in clinical practice of cancer treatment.
Background: The combination of Chinese patent medicine Astragalus injection and Western medicine has achieved a certain clinical effect in colorectal cancer patients. However, due to the uneven basic conditions and research indicators of these clinical trials, it is difficult to comprehensively evaluate the effect of Astragalus injection in the adjuvant treatment of colorectal cancer. This study aimed to systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety of Astragalus injection as an adjuvant treatment for colorectal cancer. Methods: The Cochrane Library, VIP database, Wanfang database, and Chinese Academic Journal Full Text database were searched for potentially eligible articles from inception to December 15, 2018. Randomized controlled trials in which patients were diagnosed with colorectal cancer were included. Patients in the control group received chemotherapy alone or combined with other drugs, or chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy. Patients in the experimental group were treated with Astragalus injection combined with interventions in the control group. Results: A total of 8 articles were included. Compared with Western medicine alone, the Astragalus injection could improve the therapeutic effect (RR = 1.18, 95% CI (1.01, 1.38), P = 0.03), improved the quality of life of colorectal cancer patients (SMD = 1.18, 95% CI (0.86, 1.50), P <0.001), inhibited leukopenia (RR = 0.55, 95% CI (0.42, 0.71), P < 0.001), reduced neurotoxicity (RR = 0.43, 95% CI (0.34, 0.56), P < 0.001), and reduced the incidence of nausea and vomiting (RR = 0.67, 95% CI (0.55, 0.80), P < 0.001). Conclusion: Astragalus injection can reduce the toxicity and improve the efficiency of the conventional Western medicine in the treatment of colorectal cancer.
Etiology and pathogenesis of vitiligo has not been interpreted perfectly. Epidemiologic evidence about falling level of copper and zinc in blood serum increasing the risk of vitiligo remains contradictory. We investigated the association between blood serum copper and zinc with vitiligo via performing a meta-analysis. Results indicates there was a significant lower level of copper and zinc in patients with vitiligo compared with healthy population ((Z = 3.55, P = 0.000; SMDCu = −0.84, 95% CI, −1.30 to −0.38) and (Z = 5.40, P = 0.000; SMDZn = −1.01, 95% CI, −1.38 to −0.64), respectively). Meanwhile, no statistical evidence for publication bias in the end outcome. Conclusion from our finding offers a meaningful insight into lower level of copper and zinc in serum confer risk to vitiligo.
A Tibetan (one of the ethnic minorities in China) compound preparation, Siwei Yuganzi decoction, can improve the serum levels of TC, TG, and LDL-C in the hyperlipidemic animal model via increasing the expression of both LXRα and CYP7A1 mRNA and proteins in the liver tissue.
Siwei Yuganzi decoction is an adaptation of a classical prescription of the Tibetan medicine called Sanguo decoction, which is recorded in the classic ancient book of Tibetan medicine entitled Sibu Jingdian, written by the famous Tibetan medical scientist named G.yuthog Rnyingma·Yontan Mgonpo in 800 C.E..
Background: Hyperlipidemia (HLP) is a disorder in which lipids in the blood are disturbed due to abnormal lipid metabolism. Statins and fibrates lipid-regulating drugs prevent the generation of lipids and improves HLP, thereby reducing the likelihood of developing cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. However, their adverse reactions and side effects limit a wide range of clinical applications. Tibetan medicine compound preparation Siwei Yuganzi decoction (SYD) is an adaptation of a classical prescription of the Tibetan medicine Sanguo decoction, that has been proved to have the effect of improving lipid metabolism; however, its possible mechanism remains unknown. Methods: Sixty specific-pathogen free grade Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into the blank control group, the HLP group, the Chinese patent medicine Xuezhikang positive control group, and the treatment groups with Tibetan SYD high-, middle-, and low-dosages respectively. Ten rats were assigned to each group. Every rat in these groups was fed with a high-fat emulsion to establish the hyperlipidemic animal model, except for those in the blank control group. Then the rats in the blank control and HLP groups were fed with 0.9% normal saline, those in Xuezhikang group were fed with Xuezhikang suspension at the dose of 0.11 g/kg/d, and those in SYD groups were fed with the SYD suspension at the dosage of 16.2 g/kg/d (high dosage), 10.8 g/kg/d (middle dosage), and 5.4 g/kg/d (low dosage), respectively. After 8 weeks, the levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were detected by the ELISA. The mRNA and protein expression levels of liver X receptor α (LXRα) and cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase 1 (CYP7A1) were detected using RT-PCR, western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. Results: The serum levels of TC, TG, and LDL-C in the HLP group were higher than those in the blank control group (P < 0.05), whereas the serum levels of HDL-C and the expression levels of both LXRα and CYP7A1 mRNA and proteins in the liver in the HLP group were lower than those in the control group (P < 0.05). After the treatment of the Xuezhikang and SYD, the serum levels of TG, TC, and LDL-C significantly decreased (P < 0.05), whereas the serum levels of HDL-C and the expression levels of both LXRα and CYP7A1 mRNA and proteins in the liver significantly increased compared with those in the HLP group (P < 0.05). Furthermore, The serum levels of TC, TG, and LDL-C in the SYD group at high dosage were lower (P < 0.05), the serum level of HDL-C was higher, and the expression levels of both LXRα and CYP7A1 mRNA and proteins in the liver tissue were higher than those in the Xuezhikang group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: SYD can improve the serum levels of TC, TG, and LDL-C in the hyperlipidemic animal model via increasing the expression of both LXRα and CYP7A1 mRNA and proteins in the liver tissue.
Health coaching intervention has a significant effect on hemoglobin A1c and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol of patients with diabetes mellitus.
The first use of the term "coach" arose around 1830 in Oxford University as a slang in relation with an instructor or trainer or tutor who "carried" a student through an exam. The term “coaching” thus refers to the process of transporting people from where they are to where they want to be. In 1915, the National Board of Medical Examiners was founded. In 2002, Wellcoaches partnered with the American College of Sports Medicine. In 2010, the National Consortium for Credentialing Health and Wellness Coaches was founded. In 2017, the International Consortium for Health and Wellness Coaching was established. Coaching as a method to improve healthy lifestyle behaviors has received special attention in recent years.
Background: Using health coaching to improve the quality of life and health outcomes of the patients with diabetes mellitus, has emerged as a possible intervention. However, the few published randomized controlled trials using health coaching for patients with diabetes mellitus have reported mixed results. The present meta-analysis aimed to determine the effectiveness of health coaching on modifying health status and quality of life among diabetic patients and to clarify the characteristics of coaching delivery that make it most effective. Methods: This study searched for articles on randomized controlled trials of health coaching interventions targeting type 2 diabetic patients that were published in the English language from January 2005 through December 2018 in the Cochrane, Medline, PubMed, Trip, and Embase databases. Patients in the control group received usual diabetes mellitus care, and those in the experimental group received health coaching based on usual diabetes mellitus care. The primary outcomes included Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and cardiovascular disease risk factors, including systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, and body weight. The secondary outcomes included quality of life, self-efficacy, self-care skills, and psychological outcomes. Results: Health coaching intervention has a significant effect on HbA1c [mean difference (MD) = -0.35, confidence interval (CI) = -0.47, -0.22, I2 = 83%, P < 0.001] and HDL-C (MD = -0.50, CI = -0.93, -0.07, I2 = 10%, P = 0.02). The most effective strategy for health coaching delivery associated with improvement of HbA1c was decreasing the number of sessions and increasing the duration of each session. However, no significant difference was found for weight, SBP, diastolic blood pressure, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or total cholesterol. Mixed results were reported for the effect of health coaching on quality of life, self-efficacy, self-care skills, and depressive symptoms outcome. Conclusion: Health coaching intervention has a significant effect on HbA1c and HDL-C, and the most effective strategy is decreasing the number of sessions while increasing session duration. However, these results should be interpreted with caution as the evidence comes from studies at some risk of bias with considerable heterogeneity and imprecision.
The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is related to the imbalance of oral microflora in the human body. The characteristic tongue coating flora structure, containing Prevotella, Fusobacterium, Streptococcus, Neisseria, etc., can influence the formation of yellow thick coating. However, the role of yellow thick coating in the incidence of T2DM needs further investigation.
Diabetes is called “Xiaoke” in traditional Chinese medicine. According to the record of Jin Kui Yao Lue (an ancient book of Chinese medicine published in the Han dynasty of China), the typical clinical symptoms of “Xiaoke” is thirsty for drinking water and dry mouth, suggesting that as early as Han dynasty, Chinese medicine associated the onset of diabetes with the mouth and tongue symptoms. Currently, it is believed that a two-way interaction exists between diabetes and periodontitis, a disease resulted from the imbalance oral microbial community. In 2015, “National Individual Microbiome Detection Project” was launched with the aim of finding biomarkers or risk factors for diseases in oral, skin, and intestinal microbial communities.
Objective: To analyze the characteristics of bacterial flora on the tongue and types of tongue coating between healthy individuals and patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) via detecting 16S rDNA of oral tongue coating microbial group. Methods: A total of 42 patients with T2DM were recruited, including 6 with thin white coating, 9 with mirror-like coating, 27 with yellow thick coating (YTC), and 28 healthy individuals. The V4 region of 16S rDNA from the tongue coating microbiota was sequenced using the Linux ubuntu sequencing platform, and the structure of bacterial flora in the tongue was analyzed. Treeplot construction, principal coordinates analysis, redundancy analysis, and linear discriminant analysis were conducted using R software to analyze the differences of bacterial flora in the tongue coating in each group. Results: A total of 8131 different operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained via sequencing, of which 719 OTU samples showed significant differences (P < 0.05). Comparing OTUs with the 16S rDNA database of known species and annotation of parallel species revealed 16 species with differences at the phylum level, 31 at the class level, 54 at the order level, 88 at the family level, and 161 at the genus level. The dominant bacteria found in patients with T2DM included Lactobacillus, Streptophyta, Chloroplast, Cyanobacteria-Chloroplast, and Bifidobacteriaceae, etc. Dominant bacteria in the control group belonged to Pasteurellales, Pasteurellaceae, Leptotrichiaceae, Lachnoanaerobaculum, and Ignavibacteria among other bacterial families. All samples were clustered into three groups, each group characterized by dominant bacteria. The order of dominant bacteria in group 1 were Prevotella > Neisseria > Veillonella > Streptococcus > Fusobacterium > Leptotrichia and so on. The order of dominant bacteria of group 2 were Neisseria > Prevotella > Fusobacterium > Streptococcus > porphyromonas and so on. The dominant bacteria of group 3 were Prevotella > Fusobacterium > Streptococcus > Neisseria > Leptotrichia > Rothia > Veillonella > porphyromonas > f_Pasteurellaceae > Capnocytophaga > Actinomyces > Alloprevotella and so on. Single factor risk estimation: with group 1 used as the reference (OR = 1), the risk of carrying group 2 and group 3 microflora with T2DM increased (OR values were 4.77 and 7.78, respectively). The proportion of group 1 microflora in the control group (25.9%) was higher than that in the T2DM group (5.4%) (χ2 = 3.873, P = 0.049). Compared with group 1 and group 2, group 3 had a significantly dominant microflora structure in YTC group (χ2 = 7.120, P = 0.008). RDA analysis indicated that Neisseria, Fusobacterium, and Prevotella were associated with HbA1c values > 10 mmol/L, whereas Rothia, Streptococcus, and Veillonella were more correlated with HbA1c ≤ 10 mmol/L. Conclusion: The incidence of T2DM is related to the imbalance of oral microflora in the human body. The tongue coating flora structure may influence the formation of different tongue coating types in this metabolic condition. Additionally, flora structures of Prevotella, Neisseria, and Fusobacterium were associated with elevated HbA1c.
order to find a genetic marker to predict the prognosis of patients with
ovarian cancer based on multi-omics data. Methods: We download RNA-Seq
SNP, CNV data and clinical follow-up information from TCGA database and
randomly divide them into training set and test set. GSE17260 dataset in GEO is
taken as an external validation set. Prognosis-related genes, copy number
difference genes and mutant genes are screened in the training set. After the
integration of genes, the random forest algorithm is further used for feature
selection, ultimately obtaining a robust biomarker. On this basis, a
gene-related prognostic model is established and verified in the test set and
verification set. Results: We have obtained 2097 prognostic related
genes, 447 copy amplification genes, 1069 copy deletion genes and 654
significant mutations genes. Through the feature selection of random forest
algorithm, five feature genes (PSMB1, COL6A6, SLC22A2, KLHL23 and CD3G) are
obtained by integrating these genes, some of which have been reported to be
related to tumor progress. Furthermore, the prognostic risk assessment model of
5-gene signature is established by Cox regression analysis. The model can
evaluate the risk of patient samples in training set, test set and external
verification set. 5-gene signature shows strong robustness and clinical
independence. The results of GSEA analysis also show that the pathway of 5-gene
signature enrichment is significantly related to the pathway and biological
process of the occurrence and development of ovarian cancer. Conclusion: In
this study, 5-gene signature is constructed as a new prognostic marker to
predict the survival of patients with ovarian cancer.
Due to persistent or low-intensity stimulation, tissue cells are in a
state of injury for a long time, and the inflammatory state continues,
eventually leading to nonresolving inflammation. In this nonresolving inflammation,
various inflammatory mediators and inflammatory cells act on tissue
cells, and tumors are easily induced. Further, the unique
microenvironment of the tumor further aggravates the development of
uncontrolled inflammation. Eventually a vicious circle is formed. In
this paper, we explored the mechanism of inflammatory mediators,
inflammatory cells and tumors in nonresolving inflammation from the relationship between nonresolving inflammation and tumors, and provided some new ideas for the prevention and treatment of tumors.
Schisandra oil has a protective effect on liver injury in model of autoimmune hepatitis by inhibiting the activation of T cells and reducing the expression of proinflammatory cytokines.
Objective: To study the immunomodulatory effect of schisandra oil (SCO) in mouse model of autoimmune hepatitis induced by concanavalin A (ConA). Methods: C57BL/6 mice were divided into control group, model group and SCO group. Mice in SCO group were given SCO at 5 mg/kg by intragastric administration every day for 7 days, followed by intravenous injection of ConA at 10 mg/kg. 10 hours after ConA injection, the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured by the kits, the expression of inflammatory cytokines like interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-4 (IL-4), interleukin-17 (IL-17), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in liver was detected by real-time quantitative PCR, and the T cell activation and IFN-γ expression in spleen and MLN were examined by flow cytometry. Results: Compared with control group, each indicator in model group were significantly higher. In SCO preventive treatment group, the levels of serum ALT, AST and LDH were significantly reduced (all P < 0.001), the expression levels of inflammatory cytokines in liver were downregulated, the T cell activation in spleen and MLN was inhibited (P = 0.006 and P = 0.008), the percentages of IFN-γ+ CD8+ and IFN-γ+ CD4+ T cells were decreased, and the frequencies of Th2 and Th17 cells in spleen and MLN were also decreased at the same time. Conclusion: SCO has a protective effect on immune liver injury by inhibiting the activation of T cells and reducing the expression of inflammatory cytokines, which reflects that SCO plays a role in the immunomodulation of autoimmune hepatitis, indicating that SCO is of great significance for the maintenance of autoimmune homeostasis.
This review introduced the current major anti-inflammatory natural active molecules based on their chemical structures, and discussed their pharmacological mechanisms.
Natural active molecules are key sources of modern innovative drugs. Particularly, a great amount of natural active molecules have been reported to possess promising therapeutic effects on inflammatory diseases, including asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, hepatitis, enteritis, metabolic disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. However, these natural active molecules with various molecular structures usually exert anti-inflammatory effects through diversiform pharmacological mechanisms, which is necessary to be summarized systematically. In this review, we introduced the current major anti-inflammatory natural active molecules based on their chemical structures, and discussed their pharmacological mechanisms including anti-inflammatory molecular signaling pathways and potential target proteins, which providing a referential significance on the development of novel anti-inflammatory drugs, and also revealing new therapeutic strategies for inflammatory diseases.
This review covers the plant distribution and pharmacological activities of flavonoids, stressing the importance of identifying such valuable flavonoids in another genus or family while providing a basis for fully exploiting the therapeutic potential of flavonoids.
Flavonoids are natural organic compounds that are widely found in nature, their structural types are complex, and they mainly include flavonoids, flavonols, dihydroflavonols, isoflavones, dihydroisoflavones, chalcones, orange ketones, flavanoids, anthocyanidins, and biflavonoids. This review covers the plant distribution and pharmacological activities of flavonoids. Flavonoids are mainly distributed in angiosperms and gymnosperms, and they are abundant in plants such as Rutaceae, Labiatae, Zingiberaceae, Scrophulariaceae, and Leguminosae. Because of their wide distribution and variety, researchers have found that flavonoids have diverse biological activities, mainly focusing on anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antitumor activities. Mechanistically, the anti-inflammatory effects are mainly related to the NF-κB and MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) signaling pathway and then the inhibition of the production of inflammatory cytokines and mediators. The antibacterial activity is mainly manifested as inhibitory effects on many strains, including Escherichia coli, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, via destroying the stability of the microbial membrane, inhibiting the invasion of virulent bacteria into host cells, promoting the apoptosis of bacteria, inhibiting bacterial fatty acid synthesis, etc. The antitumor activity of flavonoids is related to their inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis via the mitochondria-mediated, endoplasmic reticulum-mediated, and death factor and its receptor-mediated signal transduction pathways. Understanding the plant distribution and pharmacological activity of flavonoids not only reveals the importance of identifying such valuable flavonoids in another genus or family but also provides a basis for fully exploiting the therapeutic potential of flavonoids.
Objective: To analyze the research status, development
context and trend of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) network pharmacology
from birth to the present. Methods: In this study, bibliographic data and references of articles on TCM network pharmacology
were collected from Web of Science Core Collection (WoSCC), and software
including CiteSpace, VOSviewer and Microsoft Excel were applied for the
bibliometric analysis of periodicals and the quantity of literature, and for
the construction and analysis of the co-occurrence network of countries,
journals, research institutes and authors, clusters of co-cited references, and
time distribution network of keywords. Results: 249 articles were included in this study. The time span was from 2011 to 2018, and
the annual volume of publications showed an increasing trend year by year. The
77 journals contain relevant literature, and the average impact factor of the
journal is 3.215. Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines, Scientific Reports,
PLoS One have high influence in the field of TCM network pharmacology.
Universities and research institutes including China Academy of Chinese Medical
Science and Northwest Agriculture & Forestry University are the major
forces in this field. Wang Yonghua and Li Shao are authors with high influence
in this field, with a considerable number of relevant documents and citations.
According to the clustering results of co-cited references, research topics can
be classified into 13 development contexts such as “compound danshen formula”,
“computational tool”, and “new multi-compound drug discovery”. Hotspots of TCM
network pharmacology include “drug discovery”, “mechanism” and “cardiovascular
disease”, and relevant research methods and research contents including drugs
and diseases tend to be constantly enriched. Conclusion: This study comprehensively demonstrates the research
status, development context and trends of TCM network pharmacology, and
provides a scientific reference for TCM network pharmacology researchers.
As a well-known Chinese medicine prescription, Wenxin Keli (WXKL) has
been widely used in the treatment of many arrhythmias including atrial
fibrillation and has achieved significant clinical effects, but the specific
mechanism of its treatment of atrial fibrillation remains unclear. This study
used a network pharmacology approach to reveal the potential molecular
mechanisms of WXKL in the treatment of atrial fibrillation. It involves oral
bioavailability screening of ingredients, drug-likeness evaluation, compound
target fishing, H-C-T network and C-T-P network construction and analysis.
Through the network pharmacology-based research strategy, the complex system of
WXKL was analyzed. It was found that 14 representative compounds of WXKL, 30
protein targets and 12 related signaling pathways help us systematically
understand the underlying mechanism of WXKL's anti-atrial fibrillation effects.
Background: Yinchenhao Decoction (YCHD), an
ancient Chinese herbal medicinal compound prescribe for the treatment of
jaundice, which long-term clinical experience and randomized trials have shown was
effective against chronic hepatitis B (CHB). However, its mechanism remained
unknown. With the gradual separation of pharmacodynamic components in YCHD and
the development of computer virtual technology, network pharmacology provides
an opportunity. Our study is to explore the underlying mechanism of YCHD for
the treatment of CHB. Methods: The
active compounds of YCHD were screened from TCMSP database, whose targets were
predicted based on the ligands structures and the targets of CHB was selected from
the TTD, DisGeNET, and Drugbank databases to obtain the potential targets of
YCHD for CHB treating. Cytoscape 3.6.1 was applied for network analysis to
identify key targets, and gene enrichment of the targets shared by both YCHD
and CHB was performed by DAVID database. The virtual verification of binding activities
between the target protein and the small molecule was finally performed by the
Sytems Dock platform. Results: The
potentially important targets associated with CHB corresponding to 33 compound
components from YCHD included ESR1, CYP1A2, PTGS2, CYP1A1, ABCG2, MMP9.
Besides, enriched were the related 8 KEGG pathways (P<0.05) such as
ABC transporters, Bile secretion, TNF signaling pathway. Conclusions: This
study used network pharmacology method to reveal the characteristics, “multi-component
and multi-target and multi-pathway”, of YCHD on CHB treatment, providing
thoughts for further research.
Erythrocyte aggregation is the tendency of erythrocytes to form aggregates whose shapes change according to normal variations or pathological conditions. Consequently, regardless of cause, these anomalies effect changes to flow dynamics and predispose the inability to carry out transportation activities and decrease functional capillary density or decrease erythrocyte surface area, also decreasing functional efficiency. Functional capillary density is the determination of the number of capillaries in an area that have erythrocyte flow and relates to the subsequent ability of the blood to deliver nutrients, fluid and solute exchange, and waste product excretion. Red blood cell aggregation has a significant impact on functional capillary density. Moringa oleifera, one of the most phytonutrient dense plants as identified by the NIH, has garnered interest by those involved with anti-aging medicine. The US National Institutes of Health, the nation’s medical research agency whose mission is to seek fundamental knowledge about the nature and behavior of living systems and the application of that knowledge to enhance health, lengthen life, and reduce the burdens of illness and disability, has affirmed Moringa oleifera can “arrest, reverse, and cure, over 300 different diseases and disorders.” Regular use of Moringa oleifera has been shown to have a multitude of health benefits. In addition to this, Moringa oleifera provides all of the essential amino acids, vital vitamins, contains several important minerals, is an incredibly powerful antioxidant, is high in fiber, stimulates the immune system to fight cancerous cells, tumours, ulcers, epileptic seizures and cleanses and detoxifies the entire body. Moringa oleifera has been shown to protect platelets against aggregation. In this investigation, live blood microscopic evaluation indicates positive changes in the shape and spatial orientation of the erythrocytes and decreased incidence of aggregation and rouleaux indicating improved functional capillary density. In conclusion, a proprietary formula of raw organic Moringa oleifera has empirically demonstrated subjective beneficial changes in patients who have supplemented with this formula.
Background: Nowadays, acute alcoholic intoxication has become the third public problem in China, and the anti-inebriation products mainly aimed at increasing the activity of enzyme involved in the alcohol metabolism, which is a single mechanism that can accelerate alcohol metabolism. Thus, a new formula, Jiujiuguiyi (JJGY) which could protect liver, relieve the abnormal excitability of the center and improve muscle retardation at the same time is designed by us. Methods: The model of acute alcoholic intoxication was established by intragastric administration with 0.12 ml/10g 50% alcohol in mice. JJGY was orally administrated (gavage) once a day for 20 consecutive days before the establishment of acute alcoholic model. Mice were randomly divided into 8 groups with 8 each: blank control group (CON), model group (M), Haiwangjinzun positive control group (HWJZ), experimental groups (AL, AH, BL, BH, AB). Giant, crawling time on the rota-rod, the activities of aspartate amino trans- ferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in both liver and serum, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) in liver as well as the HE staining of liver slices, the formation of malondialdehyde (MDA) in serum were determined after acute alcoholic intoxication. Results: Compared with model group, JJGY significantly decreased the AST and ALT activity in liver and serum and MDA activity in serum. Meanwhile, it enhanced the ADH and ALDH level in liver as well as the hepatic and serous SOD activity, indicating more efficient metabolism of alcohol and less hepatic injury. HE staining results also proved that JJGY could reduce alcoholic liver cell injury, and the effect was more obvious in the group medicated before alcohol administration. Moreover, JJGY significantly prolonged the crawling time on the rota-rod and improved the gait of mice and the effect was proved to be better than the widely used health product Haiwangjinzun. Conclusions: This study suggests that JJGY is able to protect liver, relieve the abnormal excitability of the center and improve muscle retardation after acute alcoholic intoxication. Its liver protection effect is likely related to its modulation on the alcohol metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes.
In the present study, a new compound Chinese herbal medicine formula, Jiujiuguiyi, was designed by using the medicine and food homology theory. The formula aims at protecting liver, relieving the abnormal excitability of the center and improving muscle retardation at the same time. Acute alcoholic intoxication model in mice was built, then the ethology test and biochemical test were conducted to exam the efficacy of the formula in different preparations. The results suggest that JJGY can protect the acute alcoholic intoxication mice through multiple mechanisms, providing a new way to develop antialcoholismic drug homologous food.
Emerging evidence has demonstrated that Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA) prevents cardiomyocytes injury, cardiac fibroblasts and atherosclerosis. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the effects of Tan IIA is still unclear. To investigate the role of Tan IIA in inflammatory response in a ROS-NLRP3 inflammasome dependent manner, RAW264.7 cells stimulated with LPS were recruited to produce a cell model of inflammatory response. Our results indicated that the production of NO was significantly increased after stimulated by LPS, and Tan IIA treated significantly decreased the level of NO. The mRNA expression of NLRP3, IL-1β and TNF-α was significantly inhibited by Tan IIA compared with LPS treated cells. The protein expression of NLRP3, IKBα, pp65/p65 and pp38/p38 was significantly decreased by Tan IIA, compared with LPS or LPS+ATP stimulated groups. Meanwhile, Tan IIA significantly inhibited the level of ROS induced by LPS+ATP. And NAC, a ROS inhibitor, could also inhibit the protein expression of NLRP3. Based on these findings, it could be speculated that the mechanism underlying the effect of Tan IIA may involve the regulation of ROS-NF-κB/ P38-NLRP3 pathway. This study further characterized the molecular mechanism of Tan IIA, and provided new thoughts to its clinical therapy.
Tan IIA could inhibit the inflammatory response and NLRP3 expression stimulated by LPS or LPS+ATP. Acetylcysteine (N-acetyl-l-cysteine, NAC), a ROS inhibitor, could inhibit LPS+ATP-induced increase in NLRP3 level. The mechanism underlying the effects of Tan IIA may involve the regulation of ROS-NF-κB/ P38-NLRP3 pathway. This study further characterized the molecular mechanism of Tan IIA, and provided new thoughts to its clinical therapy.
In order to investigate the mechanism of mitochondrial membrane stabilization by Angelica sinensis polysaccharide (ASP) in murine aplastic anemia (AA).ICR mice were randomly divided into control, AA and ASP-treated groups. The AA group mice were treated with 60Coγand intraperitoneal injections of cyclophosphamide and chloramphenicol. The control animals were treated with lead shielding irradiation and saline injection. The treated AA mice were fed with ASP for 2 wk. Mitochondrial ultrastructure of the bone marrow was observed by transmission electron microscopy, and the transmembrane potential of bone marrow-nucleated cells （BMNC）was examined by fluorescence spectrophotometry. The Cox and MDH contents of the medium were also studied in the three groups.The mitochondrial number and transmembrane potential of BMNC in the bone marrow decreased in the AA group as compared to the control group, but improved in the ASP-treated group as compared to the AA group. Complete mitochondrial cleavage in the ASP-treated group was significantly delayed (P < 0.05) as compared to the AA group. We conclude that ASP might improve mitochondrial membrane stabilization, and suppress the downregulation of transmembrane potential and apoptosis of BMNC in AA.
Acquired deletions of mtDNA and abnormal mitochondrial function are crucial reasons in some blood disease include aplastic anemia. Angelica sinensis helps in tonifying the blood and promoting its circulation via anti-oxidative and neuroprotective effects. In this paper, we demonstrated that Angelica sinensis polysaccharide can improve improve the mitochondrial ultrastructure, and suppress the downregulation of transmembrane potential and apoptosis of myeloid element to cure bone marrow failure.
This study demonstrated that mechanism of Radix et Rhizoma Rhei (Dahuang) and Semen Persicae (Taoren) drug pair in the treatment of adhesion intestinal obstruction may be related to activate immune effect, decrease the expression levels of inflammatory cytokines, accelerate apoptosis of intestinal macrophages/T lymphocytes, and antagonize inflammatory reaction and tissue fibrosis to repair the intestinal mucosal barrier.
Radix et Rhizoma Rhei (Dahuang) (RERR) and Semen Persicae (Taoren) (SP) are the core drug pair commonly used in the treatment of adhesion intestinal obstruction. RERR and SP drug pair comes from the classical prescriptions of Chinese medicine including Didang soup and Taohe Chengqi decoction in Shanghanlun (an ancient book of Chinese medicine published in the 3rd Century A.D.) and Biejia Jian pills, Dahuang Shuchong pill, and Dahuang Mudan decoction in Jingui Yaolue (an ancient book of Chinese medicine published in the 3rd Century A.D.).
Objective: To explore the mechanism of action of Radix et Rhizoma Rhei (Dahuang) (RERR) and Semen Persicae (Taoren) (SP) on adhesive intestinal obstruction (AIO). Methods: The main targets of the active ingredients of RERR and SP were filtered based on the traditional Chinese medicine system pharmacology analysis platform. Cytoscape 3.2.1 was applied to build the ingredient-target network of RERR and SP for AIO. Results: Fifteen active components were predicted from the RERR and SP herb pair, such as aloe-emodin, catechin, rhein, gibberellin (GA) 119, GA120 and GA121. These components were applied to 59 targets mainly involved in many biological processes such as signal transduction, anti-apoptosis, and inflammatory response involved in activating the immune effect. Conclusion: This study proposes the system pharmacology method and identifies the potent combination therapeutic mechanism of RERR and SP for AIO. This strategy will provide a new insight to the study of herb combinations.
This study demonstrated that Chinese herbal formula Da-Cheng-Qi decoction combined with the conventional treatment could effectively decrease the serum levels of CCL2, CRP, and IL-8, relieve enteroparalysis, and shorten the duration of hospitalization in patients with severe acute pancreatitis
Da-Cheng-Qi decoction (DCQD) is a famous Chinese herbal formula that includes Radix et Rhizoma Rhei (Dahuang), Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis (Houpu), Fructus Aurantii Immaturus (Zhishi), and Natrii Sulfas (Mangxiao). The original record about DCQD can be traced back to the 3rd Century A.D. According to the description in Shanghan Lun, an ancient book of Chinese medicine published in Han Dynasty of China, DCQD had the effect of purging accumulation and clearing heat from the stomach and intestine.
Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of Da-Cheng-Qi decoction (DCQD) on enteroparalysis and levels of the serum inflammatory cytokines C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). Methods: A total of 48 patients diagnosed with SAP who hospitalized in First Affiliated Hospital of Henan Traditional Chinese Medicine University from May 1, 2016 to May 30, 2018 were randomly assigned to the control or treatment groups. Patients in the control group (n = 22) received conventional treatment and those in the treatment group (n = 26) received conventional treatment as well as additional DCQD for 10 days. The duration of abdominal pain and distension, the time when bowel sounds returned to normal, changes in the levels of serum amylase, lipase, C-reactive protein (CRP), CCL2 and IL-8, as well as acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) II scores of patients on days 1 and 10 were recorded and compared. Results: The duration of abdominal pain and distension, the time when bowel sounds returned to normal, the levels of blood amylase, lipase and CRP, and APACHE II scores of patients in the treatment group decreased significantly compared with those of patients in the control group. Though there were no statistical differences in serum CCL2 and IL-8 concentrations on day 1 between patients in these two groups, the levels of serum CCL2 and IL-8 in the treatment group were lower than those in the control group on day 10. Conclusion: DCQD may decrease the levels of CCL2, CRP, and IL-8 in patients with SAP, quickly relieve enteroparalysis, and shorten hospitalization duration.
The early administration of artificial tiger bone powder after distal radius fracture promotes the healing of fracture, recovery of wrist joint function, and ultimately improve the quality of life in elderly patients.
Tiger bone has been used as a rare traditional medicinal product in ancient Chinese pharmacopoeia for hundreds of years. The earliest record about the usage of tiger bones as a medicine is in the ancient book of Chinese medicine Ming Yi Bie Lu published in Han Dynasty of China (184 C.E.- 220 C.E.). After that, there were many traditional Chinese medicine ancient books recorded that tiger bone had the effect of analgesia, eliminating wind to dispersing cold and strengthening bone. Presently, however, tiger bone use has been banned internationally and in China as a protected species. The artificial tiger bone powder is extracted from non-protected animal bones by modern bionic technology, and has almost the same composition as natural tiger bone.
Objective: To investigate the application of artificial tiger bone powder on fracture healing time, wrist functional recovery and quality of life (QOL) in elderly patients with distal radius fracture. Methods: The study was a randomised controlled trials performed from January 2015 to December 2016 in a hospital. Elderly patients with distal radius fracture were divided into the treatment and the control groups by the random sealed envelope method. All patients were given splint or plaster fixation after manipulative reduction, and functional exercise, the treatment group was also given artificial tiger bone powder orally (trade name: Jintiange capsule), the control group was given an oral placebo in their appearance and usage identical with the treatment group. Prior to treatment and 6, 12 months after treatment, the wrist function was assessed by range of motion, including flexion-extension, radial-ulnar and pronation-supination, and the QOL was assessed by the Mos 36-item Short Form Health Survey. Each patient's fracture healing time was recorded. Results: Before treatment, there were no significant differences in wrist function and QOL between the two groups. At 6 and 12 months after treatment, the wrist function and QOL in the treatment group were better than those in the control group, the differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05). The fracture healing time in the treatment group was shorter than that of the control group, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The early usage of artificial tiger bone powder for elderly patients with distal radius fracture can promote the healing of fracture, recovery of wrist joint function, and ultimately improve the QOL for elderly patients.
studies have shown that the co-morbidity of insomnia and anxiety and
depression is very prominent, among which 70% of anxiety patients are
accompanied by sleep disorders, which is commonly referred to as
insomnia of liver depression syndrome in traditional Chinese medicine.
The etiology and pathogenesis of traditional Chinese medicine is
liver-qi discomfort, and soothing liver and relieving depression should
be taken as the basic treatment method and treatment principle. By
sorting out the relevant literature on PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, the
relationship between PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and depression and
insomnia was sorted out, and the possible mechanism of Liver-soothing
and Depression-Relieving therapy for insomnia of liver-depression
syndrome was found
Coix seed is a dry mature seed of Gramineae plant Coix. It has been confirmed that a plurality of components thereof have pharmacological effects. The mechanism of Coix seed against tumor includes the following aspects: (1) Inhibit the proliferation of tumor cells. (2) Inhibit the invasion and metastasis of tumor cells. (3) Inhibit the formation of tumor blood vessels. (4) Induce apoptosis of tumor cells. (5) The synergistic and attenuating effects on chemotherapy. (6) Enhance the sensitivity of tumor cells to radiation. (7) Adjust the body's immune function. (8) Relieve the pain of advanced tumors. In this paper, we summarized the research adcances of Coix seed foucusing on its anti-tumor effects.
Objective: The analgesic effect of Paeonia Lactiflora has been widely accepted in traditional Chinese medicine. But little is known about the potential mechanism. This study aims to elucidate the effective components and analgesic mechanism based on network pharmacology. Methods: TCMSP was screened to collect the possible active ingredients and their CAS and SMILES was searched in Pubchem and further be used for reverse molecular docking in Swiss Target Prediction database to obtain potential targets. Pain-related molecules were obtained from GeenCards database, and the predicted targets of Paeonia Lactiflora for pain treatment were selected by Wayne diagram. For mechanism analysis, the protein-protein interactions were constructed by String, the GO analysis and KEGG analysis were conducted in DAVID. Results: Through GO analysis and KEGG analysis, we found that the pain related signaling pathways mainly involved in serotonergic synapse, calcium signaling pathway, inflammatory mediator TRP channels. Using network-based systems biology and molecular docking analyses, we predicted that 11 active ingredients in Paeonia Lactiflora has the analgesic effects with 97 potential targets. PRKCA, CASP3, ALOX15, SLC6A4, PRKCG, ALOX5, PRKCB, ALOX12, EGFR, ADRB2, RYR3, RYR1, NOS2, PTAFR, PRKCQ, and PRKCD were involved in the analgesic effects of Paeonia Lactiflora. Conclusion: Paeonia Lactiflora may alleviate pain through inflammatory mediator regulation of TRP channels, Ca2+ signaling pathway and 5-HT receptor. PRKCA, PRKCB, PRKCD，PRKCQ, and PRKCG may be new targets for pain treatment.
1. Liver and kidney are the mainly toxic target organs of traditional medicine.
2. Recently, zebrafish embryoes are popular to evaluate the safety of traditional medicine.
3. The safety assessment of Aconitum, Tripterygium, Strychnine, etc. is still hot issue.
This annual review summarized different analysis methods of toxicology research, common evaluated models, toxic target organs, toxic mechanisms, and popular research issues and herbs in 2018. China, India, USA and Morocco were ranked from the first to fourth important countries researching the toxicology of traditional medicine.
There were many researches concerning toxicology of traditional medicine (TM) and active natural products during the past 12 months. This annual toxicology review summarized different analysis methods of toxicology research, common evaluated models, toxic target organs, toxic mechanisms, and popular research issues and herbs in 2018. The emphasis was on hepatorenal toxicity induced by TM through cell apoptosis, metabolic disorder, oxidative stress, inflammatory damage, liver and renal fibrosis and even inducing carcinogenesis. Meanwhile, traditional herbs were listed in this review. Taken together, the herbs mentioned in this paper should be used with caution. Combination of TM, processing drugs, quality control and dose control can be used in the prevention of TM toxicology in the future.
The present scoping review provides evidence for the application of leech therapy in the treatment of plastic and reconstructive surgery, musculoskeletal diseases, osteoarthritis, etc..
The first recorded report of the use of leeches is in a medical poem, Alexipharma, for Nicander of Colophon, born 200 B.C.. There is also evidence of the using leeches by large scholars such as Avicenna in The Canon of Medicine and Abd-el-Latif al-Baghdadi in Al-Mukhtarat fi al-Tibb. Barbers-surgeons in the middle ages used to use leeches to shed blood for treating some kind of diseases. With the development of modern medicine, the first use of medical leeches occurred in the 1960's, for intravenous congestion after reconstructive surgery. In 2004 the FDA approved leech therapy to accelerate tissue transplantation.
After the developments of modern medicine, leeches were not used as before, but in the late nineteenth century, leeches were still being used in many countries around the world. Until now, leeches have been used to treat a wide range of diseases. The present study, is a scoping review of the evidence of the indication of leech therapy. The results of this study are based on English articles and dissertations published in databases from 2000 up to July 10, 2017. The results showed that leech therapy could be used in different conditions including venous congestion in plastic and reconstructive surgery, osteoarthritis, cardiovascular diseases due to blood coagulation disorders, migraine headache, skin disorders, diabetic foot ulcers, macroglossia, priapism, cancer complications, and wounds. More researches are needed in wider areas with more precise methodologies to ensure the potential therapeutic effects of leech therapy.
Eryngium is the largest genus of Apiaceae family. Some remarkable biological and pharmacological activities of these species have been demonstrated in present scientific studies, including antimicrobial, cytotoxic and anticancer, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antinociceptive activities as well as antioxidant, antidiabetic, anti-snake and anti-scorpion venom effects.
Eryngium genus is one of the medicinal herbs mentioned in several Persian medicine references by the name of “Qaracaane”. It contains 274 accepted species that are distributed all around the world especially in Europe, Africa, America and Australia. Ten species of Eryngium have been identified in Iran including E. caeruleum M.B. (syn: E. caucasicum Trautv.), E. creticum Lam., E. bungei Boiss., E. billardieri F. Delaroche. (syn: E. kotschyi Boiss.), E. glomeratum Lam. (syn: E. parviflorum Sm.), E. bornumulleri Nab., E. pyramidale Boiss. & Husson., E. noeanum Boiss., E. wanaturi Woron. (syn: E. woronowii Bordz.), and E. thyrsoideum Boiss. These species are distributed in all regions of Iran and especially are abundant in the northern provinces such as Gilan and Mazandaran.
Objective: Eryngium with the 274 accepted species, is the largest genus of Apiaceae family which are distributed all over the world and have been used in traditional remedies to manage various ailments in different nations. Ten species of Eryngium have been identified in Iran including E. caeruleum M.B. (syn: E. caucasicum Trautv.), E. creticum Lam., E. bungei Boiss., E. billardieri F. Delaroche. (syn: E. kotschyi Boiss.), E. glomeratum Lam. (syn: E. parviflorum Sm.), E. bornumulleri Nab., E. pyramidale Boiss. & Husson., E. noeanum Boiss., E. wanaturi Woron. (syn: E. woronowii Bordz.), and E. thyrsoideum Boiss. The aim of the present research is to review pharmacological activity, and phytochemical constituents as well as ethnobotany and traditional uses of Iranian species of Eryngium. Materials and methods: Electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct (ISI Web of Knowledge) and Embase library were comprehensively searched for research on Eryngium. The search period was from 1966 to October 2018. The related articles were selected according to the inclusion and exclusion criterias in our study. Results: A total of 57 papers were enrolled in analyses. The findings showed that Iranian species of Eryngium, had a noticeable diverse of traditional medicinal uses and also broad range of pharmacological activities as well as various phytochemical compounds. Some remarkable biological and pharmacological activities of these species have been demonstrated in present scientific studies, including antimicrobial, cytotoxic and anticancer, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antinociceptive activities as well as antioxidant, antidiabetic, anti-snake and anti-scorpion venom effects. Conclusion: Iranian Eryngium species have enormous potential for prospective preparation of herbal medicinal products and are good candidates for discovering new drugs.
Mental disorders are considerate "the evil of the century" by renowned researchers, because a large part of the population in many countries is a diagnosticated, and currently affect youth and children. Among the numerous therapeutic interventions, the music therapy is a non-invasive approach. However, there are very few people who are professionally engaged in research and studies on the subject. Therefore, this article is a literature to talk about the benefits of music therapy sessions for people with stress, depression and anxiety disorders.
Yanghe Decoction is a representative
prescription of such prescriptions as warming up the yang and dissipating the
cold. It has the functions of warming the blood and dispelling cold and
stagnation. Yanghe Decoction has effects on many diseases. The principle of
this kind of disease is blood deficiency and yang, and the clinical
manifestation is cold stagnation. Such diseases often occur in multiple systems
and in multiple aspects. This article summarizes the compatibility of Yanghe
Decoction and its clinical application by reviewing the related literature
analysis in recent years, and provides a broad idea for the application of
Characteristic TCM therapies including acupuncture, moxibustion, and cupping, etc. have therapeutic effects on obese patients by interfering with the intestinal flora.
Traditional Chinese medicine therapy aiming at regulating intestinal flora is expected to become one of the main treatment methods for obese patients.
In recent years, the prevalence of obesity has been increasing year by year, leading to a rise in serious complications. The pathogenesis of obesity is complicated in which the intestinal flora plays an important role. Intestinal micro ecology is composed of large and complex intestinal flora that participate in important physiological functions such as metabolism, energy conversion, maintaining intestinal mucosal defense function, and promoting immune system development and maturation and other important physiological functions; furthermore, they are influenced by the host’s genetic background, diet, and other factors. Therefore, intestinal microflora has potential as a new field of drug therapy. At present, it is found that traditional Chinese medicine therapy may prevent and treat obesity by interfering with the intestinal flora, which is expected to become one of the main treatment methods for obese patients. However, its mechanism of action remains unclear. The balance of intestinal flora can be adjusted by acupuncture, massage, and acupoint application. By analyzing the mechanism of obesity caused by intestinal micro ecology and the impact of obesity on the host’s intestinal micro ecological environment, this paper discusses the influence of oral Chinese medicine, acupuncture, massage, acupoint sticking, and other traditional Chinese medicine therapies on the intestinal microflora in obese patients and provides a scientific basis for its clinical application.
The present review summarizes the non-drug treatment of obesity in recent years, to analyze their underlying mechanism and provide further guidance for clinical practitioners.
For patients with obesity, weighing the advantages and disadvantages of various non-drug therapeutic methods and helping them choose the right method is the best way to fight obesity.
Obesity, which bring a great perplex to family and society, has significant contribution to the risk of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and other comorbidities. In past four decades, the incidence of obesity has been on the alarming rise and so far about a third of the world's adults are affected by obesity. Due to the side effects and adverse reactions of drug treatment, obesity patients tend to select non-drug treatment. The present review summarizes the non-drug treatment of obesity in recent years, including acupuncture, exercise, surgery, lifestyle intervention and psychological guidance, to summarize their underlying mechanism and provide further guidance for clinical practitioners. Auricular acupuncture was proved to have the positively influence in Ghrelin, a novel obesity-related peptide hormone. Exercise could treat obesity by reducing the inflammatory factors associated with obesity. Furthermore, obesity surgery can not only reduce fat intake and nutrient absorption, but also inhibit the generation of Neuropeptide Y (NPY) by increasing the secretion of Peptide YY (PYY). Besides, breaking down psychological and behavioral barriers to lifestyle treatment of obesity will have a significant effect.
This review covers the research progress during 2018 for pharmacological studies on traditional medicine and active natural products. The pharmacological reports on traditional medicine against cancers and diabetes were still hot issues.
This annual integrative pharmacology review analyzed the different growth rates and progress of traditional medicine in different diseases, which is able to provide a comprehensive description of the hot spot and development.
A number of researches concerning pharmacology of traditional medicine and active natural products over the past 12 months have outlined the importance of reviewing the progress. This annual integrative pharmacology review evaluates researches published during 2018 in different diseases including cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, cancers, diabetes and metabolic diseases, and so on. The emphasis is on bioactive compounds and extracts from traditional herbs, as well as the novel molecular targets and mechanisms. Moreover, some traditional prescriptions in China and other geographical locations have also been included.
This review summarizes the advances in research on cucurbitacins B, D, E, and I in inducing tumor cell apoptosis, cytoskeletal destruction, cell cycle arrest, and autophagy and in regulating various cancer-related signaling pathways.
Cucurbitacins are present in some traditional Chinese herbs (TCH) such as Gualou (Fructus Trichosanthis),Tianhuafen (Radix Trichosanthis), and Tianguadi (Pedicellus Melo). An ancient book named Shennong Bencao Jing (1602 A.D., Donghan Dynasty of China) has reported that TCH Tianguadi (Pedicellus Melo) and the dried fruit stalk of Cucumis melo L. have been used for treating jaundice because components present in these herbs induce vomiting and aid in expelling phlegm.
Cucurbitacins are highly oxidized tetracyclic triterpenoids that are widely found in plants belonging to Cucurbitaceae family and exert various pharmacological effects. Many cucurbitacin derivatives are available, of which cucurbitacins B, D, E, and I are important members of the cucurbitacin family and exert anticancer effects against various cancers. This review summarizes the advances in research on cucurbitacins B, D, E, and I in inducing tumor cell apoptosis, cytoskeletal destruction, cell cycle arrest, and autophagy and in regulating various cancer-related signaling pathways. In addition, this review summarizes the latest research on the synergistic effects of the combination of cucurbitacins and clinically approved chemotherapeutic drugs. The findings summarized in this review suggest that cucurbitacins are multi-targeting and multi-functional anticancer drugs and that their complex anticancer mechanisms should be examined in future studies. Because of their proven benefits, cucurbitacins have the potential to be used as anticancer drugs in the clinical setting.
This retrospective cohort study showed that long-term traditional Chinese medicine as an adjuvant therapy can improve disease-free survival of postoperative lung cancer patients, especially in patients with stage I and II disease.
This study provided sufficient evidence that long-term traditional Chinese medicine treatment is associated with 5-year disease-free survival in postoperative lung cancer patients, especially in patients with stage I and II disease.
Objective: Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been extensively used as one of popular alternative therapies for several cancers. However, it remains unclear whether TCM treatment is associated with longer survival in lung cancer patients. In this study, we explored the effect of long-term TCM treatment on patients with different stages of lung cancer. Methods: All information of lung cancer patients with stage I-III disease from January 2007 to September 2015 was collected for this retrospective cohort study. Those who were treated with TCM after surgery were divided into TCM group and the others were into the non-TCM group (control group). All patients were regularly followed up by clinic appointment or phone, and all survival data were collected from databases after the last follow-up in October 2017. Results: A total of 575 patients were included in this study, with 299 patients in the TCM group and 276 in the control group. For all patients, 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) was 62.2% in TCM group and 42.1% in the control group, and 6-year DFSs were 51.8% and 35.4%, respectively (HR = 0.51, 95% CI: 0.40 to 0.66, log-rank P ≤ 0.001). For patients with stage I, 5-year DFSs were 83.7% (TCM group) and 57.5% (control group) and 6-year DFSs were 73.7% and 51.9%, respectively (HR = 0.30, 95% CI: 0.18 to 0.50, log-rank P ≤ 0.001). For patients with stage II in the TCM group and the control group, 5-year DFSs were 59.4% and 17.6% and 6-year DFSs were 44.7% and 17.6%, respectively (HR = 0.31, 95% CI: 0.19 to 0.52, log-rank P ≤ 0.001), and for patients with stage III, 5-year and 6-year DFSs in the TCM group were 18.7% and 12.5% compared with 28.4% and 20.3% in the control group (HR = 1.06, 95% CI: 0.72 to 1.56, log-rank P = 0.76). Conclusions: This study demonstrated that long-term TCM treatment as an adjuvant therapy is able to improve the DFS of postoperative stage I-III lung cancer patients, especially in patients with stage I and II disease. However, these observational findings need being validated by large sample randomized controlled trials.
Chinese and Western medicine have different understandings of the tumor microenvironment and different treatment methods.
The concept of the tumor microenvironment has been widely accepted. In the theory of Chinese and Western medicine, the concept of tumor microenvironment is similar, but there are still differences. Tumor treatment strategies for tumor microenvironment are receiving increasing attention.
Modern medical research on cancer shows that hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is related to tumor microenvironment. Studying the relationship between tumor microenvironment and HCC can be used as a new research direction to provide more strategies and ideas for the prevention and treatment of HCC. This article describes the characteristics of tumor microenvironment, cytokines, related signaling pathways, the occurrence and development of traditional Chinese medicine and HCC, and treatment-related knowledge.
The compatibility of Chinese herbs is the focus and the difficulty in traditional Chinese medicine research, and it has an important guiding role for clinical medicine. Some scholars believe that the Fuzi (Radix Aconiti Lateralis Preparata, FZ) compatibility with Tubeimu (Rhizoma Bolbostemmatis, TBM)/Gualou (Trichosanthes kirilowii Maxim, GL) does not meet the Chinese medicine theory of “eighteen incompatibilities”. However, this combination has been used many times in many clinical medications. This study reviewed the research progress of pharmacological effects of FZ, and FZ compatibility with TBM/GL, in order to correctly understand and apply the “eighteen incompatibilities” drugs, and provide a reference for further exploration of the combined application in clinical treatment.
Objective: To explore the reversing resistance
mechanisms of Yiqi Fusheng Decoction (YQFS) on human multidrug-resistant
colorectal cancer cell HT-29/DDP. Methods:
Colorectal cancer cell HT-29/DDP was treated with YQFS for 48h and MTT assay
was used to detect the effect of HT-29/DDP cells on the sensitivity of
chemotherapeutic drugs. Cell apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry. The
effects of YQFS on the expression of HIF-1α, ERK1/2 and p-ERK1/2 in HT-29/DDP
cells were detected by Western blot. Results:
High concentration and low concentration YQFS groups can significantly inhibit
the proliferation of HT-29/DPP cells compared with the control group (P<0.01).
And the high concentration YQFS group has a more significant inhibitory effect on
cell proliferation. Compared with the cisplatin group, the proliferation of
HT-29/DDP cells in YQFS and cisplatin group decreased
dramatically and cell apoptosis increased significantly (P<0.01).
expressions of HIF-1α and p-ERK were reduced in the YQFS group compared
with the cisplatin group (P<0.01). Conclusion:
YQFS can increase the sensitivity of multidrug-resistant colorectal cancer
cells to chemotherapeutic drugs and promote cell apoptosis by down-regulating
the expressions of HIF-1α and p-ERK1/2.
Quality marker (Q-marker) of Chinese materia medica (CMM) plays an important role in quality control of CMM products. However, its research strategy and technique remain unclear. Based on the fact that quality standard of CMM should be associated with clinical efficacy, taking Jinqi Jiangtang tablet treating type 2 diabetes as an example, the Q-marker related to activity via the reverse analysis of drug metabolism in clinic and traceability of botanic biosynthetic pathways is discovered and validated. Therefore, we proposed a new research strategy of Q-marker of CMM with "Discovery of clinical active constituents as guidance, Reverse analysis of metabolic transformations as link, and Traceability of biosynthesis pathways as key", to improve quality control of CMM products.
Highlights: "Discovery of clinical active constituents as guidance, Reverse analysis of metabolic transformations as link, and Traceability of biosynthesis pathways as key", a new research strategy for discovering quality marker of Chinese materia medica (CMM), promotes quality standard of CMM.
Objective: To investigate the effect of Dingjifumai Decoction (DJFM) on Electrocardiogram (ECG) and sodium potassium pump in rats with ventricular arrhythmia. Methods: Forty healthy male SD rats (200 ± 20g) were randomly divided into blank group, model group, Metoprolol group and DJFM group. Ten rats in each group were fed with normal diet and free drinking water. Each group was given gavage, and the amount of gavage in each group was calculated according to body weight. In the model group, 0.001% Aconitine was injected into the tail vein at 30ug/kg. In the Metoprolol group, Metoprolol suspension was given according to the standard of 5.2mg/kg per day. In the DJFM group, DJFM was given at 17.6g/kg per day. After 2 weeks of administration, the biologic experiment system BL-420F was used to monitor the II lead ECG curve, and the ECG changes were observed and recorded. Then, the left ventricle of the rat was taken, and part of the heart tissue sodium potassium pump was detected. Results: (1) The effect of DJFM on ECG of rats with ventricular arrhythmia: After intravenous injection of aconitine, the incidence of Ventricular Premature beat (VP), Ventricular Tachycardia (VT), Ventricular Fibrillation (VF) in the model group was 100%, suggesting that the model building of rats with ventricular arrhythmia was successful. (2) VP, VT, and VF time: Compared with model group, DJFM group and Metoprolol group can significantly delay the VP, VT and VF, the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). The effect of DJFM group and Metoprolol group on delaying the appearance of VP, VT and VF was the same, there was no significant difference (P > 0.05). (3) The effect of DJFM on sodium potassium pump in rat ventricular arrhythmia heart tissues: Compared with the blank group, the sodium potassium pump value in the model group was significantly decreased, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Compared with the model group, the sodium potassium pump value of the tissues in the Metoprolol group and the DJFM group increased, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in sodium potassium pump between the Metoprolol group and the DJFM group (P > 0.05). Conclusion: 1. The rat model of ventricular arrhythmia can be successfully prepared by intravenous injection of Aconitine. 2. DJFM can prolong the occurrence time of cardiac arrhythmias caused by aconitine in rats, such as VP, VT, VF, et al. The mechanism may be related to fast Na+ channel, and it may prevent and control arrhythmias by inhibiting Na+ influx and reducing the fast response cellular self-discipline. 3. DJFM can protect the myocardial tissue sodium potassium pump, which can protect the myocardial cells and improve the myocardial metabolism.
Highlights In this study, the effects of Dingjifumai Decoction (DJFM) on Electrocardiogram and sodium potassium pump of rats with ventricular arrhythmia were observed, and the effects and mechanism of DJFM on ventricular arrhythmia were discussed. We found that DJFM can prolong the occurrence time of cardiac arrhythmias caused by aconitine in rats, such as VP, VT, VF, et al. The mechanism may be related to fast Na+ channel, and it may prevent and control arrhythmias by inhibiting Na+ influx and reducing the fast response cellular self-discipline. DJFM can protect the myocardial tissue sodium potassium pump, which can protect the myocardial cells and improve the myocardial metabolism
There are many similarities and close relationships between Qi and Ca2+ in terms of source and function.
Ancient Chinese philosophy believed that Qi is the origin of all things in the universe, and it is the extremely fine material that exists in the universe and is ubiquitous. The Qi of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is put forward on the basis of philosophical meaning. It points out that Qi is a very invasive and extremely subtle substance with strong vitality in the human body. It is the basic substance that constitutes the human body and maintains its life activity. Qi is the basic concept of TCM, but the understanding of the essence of Qi is not clear. At present, there are more and more studies on the essence of Qi of TCM, but it has not achieved a major breakthrough, which has become one of the problems that limit the development of traditional Chinese medicine. Through the research on the literature, it is found that Qi and Ca2+ are inextricably similar. This paper attempts to explore the relationship between Qi and Ca2+ from the aspects of source of production and physiological function to explain their similar points. We hope to provide new ideas for the study of the essence of Qi and achieve the purpose of promoting the development of TCM.
It is necessary to strengthen the research on the mechanism of non-drug therapy of TCM, and combine clinical observation and experimental research to promote the promotion and application of non-pharmacological therapy of TCM in clinical practice.
Non-pharmacological treatment is an important means to control hypertension, with many advantages such as low cost, less medication, stable blood pressure, less complications, and improved prognosis. This article reviews the research progress of non-drug treatment of hypertension in Chinese medicine in the past five years, and evaluates traditional Chinese medicine such as TCM Qigong, Wuhuo opera, Ba Duanjin and Taijiquan, and Chinese medicine acupuncture, moxibustion, massage, application, acupoint embedding and other traditional Chinese medicine. The effect of external treatment in hypertension control provides guidance for non-drug therapy to control hypertension.
Cancer pain is the most common and serious symptom of cancer, which seriously affects the quality of life of cancer patients. the most widely used three-step analgesia has received good effects, but the toxic side effects at the same time can be ignored. As a complementary therapy increasingly accepted around the world, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) also plays an important role in cancer pain treatment. Traditional Chinese non-drug therapy has a good effect for cancer pain. In this mini-review, the commonly used traditional Chinese non-drug therapies such as acupuncture, moxibustion, acupoint catgut embedding and injection, massage, ear point pressing with coxherb seeds therapy, traditional music therapy were introduced.
Background: To analyze the distribution of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndromes and the
related factors in patients with renal cell carcinoma, and to provide further guidance for the relapse
prevention and combination of traditional Chinese and Western medicine in postoperative renal cancer
patients. Methods: A retrospective survey was conducted to establish a postoperative clinical symptom
assessment scale for patients with renal cell carcinoma. The distribution of TCM syndromes in 145
patients with renal cell carcinoma was analyzed statistically. Multivariate logistic regression was used to
analyze the correlation between different TCM syndromes and risk factors. Results: The postoperative TCM syndromes of patients with cell carcinoma were mainly spleen-kidney
deficiency (38.6%), liver-kidney Yin deficiency (15.9%), spleen-kidney Yang deficiency (13.1%), and
damp-heat pouring downward (9.7%). The incidence of severe spleen-kidney Qi deficiency syndrome
and spleen- kidney Yang deficiency syndrome was statistically different from that of liver-kidney Yin
deficiency syndrome (P < 0.05). The history of drinking and BMI ≥ 24 kg/m2 were risk factors for
spleen-kidney Qi deficiency syndrome; the history of hypertension was a protective factor for
liver-kidney Yin deficiency syndrome after renal cancer surgery; male was a protective factor for patients
with renal cancer who had damp-heat pouring downward syndrome; smoking history and drinking
history were risk factors for damp-heat pouring downward; age was a protective factor for
spleen-kidney Yang deficiency after renal cancer surgery. Conclusion: This study found that spleen-kidney Qi deficiency syndrome, liver-kidney Yin deficiency
syndrome, spleen-kidney Yang deficiency syndrome, dampness and heat injection syndrome were the
common TCM syndrome types after renal cell carcinoma patients. There was a correlation between the
TCM syndromes of renal cell carcinoma and the risk factors such as drinking history, overweight and
obesity, smoking history and drinking history. The distribution of TCM syndromes and its correlation with
risk factors in renal cell carcinoma patients after surgery can provide ideas for clinical treatment and
Medical cupping treatment can effectively alleviate metabolic indices and subcutaneous fat thickness at the abdomen in patients with metabolic syndrome and abdominal obesity.
The combination of cupping and Chinese medicine can help prolong the therapeutic effect and reduce the frequency of treatment in the management of metabolic syndrome.
Objective: To observe the clinical effects of medical cupping for metabolic syndrome (MetS) with abdominal obesity. Methods: In total, 75 patients with MetS with abdominal obesity were randomly divided into three groups: medical cupping, acupuncture, and waiting. Patients in the medical cupping group received smearing of Chinese medicine and cupping twice a week for 8 weeks. Patients in the acupuncture group received acupuncture on regulating the Dai meridian three times a week for 8 weeks. The waiting group was observed without any intervention. Changes in metabolic indices, including waist circumference (WC), blood pressure, fasting triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), fasting blood glucose (FBG), 2-h blood glucose (2hBG), and subcutaneous fat thickness were observed and compared before and after treatment among the three groups. Results: After the treatment, the WC, TG, FBG, and 2hBG in the medical cupping and acupuncture groups were lower than those in the waiting group. No difference was observed between the medical cupping and acupuncture groups. The subcutaneous fat thickness at the upper umbilicus, right side of the umbilicus, and waist in the medical cupping and acupuncture groups were lower than those in the waiting group. The subcutaneous fat thickness at the upper umbilicus and waist in the medical cupping group was lower than that in the acupuncture group. The MetS prevalence in the medical cupping and acupuncture groups was lower than that in the waiting group. Conclusion: medical cupping treatment can effectively alleviate metabolic indices and subcutaneous fat thickness at the abdomen in patients with MetS and abdominal obesity and decrease the MetS prevalence. Its efficacy was better than that of waiting and similar to that of acupuncture. The frequency of medical cupping is lower than that of the acupuncture. Meanwhile, it circumvents some patients’ fear of acupuncture. medical cupping should be clinically promoted.
This study shows that cupping therapy is effective in improving disability, stiffness and pain in patients with knee osteoarthritis.
Taking into account the side effects and complications resulted from many anti-inflammatory chemical drugs, cupping therapy is prone to become an effective and safe way for patients with knee osteoarthritis.
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hot intermittent cupping on pain, stiffness and inability of patients with knee osteoarthritis (KO). Methods: The present study was a clinical trial, which was performed on 38 patients with KO referring to Gonabad Rheumatology Specialty Clinic. Based on permutation block method, the research units were divided into cupping therapy and control groups. For the cupping therapy group, four sessions of cupping therapy were performed every four days. To collect data, the form of demographic information, Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and the Western Ontario and McMaster (WOMAC) osteoarthritis scale were used, and the data were analyzed by SPSS software v. 16 using descriptive statistics and independent t-test, paired t-test, Chi-square test and Fishers exact test with a significance level of P < 0.05. Results: Findings showed that there was no significant difference between the cupping therapy and control groups in terms of demographic characteristics and they were homogeneous. Findings indicated that, based on VAS, the mean pain intensity in the left (P < 0.001) and the right knees (P < 0.001), as well as based on WOMAC, stiffness (P = 0.006), pain intensity (P < 0.001) and disability (P < 0.001) in the cupping therapy group significantly decreased compared to the control group. Conclusion: Findings showed that hot intermittent cupping therapy reduced the pain intensity, stiffness and disability in patients with KO.
The three-step acupuncture and cupping method has a beneficial effect in the treatment of cervicogenic headache, which provides rapid benefits, has better short- and long-term efficacy.
Acupuncture and cupping therapy is proven to be effective as an alternative therapy in treating and strengthening the therapeutic effect of other therapeutic methods in the cervicogenic headache management.
Objective: To assess the clinical efficacy and safety of three-step acupuncture and cupping therapy for cervicogenic headache (CEH). Methods: A randomized, single-blind, multi-center, parallel controlled clinical trial was performed, including 63 patients with CEH who met the study criteria. They were randomly divided into treatment (n = 32) and control groups (n = 31). The treatment group was treated with three-step acupuncture and cupping therapy, and the control group was treated with sham acupuncture. The simplified McGill pain scores, comprising three parts: the pain rating index, visual analogue scale score, and present pain intensity, alongside head and neck stiffness and cervical vertebra range of motion, and a safety evaluation were recorded in the two groups before treatment, immediately after the first treatment, after 10 days of treatment, after 20 days of treatment, and 3 months after the end of treatment. Results: Compared with before treatment, the scores at each follow-up time point were significantly improved after treatment; moreover, the treatment group was significantly better than the control group. When the scores at the 3 months follow-up after the end of the treatment were compared with the scores after 20 days of treatment, there were no significant differences in the treatment group while significant differences from the scores of the control group, suggesting that the treatment group had better long-term benefits than the control group. Conclusion: Compared with the sham acupuncture group, the three-step acupuncture and cupping method has a beneficial effect in the treatment of CEH. It provides rapid benefits, has better short- and long-term efficacy than sham acupuncture, and is associated with a low recurrence rate.
The present article analyzes the main treatments used in the therapy of cerebral palsy in children and compares the advantages and disadvantages of various treatments.
Comprehensive treatment strategy containing rehabilitation treatment, drug therapy, stem cell therapy, etc., provides a reference for children with cerebral palsy.
Childhood cerebral palsy (CP) is one of the most serious and common diseases of the central nervous system. It results in high morbidity and treatment cost, and cannot be cured. It has a detrimental effect on families of children with CP, seriously affects the quality of life, causes significant mental stress, and places a great economic burden on society. At present, physical training and drug therapy are mainly used to treat CP in children at home and abroad. However, plentiful evidence has shown that the efficacy of drugs, surgery, and therapies used over the previous decades is limited. The use of more appropriate comprehensive treatment that involves improving the quality of life to social participation is helpful and meaningful for children with CP and their carers. Based on the literature and guidelines from home and abroad, this article analyzes the main treatments used, including rehabilitation treatment, drug therapy, stem cell therapy, surgical treatment, and the treatment of complications, and compares the advantages and disadvantages of various treatments. It provides a reference for patients with CP to help choose treatment methods and a new idea for research on the treatment of CP.
Quercetin self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system promotes apoptosis of SMMC-7721 cells in vitro.
Quercetin self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system inhibits the expression of STAT3 and Survivin in SMMC-7721 cells.
This study describes the role of Quercetin in promoting apoptosis of SMMC-7721. Quercetin self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system can also be used as a drug carrier, which providing ideas for precise treatment.
Objective: To study the mechanism of inhibition of SMMC-7721 liver cancer cells by quercetin self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (Q-SNEDDS) in vitro. Methods: The inhibitory effect of Q-SNEDDS on hepatoma cells was detected by MTT assay. The effect of Q-SNEDDS on apoptosis of hepatoma cells was detected by flow cytometry. The changes of Q-SNEDDS after hepatoma cells were observed by fluorescence microscopy. The effect of Q-SNEDDS on the expression of signal transduction and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and anti-apoptotic factor (survivin) protein in hepatoma cells was examined by Immunohistochemistry. Results: Q-SNEDDS significantly inhibited the proliferation of hepatoma cells in a concentration-dependent manner. After 24 h of Q-SNEDDS treatment, the total apoptosis rate was 25.8%; STAT3 and survivin protein expression was down-regulated in the Q-SNEDDS group. Conclusion: Q-SNEDDS may play a role in inducing apoptosis by inhibiting the expression of STAT3 and survivin proteins.
Network pharmacology is a new science and is becoming a new way for TCM study.
Network pharmacology combines with TCM is a new medical research model.
The network pharmacology approach is capable of describing complex interactions among biological system, drugs, and diseases, such as cancer from a network perspective. It helps us to understand how herbal medicine works on people with cancer and how a new indication of a given herbal formula can be predicted.
Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) emphasizes integrity and systematicity. Chinese Herbal Medicine (CHM) is characterized by multi-component, multi-target, multi-channel complex action. Cancer belongs to polygenic disease, and it is characteristic of complex traits of the disease which is determined by multiple genes. Network pharmacology integrates disease network, drug network, and biological system network, analyzes the interaction among diseases, drugs and specific nodes in the network, and studies the pathogenesis of cancer, the action mechanism of drugs and compatibility principle of prescription. In the field of cancer, by applying concepts and methods of network pharmacology, we are expected to find new type drugs-“biological networks regulatory drug”. It is helpful for individualized treatment, improved prognosis, and therapeutic effect.
The Si-Jun-Zi decoction may exert a therapeutic effect on gastric precancerous lesions by intervening in the mucosal inflammation, cell apoptosis process, and cell proliferation.
Gastric mucosal inflammation has the potential to promote the proliferation of gastric mucosal epithelial cells and inhibit their apoptosis. However, Si-Jun-Zi decoction may exert a therapeutic effect on these process via the multi-target network level.
Objective: To find out the potential mechanisms of Si-Jun-Zi (SJZ) decoction in the treatment of gastric precancerous lesions (GPL). Methods: A network pharmacology approach was used to analyze the active compounds, drug targets and interacting pathways of SJZ decoction in treating GPL. The compounds and predicted targets of SJZ decoction were screened from TCMSP, and the disease targets were obtained from GeneCards. The therapeutic mechanisms of action of the SJZ decoction were analyzed by gene ontology (GO) enrichment, Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes pathway enrichment analyses. Results: The results show that 111 compounds and 90 targets were obtained in this work. These targets were further mapped to 654 GO biological process terms and 21 remarkably pathways. Active compounds, targets, and pathways were used to construct a compound-target network, a target-pathways network, and an integrated GPL pathway. These results indicated that SJZ decoction may treat the dysfunctions of GPL mainly from intervening in the mucosal inflammation, cell apoptosis process, and cell proliferation. Conclusion: This work provided a novel approach to understand the pathogenesis of GPL and revealed the therapeutic mechanisms of SJZ decoction, which facilitate the modernization of herbal medicine for complex diseases in the future.
Network pharmacology is a new discipline based on the theory of systems biology and network analysis of biological systems to design the drugs. It comprehensively observes the intervention and influence of drugs on the disease network, and reveals the mystery of multi-molecular drugs synergistically acting on disease. These concepts reflect the ideas of multi-component, multi-target and system regulation, and have many similarities with the research ideas of traditional Chinese medicine, which focuses on syndrome differentiation and treatment, emphasizes the overall understanding of the etiology and pathogenesis. Network pharmacology can be used to predict and identify the target and active component of traditional herbal medicine, to clarify the mechanism of action, to scientifically explain the rules of the prescription, to explore the rules of real-world prescription, to discover new indications and new active compounds, and to study drug relocation, etc. The applications of network pharmacology in traditional herbal medicine were systematically summarized to demonstrate the significant value in these areas.
This paper proposed a hypothesis that camel milk could be helpful in the treatment of asthma.
Food is a double-edged sword of health. On the one hand, cow milk could lead to the occurence of asthma. On the other hand, camel milk could be used to treat asthma via its effects of immunoregulation, antiinflammation and antioxygenation.
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease with excessive irritability and airway narrowing and inflammation plays an important role in it. There are 300 million asthmatic people in the world currently. Main treatments for asthma include two groups of bronchodilators and inflammation controllers. Researches was continued in order to reach new treatments to reduce drug side effects and treatment-resistant cases or the types associated with weak treatment response. Today, World Health Organization recommends the application of traditional medicine especially in underdeveloped countries because of insufficient health resources and spread of diseases. Iranian traditional medicine (ITM) or Persian medicine is one of the oldest comprehensive traditional medicines with thousands years history which could help us to manage different diseases. The aim of this hypothesis is to investigate the camel milk as a complementary treatment of asthma because this chronic disease is sometimes resistant or response weakly to the treatment. In this article, the administration of camel milk in lung inflammatory diseases was studied by searching the PubMed and Scopus scientific databases. The results of this study indicated that camel milk due to having anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and anti-oxidant effects could decrease the levels of inflammatory factors such as tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-17 (IL-17), IL-6, IL-1B and transforming growth factor-β1 in a human and animal samples with inflammatory diseases. Besides, based on ITM, camel milk was used in treatment patients with asthma. But, clinical studies are needed to validate the effectiveness of camel milk in asthma and its mechanisms.
This review dives into the wide prevalence of depression among the adolescents of the current generation. The goal is to bring to light the interrelationship of factors that bring about depression and which, thus, must be the focus if more effective approaches to treating depression are to be established. The review forms the groundwork of depression, touching upon early history and progressing to prominent research studies that have been carried out across the globe. The role of drugs and peer pressure has been tied to the neurobiology of different regions of the brain and hormonal influences have simultaneously been studied. Questions have been raised and a critical analysis of the roots of depression has been made. Through an original interview conducted by the author with ten teenagers battling depression, the review highlights the universality of depression and the importance of acknowledging it and treating it in one of the most influential age groups today: the teenagers.
According to the study, 5-HT mediated AC-cAMP-PKA-CREB is associated with the onset of depression. In recent years, many researchers have expounded the pathogenesis of depression from the perspective of genetic polymorphism. Depression incidence has obvious gender differences, but its mechanism is not clear. Is depression genetically determined? Or does it result from one or more pathological determinants pathological? Which one is more important? On the basis of previous studies, the 5-HT mediated AC-cAMP-PKA-CREB pathway on four protein (5-HT1AR, 5-HT2AR, BDNF, TrkB) whose gene polymorphism and expression may be the keys. Further, 5-HT mediated AC-cAMP-PKA-CREB signaling pathway may be related to Gender differences in depression, so their gene polymorphism variation may provide new ideas for the research on gender differences in depression.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading global cause of the death. Genetic polymorphisms in NKX 2-5 are found to be associated with CVD. However, the results were inconsistent and inconclusive. The present study performed a meta-analysis to get a more precise and comprehensive estimation of the association between the genetic polymorphisms in NKX 2-5 and the risk of CVD. The databases Pubmed, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang Data and CQVIP were searched for related studies. A total of 9 studies including 1516 cases and 1438 controls were identified for the meta-analysis. The results indicate that the genetic polymorphisms in NKX 2-5 were associated with the significantly risks of CVD in the allelic model, dominant model, codominant model and superdominant model of rs3729753 (OR = 1.94, 2.00, 2.00 and 0.50 respectively) and rs118026695 (OR = 1.83, 1.98, 2.02 and 0.49 respectively). No significant associations were found between rs2277923 and g.1467G > A and CVD susceptibility in any of the studies. Therefore, rs3729753 and rs118026695 might be recommended as a predictor for the risk of CVD, while rs2277923 and g.1467G > A are not.
The research on the dose-effect relationship in Chinese materia medica is delayed due to the complexity of its composition, multi-efficacy, multi-targeting and other factors. Many experts put forward relevant research ideas and methods and worked out more and more research results in literature, experimental and clinical categories because of the progress of statistical methods and scientific and technological means in recent years. In this paper, these results were preliminarily combed to show the basic situation of dose-effect relationship research in Chinese materia medica.
The research on the dose-effect relationship in Chinese materia medica was delayed due to the complexity of its composition, multi-efficacy, multi-targeting and other factors. However, there are more and more research results in literature, experimental and clinical categories because of the progress of statistical methods and scientific and technological means in recent years. This paper aimed to present the current basic situation.
Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of acupuncture for the treatment of mammary gland hyperplasia. Methods: Randomized controlled trials before December 2017 in CNKI, China Biology Medicine disc, Chinese sci-tech periodical full-text database, Wanfang database, Cochrane Library, Pubmed, Embase and Web of Science were searched. The risks were evaluated by two investigators according to the Cochrane Handbook 5.1.0 criteria. Evaluation GeMTC was used for network-meta analysis. Results: A total of 43 articles were included, involving 5531 patients. Network meta-analysis results showed that there were differences in the comparison before and after treatment: acupuncture + Chinese herbal medicine vs acupuncture, acupuncture + Chinese herbal medicine vs Chinese herbal medicine, acupuncture + Chinese herbal medicine v s acupoint embedding, acupuncture + western medicine vs acupuncture, acupuncture + western medicine vs western medicine, acupuncture + western medicine vs Chinese herbal medicine, fire needle vs acupuncture, fire needle vs Chinese herbal medicine, moxibustion vs acupuncture, moxibustion vs Chinese herbal medicine, acupoint embedding line + Chinese herbal medicine vs Chinese herbal medicine, acupoint embedding line + Chinese herbal medicine vs western medicine, acupoint embedding line + Chinese herbal medicine vs acupuncture, acupoint embedding line + Chinese herbal medicine vs acupuncture + Chinese herbal medicine, acupoint embedding line + Chinese herbal medicine vs acupuncture + western medicine, acupoint embedding line + Chinese herbal medicine vs fire needle, acupoint embedding line + Chinese herbal medicine vs fire needle + Chinese herbal medicine, acupoint embedding line Chinese herbal medicine vs electroacupuncture, acupoint embedding line + Chinese herbal medicine vs acupoint embedding line, Acupoint embedding line + Chinese herbal medicine vs ear acupuncture, acupoint embedding line + Chinese herbal medicine vs moxibustion, acupoint embedding line + Chinese herbal medicine vs moxibustion + Chinese herbal medicine. Conclusion:Acupoint embedding + traditional Chinese medicine, acupuncture + western medicine is the best treatment for mammary gland hyperplasia, but the exact conclusion still needs high-quality clinical research to further verify.
Objective: The nursing master’s dissertation were analyzed to understand the situation of theintroduction of foreign language scales. Method: Bibliometric method and content analysis method were used to analyze the introduction of foreign languagescales in the current Chinese nursing master’s dissertation which have been collected from CNKI database and WanFang database before February 1, 2018. Results: The introduction of foreign language scales started late, which was from 2012. In 2013, the foreign scales were most introduced (16.2%). The main source of thesis is from Tianjin Medical University (11.6%). English was the most popular language of the foreign scales (93.8%). 80.2% of researchers did not use translation guides. 31.3% of translators comfort the requirements of the translation guidelines. The introduced scales have good reliability and validity. Conclusion: The number of nursing masters dissertation introducing foreign scales has increased year by year with more sources and high quality. It shows that the academic level of nursing postgraduate student in China has been improved. Postgraduate students have a higher ability to learn foreign nursing knowledge and skills and use foreign nursing research tools. However, the lack of translation guide and the ambiguity of the selection criteria of the translators are widespread.
Network pharmacology breaks through the traditional linear research model and coincides with the complexity of traditional Chinese medicine, provides technical support and new strategy in the research of traditional Chinese medicine.
Objective: To study the relationship between traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) research and network pharmacology. Methods: Discuss the common features of TCM and network pharmacology through the analysis of the characteristics of TCM, the background of network pharmacology, so as better interpretation of TCM and in-depth understanding of TCM research and network pharmacology. Results: Multicomponent and multitarget characteristics of TCM as same as the study thought of network pharmacology. Network pharmacology breaks through the research model of linear and coincides with the complexity of TCM, provides technical support for rational design of TCM formulae, both and a new way in the research of TCM. It becomes a new strategy for modern TCM research. Conclusion: Network pharmacology is an important breakthrough in TCM research, its research promote modernization and internationalization process of TCM conduce to the research and development of TCM and have important significance for the integration of Chinese and Western medicine.
Liuzijue respiratory exercise can better improve lung function, functional capacity, and life quality of COPD patients compared with conventional care. Compared with the whole body respiratory exercise, Liuzijue only improves the functional capacity of COPD.
As early as Qin and Han dynasties, the treatment of pulmonary diseases with guided breathing has already been recorded in the ancient book of Lüshichunqiu (B.C. 239, Warring States).
Objective: To evaluate the effects of Liuzijue respiratory exercise in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Method: Randomly controlled trials of Liuzijue respiratory exercise in the treatment of COPD were searched in the database, including PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, CNKI, Wanfang, CBM, and VIP. Study screening, data extraction, and quality assessment were conducted by two researchers independently. Data were analyzed using RevMan 5.3 software. Results: 11 studies with 915 COPD patients were included. Results of meta-analysis showed that compared with conventional care, Liuzijue respiratory exercise had shown better effects on FEV1 (Forced expiratory volume in 1 second) [MD = 0.18, 95% CI (0.06, 0.30), P = 0.004], FEV1% pred [MD = 10.21, 95% CI (7.25, 13.18), P < 0.001], FEV1 / FVC% (Forced vital capacity) [MD = 8.32, 95% CI (3.23, 13.40), P < 0.001], 6-minute walk distance [MD = 10.97, 95% CI (5.81, 16.12), P < 0.001] and life quality [MD = -10.07, 95% CI (-12.84, -7.30), P < 0.001]. However, no difference was observed in the effective rate between these two groups. Compared with whole body respiratory exercise, except for the better effects on 6-minute walk distance [MD = 37.82, 95% CI (6.51, 69.13), P = 0.02], no difference in FEV1, FEV1% pred, FEV1 / FVC% and life quality were observed between these two groups. Conclusion: Liuzijue respiratory exercise can better improve lung function, functional capacity, and life quality of COPD patients compared with conventional care. Compared with the whole body respiratory exercise, Liuzijue could improve the functional capacity of COPD patients significantly and showed similar effcets on lung function and life quality.
This paper expounds the scientific nature of “the co-treatment of the neck, chest, and waist” from the perspective of traditional Chinese medicine theory and modern medical research.
This review proposes a new approach in cervical diseases in terms of the co-treatment of the neck, chest, and waist, which not only improves clinical efficiency but also decrease recurrence rate.
Cervical diseases are frequently occurring diseases. Currently, the local physical therapy is the most commonly suggested treatment method. We believe that cervical spine lesion cause spinal instability and then the physiological function of the thoracic and lumbar spine is also affected by it. Therefore, the study on cervical lesions should not be limited to the local part of the cervical spine but should extend to the restoration of stability of the spine, to achieve the same curative effects on the chest and waist. Therefore, we propose a new concept for the co-treatment of the neck, chest, and waist. The concept of this proposed therapy is based on three theoretical aspects: syndrome differentiation, disease prevention, and Du meridian and its relationship with other meridians. This was elaborated from the perspective of spinal static balance, anatomy, epidemiological evidence, and biochemistry. The relationship between cervical vertebral lesions and thoracic and lumbar vertebral lesions indicates the scientific nature of the “co-treatment of the neck, chest, and waist”. This article also summarizes the methods of non-drug therapy under the guidance of this theory.
The current study aims at exploring the bioactive molecules in Siddha Polyherbal Nilavembu Kudineer alleviating symptoms of Dengue/ Chikugunya.
Nilavembu Kudineer is one of the thirty-two types of internal medicines described in the ancient Siddha system of medicine in south India which reduces fever and relieves body aches.
Dengue is the most prevalent arthropod-borne viral diseases in terms of morbidity and mortality in the recent decade with the classic symptoms of high fever, headache as well as muscle and joint pain. Nilavembu Kudineer (NK) is one among the 32 types of internal medicines described in the ancient Siddha system of medicine in south India which reduces fever and relieves body aches. NK, a polyherbal formulation made up of eight traditional herbs in equal parts, is also recommended for prevention and management of all types of viral infections including Dengue/Chikugunya. Exploration of bioactive compounds in the plants is the primary step for the standardization and bioactivity screening of plants and formulations. So the current study aims at recording the chemical constituents and medicinal activities of each ingredient of NK. The anti-pyretic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and immunostimulant effects of NK have been attributed to more than one ingredient in NK. The medicinal property of the NK can be also attributed to the combined effect of all phytochemicals present in these eight herbs. The current study encompasses the various chemicals and the activities of individual herbs but a thorough stereoscopic and chromatographic investigation is required to trace out the major phytochemical entities which are retained once the NK is prepared by the traditional methods.
The present computational biomechanical analysis suggest that enhanced lower extremity abduction motion can effectively reduce collapse risk and interrupt the disease pathway of femoral head necrosis deteriorated into osteoarthritis.
Femoral head necrosis is called Gushi, which was first recorded in Huangdineijing published on Xihan Dynasty of China (the third century B.C.). This study provided an unique biomechanical insight into the beneficial effects of lower extremity abduction motion in the treatment of femoral head necrosis.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate biomechanical behavior changes of femoral head necrosis (FHN) by increasing lower extremity abduction (LEA) angle, offering scientific basis on choosing the LEA procedure for the exact classifications. Methods: Thirty computational models were constructed and used to simulate six different abducent angles with five different progresses of FHN. The initial model was validated by the bony density distribution in X-rays images and the photograph of the cadaver bone in cross-section. The stress transfer path (STP) of each model was analyzed and the contact stresses were assessed. Results: During the midstance phase, STP of type A showed strong similarities with the healthy level; STP distribution was from the top of the femoral head to the calcar; the damage area of STP of type B was approximately 25% of the healthy. While STPs in both type C1 and C2 were broken off. As the increase of the abduction angle, STP of type B transformed into type A, STP of type C1 transformed into type B. STP of type C2 transformed into type C1. There was no significant difference in contact stress between the four settings of FHN and normal femoral head. Conclusions: We found computational biomechanical technique to be a sensitive and useful method for distinguishing the biomechanical difference of FHN during abduction gait. These results showed that LEA motion could effectively reduce collapse risk and interrupt the disease pathway of FHN deteriorated into osteoarthritis. Furthermore, our findings indicated that the LEA procedure was suitable for type A, B and C1, while type C2 of FHN involved surgical intervention might get a better clinical outcome.
Thunder-Fire moxibustion with ovulation monitoring significantly improved the pregnancy rate of patients diagnosed with adenomyosis- associated infertility.
Thunder-Fire moxibustion stemmed from the Taoism magic arts before the Yuan Dynasty of China (1271 A.D.-1368 A.D.) and took shape in the middle of the Ming Dynasty of China (1368 A.D.-1644 A.D.).
This study evaluated the clinical efficacy of Thunder-Fire moxibustion combined with ovulation monitoring for the treatment of adenomyosis-associated infertility. A series of 120 patients diagnosed with uterine adenomyosis and infertility and cold coagulation blood stasis syndrome in traditional Chinese medicine (with the clinical manifestations of premenstrual or menstrual lower abdomen cold pain, pain reduction with heat application, and cold extremities) were randomized equally to treatment group with Thunder-Fire moxibustion and ovulation monitoring as well as control group with ovulation monitoring only. Treatment continued for six menstrual cycles. The pregnancy rate of the treatment group was significantly increased with the control group (50.0% vs. 23.3%, P = 0.021). Dysmenorrhea and the traditional Chinese medicine syndrome in the treatment group improved significantly compared with the control group (3.87 ± 2.03 vs. 5.70 ± 1.01, P = 0.002 and 7.33 ± 4.11 vs. 10.52 ± 2.33, P = 0.006, respectively), and there was also significant between-group differences in serum cancer antigen 125 (55.45 ± 14.65 vs. 63.34 ± 11.41, P = 0.031). However, the average uterus diameters in the treatment and control groups were not significantly different (67.13 ± 7.59 vs. 69.89 ± 5.30, P = 0.137). Thunder-Fire moxibustion with ovulation monitoring improved the pregnancy rate of patients diagnosed with adenomyosis-associated infertility.
Highlights: In this paper, various factors related to Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and thyroid cancer, especially papillary thyroid cancer, morbidity and lymph node metastasis, are reviewed concerning recent literature.
Editor’s Summary: In recent decades, it is very high for the incidence of HT and the thyroid cancer rate. This article is more likely that autoimmune thyroid inflammation such as HT is carcinogenic, and thyroid dysfunction related to HT may also promote tumor growth induced by stimulating TSH receptor.
Abstract: In recent years, the incidence of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and thyroid cancer has shown a rapid growth trend. These two diseases have severely affected the public health. Many epidemiological studies have shown that thyroid cancer is often associated with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Hashimoto’s thyroiditis may promote the occurrence of thyroid cancer, as well as affecting the progression of the tumor, lymph node metastasis, and even the prognosis of patients. In this paper, the relationship between Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and thyroid cancer and the pathogenesis of thyroid cancer are reviewed regarding molecular mechanism, clinical pathology, and serology.
As early as 2000 years ago, ancient Chinese medical records had described the relationship between diseases and appearance in detail. Moreover, modern medicine has also constantly studied the relationship between facial features and health in evolutionary terms. It is well known that many hereditary diseases involve certain abnormal facial features and gene mutations. The tumor is also considered as genetic disorder to some extent, so what is the relationship between cancer genetics and congenital development of facial features? Here, we reviewed some clues to the appearance-gene-tumor relation, which might become the targets in the early prevention or gene therapy of cancer in the future. This summary provided us a new strategy for the cancer genetic screening and a new research direction for genetic diagnosis of the potential disease.
As a chronic disease that seriously endangers public health, the number of coronary heart disease (CHD) patients in China has increased in recent years. There is great potentiality to integrate traditional Chinese and Western medicine therapies to prevent and treat CHD in clinical practice. However, most of the current integrated therapies still lack sufficient high-quality evidence, and the key links in how to apply are unclear. It is urgent to optimize them through evidence-based research to further improve the effectiveness. Therefore, we propose strategies to conduct evidence-based optimization of integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine therapies in prevention and treatment of progressive cardiovascular diseases. These are integrated clinical trial design, attention to the key links of taking effect, combination of clinical and basic research. Based on the strategies, we started the national key research and development project "Evidence-based optimization research of TCM therapies in prevention and treatment of CHD (angina pectoris - myocardial infarction - heart failure)", which is expected to be a new paradigm in the field.
Objective: (+)-Clausenamide ((+)-CLA), the active ingredient of wampee, was isolated from the leaves of Clausena lansium (Lour.) Skeels. This study aimed to evaluate the protective potential of (+)-CLA against acetaminophen (APAP)-induced nephrotoxicity in mice. Methods: Mice were divided into control, APAP, high-dose (+)-CLA, and low-dose (+)-CLA groups. Then, mice were preadministered (+)-CLA (50 and 100 mg/kg) for 5 consecutive days. After the last treatment, the animals received a single intraperitoneal injection of APAP (600 mg/kg). Renal histopathology was evaluated by staining with hematoxylin and eosin. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) and the activities of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were determined using corresponding kits. Western blotting was used to analyze the expression of apoptosis-related proteins in renal tissue. Results: Administration of APAP increased serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels in comparison with the control group. An increase in renal MDA level, depletion of GSH, and reductions in CAT and SOD activities in renal tissue indicated that APAP-induced kidney injury was mediated by oxidative stress. The expressions of Bax and caspase-3, cleavage of caspase-3, and cytoplasm cytochrome c levels were up-regulated in renal tissue, whereas Bcl-2 expression and mitochondrial cytochrome c levels were down-regulated in the APAP group, which revealed that APAP-induced kidney injury significantly increased cell apoptosis in renal tubules. The histopathology of kidney tissue supported these biochemical mechanisms. (+)-CLA can reverse changes in most of the abovementioned parameters and nearly restore the normal structure of the kidney. Conclusion: Oxidative stress and apoptosis are considered to be the mechanisms underlying APAP-induced nephrotoxicity. (+)-CLA could be a promising antidote for APAP-induced acute renal damage owing to its antioxidative and antiapoptotic effects.
(+)-Clausenamide ((+)-CLA), an acid amide isolated from the leaves of Clausena lansium (Lour.) Skeels, significantly decreases creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels and increases the antioxidative abilities. The underlying mechanisms of (+)-CLA were involved in improving the antioxidative and antiapoptotic effects. This study provides a basis to clinical application of (+)-CLA.
Objective: Yes Associated Protein (YAP) is a downstream effector that negatively regulated by Hippo kinase LATS1/2. As a transcriptional coactivator, YAP controls the transactivation of variety target genes to promote cell proliferation which is a critical survival input for cancer cells, thus the inhibition of YAP function is a promising strategy to treat cancer patients. The aim of this study was to explore YAP inhibitors derived from natural products using a cell-based YAP-TEADs luciferase reporter assay and investigate the functional activities of the novel inhibitor. Methods: natural compounds were used by 8×GTIIC luciferase reporter assay to screen YAP inhibitor. Phosphorylation of YAP and AMPK were detected by Western Blotting. The target genes of YAP were determined through RT-PCR. Inhibition on HepG2 cells of screened compounds were assessed by the Sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. Results: we found that Shikonin (derived from the traditional Chinese medical herb Zicao (Lithospermum erythrorhizon)) exerted significant suppression against the transcriptional activity of YAP (inhibition ratio=74.3%), accompanied with increased phosphorylation of YAP protein upon within short-exposure to cancer cells. Shikonin treated on HepG2 induced phosphorylation of AMPK. In HepG2 cell lines, Shikonin exhibited a profound cytotoxicity in a concentration manner. Conclusion: our results indicated that the inhibition activity of Shikonin on YAP function was probably due to the activation of AMPK by phosphorylation. Moreover, Shikonin exhibited potent cytotoxicity on cancer cells. In summary, the present study identifies Shikonin as a novel natural inhibitor of YAP function and could be an anti-cancer drug candidate for cancer treatment.
Aberrant activation of YAP, a transcriptional co-activator, would result in the transactivation of target genes, and ultimately leading to the tumor development and malignance. Thus YAP has been regarded as a promising target for cancer therapy; however it has been challenged by the lack of effective inhibitors against YAP activity, particularly those origins from the natural resources. The current study identifies Shikonin, a natural compound derived from the traditional Chinese medical herb Zicao (Lithospermum erythrorhizon), as a potent inhibitor against YAP pathway so as to exert anti-cancer activities. And the YAP inhibitory effect was probably due to the activation of AMPK pathway.
Objective: To investigate the neuroprotective effect of Bu-Shen-Huo-Xue (BSHX) extract, a polyherbal formula, against High Glucose (HG)-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells. Methods: Cell viability assay, Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) assay, Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) detection, Hoechst 33258, Acridine Orange (AO)/Ethidium Bromide (EB) double stain and Mitochondrial Membrane Potential (MMP) assay were performed. In addition, Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-3, cleaved caspase-3, PARP, cleaved PARP, cytochrome c and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases (MAPKs) were detected by western blot. Results: BSHX extract increased cell viability and decreased LDH leakage in a concentration-dependent manner in HG-induced PC12 cells. Moreover, BSHX extract decreased the level of intracellular ROS, increased mitochondrial membrane potential, regulated the expressions of Bax and Bcl-2, and inhibited the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria. Furthermore, BSHX extract attenuated the activation of caspase-3 and PARP, and inhibited the phosphorylations of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 MAPKs. Conclusion: BSHX extract exhibited significant neuroprotective effect on HG-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells. This effect may be associated with the suppression of ROS generation as well as mitochondria-mediated caspase and JNK/p38 MAPK signaling pathways.
High glucose (HG)-induced neurotoxicity is implicated in the pathology of diabetic encephalopathy (DE). In our study, Bu-Shen-Huo-Xue extract (BSHX), a polyherbal formula, exhibits neuroprotective activity on HG-induced PC12 cells and the possible mechanisms may be associated with the suppression of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation as well as mitochondria-mediated caspase and JNK/p38 MAPK signaling pathways. This study provids a promising agent for the treatment of DE in clinical applications.
Objective: To observe the effect of paeoniflorin (PF), albiflorin (AF) on the hemogram, visceral index and hematopoiesis cytokine in the rats of syndrome of stagnation of liver qi and blood deficiency, and to discuss the material base and mechanism of effect of nourishing blood and smoothing the liver of Baishao (Radix Paeoniae Alba). Methods: Male SD rats were randomly divided into groups according to the sucrose preference test and body weight (n = 12). Except the normal control, the other groups were treated with the chronic stress stimulation combined with radiation respectively to establish the model of syndrome of stagnation of liver qi and blood deficiency. The body weight, visceral index and the quantity of Leucocyte, Red Blood Cells, Hemoglobin in peripheral hemogram were monitored, then plasma and serum were separated. Radioimmunoassay was used to analyze the levels of Lnterleukin-3, Granulocyte-macrophage Colony-stimulating Factor, Lnterleukin-6 and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α in plasma. Results: Compared with that of model group, 30 mg?kg-1 PF and 30 mg?kg-1 AF of the weight, spleen index, quantity of Leucocyte were increased significantly (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). The results of Radioimmunoassay showed that the levels of Interleukin-3 increased (P < 0.05, P < 0.05) and the levels of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α decreased in both 30 mg?kg-1 PF and 30 mg?kg-1 AF groups (P < 0.05, P < 0.05). Conclusion: The effect of PF and AF on the regulation of bone marrow hematopoietic system and immune system play a role in the blood of rats with syndrome of stagnation of liver qi and blood deficiency, which suggests that both of them are the main active ingredients of nourishing blood and smoothing the liver of Baishao.
Baishao (Radix Paeoniae Alba), a well-known Chinese herbal, has been widely used in Chinese Medicine for thousands of years. And Paeoniflorin (PF), albiflorin (AF) are the main active ingredients of Baishao. PE and AF can significantly increase the body weight, spleen index, WBC count and IL-3 level in models of Syndrome of Stagnation of Liver Qi and Blood Deficiency. Experimental results show that the effect of PF and AF on the regulation of bone marrow hematopoietic system and immune system play a role in the blood of rats with syndrome of stagnation of liver qi and blood deficiency, which suggests that both of them are the main active ingredients of nourishing blood and smoothing the liver of Baishao.
Objective: To observe the effects of the components of Zhilong Huoxue Tongyu Capsule (ZLHXTY) on the expression of NF-κB-P65 and ICAM-1 in blood vessels of rats, and to explore the effect and mechanism of ZLHXTY and its ingredients on vascular remodeling in hypertension. Methods: A rat model of renal hypertension was established by narrowing the left renal artery in the operation group. The corresponding drugs were given once a day respectively. The Normal group, Sham-operation group and Model group were administered with the same volume of normal saline. After 4 weeks of gavage, the thoracic aorta of rat was taken, followed by fixation, embedding, sectioning and HE staining, and NF-κB -p65 was detected by immunohistochemistry. Results: 1. The effect of drugs on the expression of NF-κB in thoracic aorta of hypertensive rats (immunohistochemistry): A small amount of NF-κB protein was expressed in the Normal group and the Sham-operate group. The NF-κB expression in the Model group was significantly increased, and the electron microscope image showed that the brown-yellow granule was distributed in the vascular smooth muscle of the membrane. After treatment, the expression of NF-κB in the Captopril group and the Whole prescription group was significantly reduced compared with the Model group, while the protein expression in other groups was decreased compared with the Model group. The protein expression of captopril group was decreased compared with that of the Whole prescription group. Compared with Promoting blood circulation for removing blood stasis group, the expression of NF-κB in Benefiting qi group was significantly decreased and was similar to that in Warming meridian group. Conclusion: The vascular remodeling mechanism of ZLHXTY on renal hypertension rats may be related to its effects on lowering blood pressure, antioxidant stress and anti-inflammation. After the compatibility of formula produced a significant synergistic effect, and its compatibility after embodies multiple targets for treatment of advantages of traditional Chinese medicine.
By observing the effect of each component of Zhilong Huoxue Tongyu Capsule （ZLHXTY） on the expression of blood vessel NF-κB -P65 and ICAM-1 in rats, to explore the effect of ZLHXTY and its ingredients on vascular remodeling in hypertension and its mechanism. The experimental results indicate that different components of ZLHXTY exert therapeutic effects on vascular remodeling in hypertensive rats from different aspects. Huangqi (Radix Astragali seu Hedysari) plays an important role in lowering blood pressure. The combination of Guizhi (Ramulus Cinnamomi) and Daxueteng (Caulis Sargentodoxae) has a significant effect on the expression of NF- induced B protein. Shuizhi (Hirudo) and compatibility of Dilong (Lumbricus) can lower blood pressure, the NF-κB protein expression. The synergistic effects of the combination of various components are significant, which reflects the therapeutic advantages of multiple targets of traditional Chinese medicine.
Objective: To systematically evaluate the effectiveness of Kangfuxin Fluid (KFX) in Ulcerative Colitis (UC) with retention enema. Methods: We searched The Cochanrane Library, Pubmed, EMbase, VIP, CNKI, CBM and WanFang Data from inception to December.2017, and retrospectively incorporated into the literature reference. And a systematic review of randomized controlled trials was performed. Meta-analysis was performed with RevMan5.3 software. Results: A total of 18 randomized controlled trials and 1417 patients were enrolled, among which 731 cases were in experimental group and 686 cases were in control group. The meta-analysis results revealed that the effectiveness of KFX on UC with retention enema was significantly superior to the controlled treatment (RR=1.22 95%CI: [1.16,1.27], Z=8.14, p<0.00001). And, the score of quality of life was significantly increased after KFX treatment (MD=11.12, 95% CI [7.00, 15.23], Z=5.30, p<0.00001). Conclusion: KFX on the treatment of UC with retention enema is potentially effective to improve patient's quality of life, and it is worth being popularized clinically. Depth researches and high quality randomized controlled trials on the efficacy of UC are necessary.
Nowadays, the treatment of Ulcerative Colitis remains complex. Kangfuxin Fluid, a kind of Chinese traditional medicine, which efficacy is evaluated in this meta-analysis on the treatment of Ulcerative Colitis with retention enema based on the latest and most available supports. According to those supportive data, Kangfuxin Fluid is potentially affective to improve the treatment of patients with Ulcerative Colitis, and it is worth being popularized clinically. Meanwhile, in-depth researches and high quality randomized controlled trials are still in need. We have systematically reviewed the final vision of the manuscript and plunk for the publication. To the best of our knowledge and belief, this manuscript has not been published in whole or in part nor considered for publication elsewhere.
We summarized the Polyporusus Bellatus (PPS) efficacy of immunomodulation, liver protection and anti-tumor, then provide scientific basis for further research and clinical application. This dissertation first overview relevant literatures of PPS recent years and describe comprehensively the research progress of the immunoregulation, liver protection and anti-tumor effects and mechanism of PPS. The review shows that the PPS play anti-tumor effects through antioxidation, scavenging free radicals, inhibiting tumor cell proliferation, inducing apoptosis, affecting tumor gene expressions and enhancing immune functions. PPS can exert immunoregulatory, hepatoprotective and anti-tumor effects through multiple pathways and multiple targets, which provides a good application prospect in clinic.
Polyporusus Bellatus (PPS) is the major component of Zhuling (Polyporus). This dissertation first overview relevant literatures of PPS recent years. PPS has immunoregulation, liver protection and anti-tumor effect. PPS can exert immunoregulatory, hepatoprotective and anti-tumor effects through multiple pathways and multiple targets, which provides a good application prospect in clinic.
Though no down-regulation effect on blood sugar was observed, astragalus polysaccharide could improve renal tubular interstitial injury in diabetic nephropathy rats and the early stage of renal function damage, which may be related to downregulation of the TGF-β1 and α-SMA.
The application of traditional Chinese medicine in the protection and treatment of the complication of diabetic nephropathy needs further research.
Object:To examine the effect of astragalus polysaccharide (APS) on kidney status and fibrosis indices of rats with diabetic nephropathy. Methods:72 male rats were randomly divided into three groups: negative control group (NC, n = 24); diabetic nephropathy model group (DNM, n = 24); and diabetic nephropathy model with APS group (DNM + APS, n = 24). Rats of the DNM and DNM + APS groups were subjected to both unilateral nephrectomy and administered streptozotocin (STZ) injection (65 mg/kg). DNM + APS group rats were administered 50 IU/kg/d APS by subcutaneous injection from the first week after operation until death. The NC and DNM group rats were subcutaneously injected with an identical volume of physiological saline. At weeks 3, 8, and 13 after the operation, 6 rats from each group were randomly sacrificed and blood was collected to measure serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. On the day before sacrifice, the rats were placed in a metabolic cage for 24 h to collect urine. At week 14 after the operation, 6 rats from each group were randomly selected to measure body weight and kidney index. Blood was collected to measure blood glucose. The kidneys were harvested to detect pathological changes by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Results:Histological assessment of DNM rats suggested damage symptoms as evidenced by hyperplasia of the glomerular mesangial matrix, atrophia of the kidney tubules, and thickening of the basement membrane. In contrast, STZ-induced diabetic nephropathy rats treated with APS (50 IU/kg/d) showed significantly improved histological results, suggesting that APS has beneficial effect on renal tissues in STZ-induced DNM rats. Our results also indicated that APS relieved renal injury and effectively improved body weight in DNM rats. The ratio of kidney weight to body weight was reduced and the early stage of renal function damage was improved after APS treatment. In the later stages of the disease, the 24 h urinary protein significantly decreased. Moreover, APS down-regulated TGF-β1 and α-SMA expression of the kidney.
Highlights The present study demonstrates the reliability of the highly efficient system for screening of active drug molecules with vascular induction function from Chinese medicines and confirmed the vascular induction function of alantolactone.
Editor’s Summary This cell screening model and verification experiment may provide methods for the rapid screening of more drug molecules with vascular induction function from Chinese medicines and verifying the potential of rMSCs to differentiate into blood vessels with suitable stimulants.
Abstract To promote efficient screening of active angiogenic drugs from traditional medicines, we constructed a human embryonic kidney-293 cell model using vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene promoter as the drug target. In this model, VEGF gene promoter may regulate the expression of the luciferase reporter gene by responding to the stimulation of drug molecules. This cell model allows rapid and efficient screening of vascular-inducing active components from several drug monomer molecules. Furthermore, we used rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs) to conduct a preliminary study on the activity of alantolactone. Using simvastatin as a positive control, we investigated the effects of alantolactone on the expression of vascular-related cell marker molecules such as VEGF and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in rMSCs. According to our results, 0.1, 1, 3 and 5 μM of alantolactone upregulated the transcriptional luciferase gene activity of VEGF promoter, and a significant difference from that in the control group was observed. Among them, 3μM of alantolactone showed the better effect than that of 3 μM of simvastatin (P = 0.036) and other concentrations of alantolactone and simvastatin showed similar effects. Compared with that in the control group, rMSCs induced with 1μM alantolactone for 3 days showed a significant increase in the relative mRNA expressions of VEGF and α-SMA genes. However, these effect of 5 μM alantolactone were weaker than those of 5 μM simvastatin (P < 0.05); rMSCs treated with 1 μM alantolactone for 3 days showed brighter green fluorescence (FITC marker) of α-SMA and VEGF in situ expression than that observed in the control group and similar fluorescence intensity than that of simvastatin group in an immunoradiometric assay. The above results demonstrate the reliability of the highly efficient system for screening of active drug molecules and confirmed the vascular induction function of alantolactone at the gene and protein levels.
Highlights This review summaries the recent progress on the main anti-tumor mechanism of Tongguanteng (Marsdenia tenacissima) and its extract.
Editor’s Summary Editor’s Summary Tongguanteng (Marsdenia tenacissima) belongs to the family Asclepiadaceae, which mainly distributed in the Guizhou, Yunnan, Sichuan, and Guangxi provinces of China and other areas in Southeast Asia.
Abstract Tongguanteng (Marsdenia tenacissima), which is mainly distributed in the Yunnan and Guizhou provinces of China, was first recorded in Diannanbencao by Lan Mao of the Ming dynasty of China. According to recent pharmacological studies, the chemical composition of Tongguanteng (Marsdenia tenacissima) is complex and contains C21 steroidal saponins, polysaccharides, alkaloids, and other molecules, which show anti-cancer effects on various tumor cell lines. It inhibits tumor cell proliferation and growth mainly by increasing the expression of apoptosis- and cell cycle-related proteins to promote apoptosis and arrest tumor cells in the G2/M or S phase. Downregulation of the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-2/A and matrix metalloprotease-2/9 suppresses the formation of the tumor microvasculature, leading to tumor malnutrition, increased expression of interleukin-2, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase, and decreased interleukin-10 and malondialdehyde expression, thereby enhancing immunity and antioxidation in the body. Additionally, inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor, hepatocyte growth factor receptor, and tyrosine-protein kinase receptor activation enhances the anti-tumor efficacy of epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors as well as inhibits P-glycoprotein and cytochrome P450 to increase the concentration of anti-tumor drugs in tumor cells.
This review introduced the origin, developing course and modern application of Chinese food therapy in traditional Chinese medicine to enrich our understanding of relevant concepts and ways.
Chinese food therapy, an important part of traditional Chinese medicine. The origins of Chinese food therapy can be traced back to the “Sanhuanwudi” period. It is essential to know Chinese food therapy plays a more important role in clinics and family health care.
Objective: This review introduced the origin, developing course and modern application of Chinese food therapy (CFT) in traditional Chinese medicine to enrich our understanding of relevant concepts and ways. Methods: PubMed, EMBASE, CBM, CNKI, VIP and Wanfang Databases were searched for papers on a range of terms relating to CFT. 41 references were finally selected for this review. Results: The development of CFT is comprised of five important periods in Chinese history. They are as following: the infancy period represented by the idea of homogeny of medicine and food; theoretical development period represented by Inner Canon of Yellow Emperor, Shennong’s Classic of Materia Medica and Treatise on Febrile and Miscellaneous Diseases; specialized volumes on CFT represented by Dietotherapy Worth a Thousand Gold; representative monographs on CFT represented by Dietetic Materia Medica and Principles of Correct Diet and the perfect period represented by integration of ancient food therapy practice and modern nutriology. Conclusion: CFT harbors a long and profound history, making great contribution to people’s health maintenance and illness prevention. With the further development of integrative medicine, CFT may play a more important role in clinics and family health care based on integration of syndrome differentiation and disease differentiation.
This meta-analysis systematically evaluatd the efficacy of mechanical tongue cleaning on halitosis, and showed that treatment combined with mechanical tongue cleaning could reduce risks of halitosis and Winkel Tongue Coating Index.
Mechanical tongue cleaning is effective in reducing volatile sulphur compounds. However, there is insufficient evidence indicate the effective of mechanical tongue cleaning on preventing halitosis. This article found that mechanical tongue cleaning could reduce Winkel Tongue Coating Index and improve improve overall oral health condition.
Objective: To systematically review the effects of mechanical tongue cleaning on halitosis. Methods: Searching and collecting the RCTs about treatment combine with mechanical tongue cleaning from inception to May 2017 in the databases, like CNKI, VIP, WanFang Data, PubMed, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, The Cochrane Library, Web of Science. Two reviewers screened the literatures according to inclusion and excluding criteria, extracted the data independenly, assessed bias risks. In case of disagreement, the discussion shall be settled by the third reviewer. Meta-analysis was conducted by RevMan 5.3. Results: A total of 4 RCTs with 185 volunteers were included. The results of Meta-analysis showed that treatment combine with mechanical tongue cleaning has an advantage over the control group in the levels of Winkel Tongue Coating Index [MD = 2.15, 95%CI(0.93,3.36), = 0.0006], Organoleptic Assessment [MD = -0.71, 95%CI(-0.95,-0.48), <0.00001], but no significant differences between two groups in Volatile Sulphur Compounds [SMD = -1.13, 95%CI(-2.91,0.65), = 0.21], Bleeding On Probing [MD = -1.01, 95%CI(-7.05,5.03), = 0.74]. Conclusion: Treatment combined with mechanical tongue cleaning could reduce risks of halitosis and Winkel Tongue Coating Index.
Objective: We evaluated the protective effects of berberine (BBR) combined with ginsenoside Rb1 (G-Rb1) on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in rats and futher investigated the underlying mechanisms. Methods: Rats were fed an HFD for 6 weeks and then randomly divided into four groups and treated with BBR (50 mg/kg), G-Rb1 (100 mg/kg), BBR (50 mg/kg)+G-Rb1 (100 mg/kg), or fenofibrate (40 mg/kg). Histological examination of liver tissue was performed. In human hepatocellular carcinoma cells HepG2, protein expression of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase was detected by western blotting, and the mRNA expression of carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl coenzyme A reductase was detected by quantitative PCR. Pharmacokinetic assessments included analysis of bioavailability of BBR and G-Rb1 in vivo and G-Rb1 metabolism by intestinal bacteria in vitro. Results: Compared to the single-use group, BBR combined with G-Rb1 significantly ameliorated hepatic fat accumulation in HFD-induced obese rats, as demonstrated by reduced hepatic triglyceride content, and histological evaluation of liver sections. Activation of hepatic AMPK and phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase were significantly elevated in hepatocytes treated with both BBR and G-Rb1. Consistent with the activation of AMPK, the mRNA expression of carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 was stimulated, while the mRNA expression of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl coenzyme A reductase was suppressed. Pharmacokinetic analysis revealed that BBR increased the bioavailability of G-Rb1 in Sprague-Dawley rats. Additionally, BBR prevented degradation of G-Rb1 in fecal solution in vitro. Conclusion: BBR combined with G-Rb1 improved NAFLD through the AMPK signaling pathway, and BBR enhanced G-Rb1 bioavailability via promoting the intestinal absorption of G-Rb1. This combination may be a useful therapeutic agent for NAFLD.
This review recommends an integrative approach of acupuncture in combination with other therapeutic strategies in the weight management of women with obesity and the treatment of adiposity-incurred illnesses.
This literature review analyses 25 clinical studies, involving 2407 participants aged 13-65 in Africa, Asia, the Middle East, and North America, offering recommendations for the reliability and validity of acupuncture in the treatment of women’s obesity and adiposity-incurred illnesses.
In addition to higher risks of various obstetric and gynaecological illnesses among women with obesity or who are overweight, maternal adiposity threatens the lifetime health of their offspring. Diverse treatments are provided, including complementary and alternative medicine such as Chinese medical practices. Acupuncture, a traditional Chinese medicinal method, is increasingly being applied to this health problem. This literature review analyses 25 clinical studies, involving 2407 participants aged 13-65 in Africa, Asia, the Middle East and North America. This illustrates the use of acupuncture alone or with other approaches to control body weight, obesity-induced diseases, and gynaecological health. Although positive indicators are presented, this study offers recommendations for enhancing reliability and validity in further research. It therefore suggests the use of acupuncture in dealing with obesity due to its efficacy, and economic and safety benefits.
When combines with the deep breathing method, Tai Chi training achieves better therapeutic effect on international students with depression or depression tendency.
Taijiquankaoxinlu (2006, A.D.) pointed out that practitioners who combined Qi (the flow of internal energy) and Yi (thought) was getting better. It means that Tai Chi can integrate deep breathing with body movements to achieve the better effects in treatment of psychological diseases.
Objective:To evaluate the effect of different training methods of Tai Chi on Chinese medicine constitution of international students with depression or depression tendency. Methods: Thirty-eight Africa international students were randomly divided into the physical exercise group who receiving the simple physical exercise of simplified 24-form Tai Chi (physical exercise group) and the breathing group who receiving both deep breathing method plus simple physical exercise (breathing group). The average scores of Chinese medicine gentleness and various biased constitutional types in the two groups were compared. Results: The average score of thirty-eight students with biased constitution in both groups decreased significantly compared with that before training (P < 0.05). Compared with that before training, the average scores of biased constitutional types in the breathing group, including Qi deficiency, Yang deficiency, phlegm-dampness and Qi stagnation, were significantly decreased (P < 0.05). The average scores of Yang deficiency, blood stasis and Qi stagnation constitutional types of students in simple physical group after training were also significantly decreased after training (P < 0.05). Moreover, the average scores of biased constitutional types, including Qi deficiency, Yang deficiency, Yin deficiency, phlegm and dampness, Qi-stagnation, in the breathing group were significantly lower than those of the simple exercise group, suggesting the superior therapeutic effect of breathing training method (P < 0.01). Conclusion: When combines with the deep breathing method, Tai Chi training achieves better effect on improving the biased constitutional types which may be related to depression or depression tendency, including Qi deficiency, Yang deficiency, Yin deficiency, phlegm and dampness, Qi-stagnation.
Besides the well-known components which possess the glucocorticoids-like anti-inflammatory effect of Chinese herb Gancao (Radix Glycyrrhizae), there are still other components which possess the NSAIDs-like anti-inflammatory effect and their underling mechanism is related to the inhibition on COX-2.
Chinese herb Gancao (Radix Glycyrrhizae) possesses both the steroid-like and non-steroid anti- inflammatory effects, which reflects the multi- targets characteristics of the role of Chinese herb in the treatment of disease.
Objective: To explore the molecular basis of the effects of Gancao (Radix Glycyrrhizae, GC) on inflammation through the inhibition of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2). Methods: The Discovery Studio 4.5 System was used to predict the physicochemical properties of GC molecular compounds. The Ligand Profiler was used to screen for natural GC components that could combine with the COX-2 pharmacophores. The AutoDock Vina 1.1.2 software was used for the molecular docking of the natural GC components with the COX-2 protein. Results: The aromatics were the closest to the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in terms of the three properties, namely molecular weight, molecular surface area, and molecular solubility, followed by the flavonoids; whereas the terpenoids/saponins differed most from the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in terms of the three properties; and the aliphatics were inconsistent. One hundred and eighteen small molecules were obtained through the pharmacophore screening using GC. The molecular binding energy (MBE) results demonstrated that the MBE value of the flavonoids/aromatics, obtained from their binding with the COX-2 protein, was lower than that obtained from their binding with the substrate, metabolism of arachidonic acid, whereas the MBE value of the aliphatics/terpenoids, obtained from their binding with the COX-2 protein, was higher than that obtained from their binding with the substrate, arachidonic acid. Finally, further filtration, based on the physicochemical properties and the molecular binding energies of the small molecules, was carried out. Forty-two natural GC components, including 35 flavonoid and 7 aromatic constituents, with low binding energies and potential inhibitory effects on COX-2, were screened. Conclusion: Using the three-step program, pharmacophore screening, molecular docking, and physicochemical properties analysis, we screened out 35 flavonoid molecules and 7 aromatic molecules, which may be potential COX-2 inhibitors, from GC. Two of the 35 flavonoid molecules (licochalcone A and glabridin) have been confirmed in the laboratory to have inhibitory effects on COX-2. Our findings provide a material basis for the development of non-steroidal GC drugs.
The current study found that the polysaccharide extract of Daji (Cirsium japonicum) have a favorable therapeutic effect against oxidative stress and the underlying mechanism might be involved with MAPK pathway.
Daji (Cirsium japonicum) have been traditionally utilized by the Tibetan and Mongolian people since the Tang Dynasty of China (618 A.D. - 907 A.D.).
Daji (Cirsium japonicum) has been applied against gastric disorders, lung diseases, and cardiovascular problems in the traditional Chinese medicinal system. The present study was to investigate the protective effects of Daji (Cirsium japonicum) polysaccharide extracts (CJP) against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) shock in rat H9c2 myocardial cells. First, CJP was isolated by hot water extraction and ethanol precipitation; it was then characterized by high performance liquid chromatography and infrared spectrum analysis. Rat H9c2 cells were subjected to H2O2 treatment to establish a cell injury model. The 3- (4,5- dimethylthiazol- 2-yl)-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay showed that CJP pretreatment significantly ameliorated the H2O2 injury in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the cell apoptosis induced by H2O2 was markedly inhibited by CJP pretreatment, whereas the cleavage level of caspase-3, -8, and -9 was reduced. In addition, the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway might be involved in the protective effect of CJP on myocardial cells. Therefore, we conclude that polysaccharide extracts of Daji (Cirsium japonicum) protect rat H9c2 myocardial cells from oxidative stress induced by H2O2.
Banxia (Pinellia Ternate) and Huanglian (Coptis chinensis) drug pair has dual-directional regulatory effects on gastrointestinal movement in mice with atropine or neostigmine induced functional dyspepsia by modulating GAS, VIP, and SS levels in the intestine.
Banxia (Pinellia ternata) and Huanglian (Coptis chinensis) drug pair was derived from Banxiaxiexin soup, which was first recorded in the Shanghanlun composed by Zhang Zhongjing in the third century (Eastern Han Dynasty of China).
Objective: To evaluate the regulatory effects of Banxia (Pinellia ternata, P) and Huanglian (Coptis chinensis, C) drug pair, derived from Banxiaxiexin soup, on the gastrointestinal movement of mice with functional dyspepsia. Methods: Mice were treated with different proportions of the P and C drug pair (1:1, 3:1, and 4:1) for 10 days, and subsequently injected with atropine (ATR) or neostigmine (NEO). The effects of the different proportions of P and C were evaluated based on the alvine advance rate. In addition, we used the same modeling method used in the first experiment and administered P: C at ratio of 3:1 and at different doses respectively (4.68 g/L, 2.34 g/L, and 1.17 g/L), and tested levels of the gastrointestinal hormones, gastrin (GAS), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), and somatostatin (SS) in the small intestinal tissue using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: In the groups of NEO-induced mice, P:C at ratios of 1:1, 3:1, and 4:1 significantly reduced the alvine advance rate compared with the NEO model group (P = 0.003, P = 0.012 and P = 0.021, respectively). In the groups of ATR-induced mice, only P:1 at ratio of 3:1 significantly increased the alvine advance rate compared with the ATR model group (P = 0.007). After exposure to P: C at ratio of 3:1 and at different dose, the GAS level was lower in the low-, medium-, and high-dose NEO groups than that in the NEO model group (P = 0.001, P = 0.004, and P = 0.003, respectively). The VIP levels were higher in the medium-and high-dose NEO groups than that in the NEO model group (P = 0.004 and P = 0.002, respectively). In addition, the SS level increased in the NEO medium-dose group compared with that in the NEO model group (P = 0.002). The GAS level was higher in the ATR medium- and high-dose groups than in the ATR model group (P = 0.007 and P = 0.021, respectively). The VIP level was lower in the ATR low-, medium-, and high-dose than that in the ATR model group (P = 0.001, P = 0.001, and P = 0.001, respectively). Furthermore, the SS level was lower in the ATR medium- and high-dose groups than that in the ATR model group (P = 0.001 and P = 0.006). Conclusion: The PC drug pair bidirectionally adjusted the NEO- and ATR-induced functional dyspepsia in mice by modulating GAS, VIP, and SS levels in the intestine.
Objective:Antrodia camphorata (AC), a precious medicinal mushroom in Taiwan, is popularly used for adjuvant cancer therapy. This paper aims to clarify the metabolites which are present in tumor tissues after oral administration of AC in Sarcoma-180 tumor-bearing mice, as well as their contents in tumors. Methods:Tumors of Sarcoma-180 tumor-bearing mice were obtained at 1 h and 4 h after oral administration of AC extract, and the metabolites in the tumor homogenate samples were characterized using UHPLC-orbitrap/MS analysis. Then, a fully validated LC-MS/MS method was developed for quantitative analysis of the most abundant compounds in tumor tissues, namely (25R/S)-antcin H. Results:A total of 33 compounds were characterized in tumor homogenate samples including 28 prototypes of triterpenoids and 5 metabolites. Among them, (25R)-antcin H and (25S)-antcin H had the highest contents of 2.03 and 0.66 μg/g tumor tissues for the 1 h group, and 2.04 and 0.59 μg/g tumor tissues for the 4 h group, respectively. It was obvious that (25R)-antcin H had higher tumor affinity than (25S)-antcin H, since the content of (25R)-antcin H was lower than that of (25S)-antcin H in AC extract (P < 0.01). Conclusion:Triterpenoids can enter tumor tissues after oral administration of AC. Particularly, (25R)-antcin H showed higher exposure to tumor than (25S)-antcin H. These compounds could contribute to the anticancer activities of AC.
Metabolites of Antrodia camphorata in mice tumor tissues were profiled by UHPLC-orbitrap/MS analysis for the first time after oral administration, and a total of 33 compounds were characterized. The most abundant compounds in tumor tissues, namely (25R)-antcin H and (25S)-antcin H, were quantified by a fully validated LC-MS/MS method. The results indicated that (25R)-antcin H had higher tumor affinity than (25S)-antcin H.
Objective:The objective of this study is to evaluate the clinical efficacy of Xiaoyao Jieyu prescription (XJP) in the treatment of persistent postural-perceptual dizziness (PPPD). Methods:A total of 33 PPPD patients were randomly divided into test group and control group. Two groups of patients were given psychological treatment. The test group was given XJP and the control group was given escitalopram. The course of treatment was 12 weeks. Before and after 4 weeks and 8 weeks and 12 weeks, the dizziness handicap inventory (DHI), Hamilton anxiety scale (HAMA) and Hamilton Depression scale (HAMD) were used to evaluate the treatment effect. Results:The total scores of HAMA, HAMD, DHI and the respective factor scores of DHI significantly decreased in both groups after 4 weeks of treatment compared with those before the treatment (P < 0.01). The DHI scores and the score of function, physiology at 8-week, 12-week, as well as the HAMA and HAMD scores at 4-week, 8-week, 12-week in the test group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P < 0.05). The incidence of adverse reactions in the test group was significantly lower than the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusion:XJP can improve the clinical symptoms of patients with PPPD. It can both improve the physical and functional symptoms of PPPD and reduce anxiety and depression. In the course of treatment, the adverse reaction of the prescription is less and mild. It has the advantages of high efficiency, safety, low price and easy access to materials.
Persistent postural-perceptual dizziness is a new disease name. It was proposed by Stabb and Ruckenstein on the basis of chronic subjective dizziness and phobic postural vertigo in 2014. At present, the main treatment methods of PPPD is psychotherapy, vestibular balanced rehabilitation and drug therapy, but each method has its limitations. Xiaoyao Jieyu prescription was adjusted on the basis of the ancient formula “Xiaoyao San”. It can improve the clinical symptoms of patients with PPPD, which has the advantages of high efficiency, safety, low price and easy access to materials.
Intracranial vascular stenosis is closely related to transient ischemic attack (TIA) and cerebral infarction, early prevention and treatment of intracranial vascular stenosis can prevent cerebral infarction and improve the prognosis of stroke. Western medicine employs interventional surgery or vasodilator, antiplatelet drugs, lipid lowering drugs, plaque-stabilizing agents and other drugs for treating intracranial vascular stenosis. No corresponding disease name with “intracranial vascular stenosis” is found in Chinese medicine literature. Based on the characteristics of syndromes, symptoms and diseases, “intracranial vascular stenosis” is summarized as weakened body resistance and prevailed pathogenic factors, phlegm with blood stasis and “obstruction (Bi) syndrome” in the brain. The self-made Chinese herbal “Naomaitong” prescription treating for bilateral middle cerebral artery stenosis in 1 case got satisfactory efficacy by transcranial doppler (TCD) and computed tomography angiography (CTA) examination.
“Intracranial vascular stenosis” has no corresponding name in Chinese medicine literature. The writer summarized it as vessel impediment which location was in the brain with weakened body resistance and pathogenic stagnation, phlegm with blood stasis, based on the characteristics of its symptoms, syndromes and disease. The present study suggested the self-made Chinese herb “Naomaitong” prescription treating for bilateral middle cerebral artery stenosis can get satisfactory effect in clinic.
Objective: To assess the efficacy and safety of acupuncture for hyperlipidemia in adults. Methods: We searched electronic databases, including PubMed, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, CBM, CNKI, and VIP. All included studies were assessed in terms of quality and risk bias. The Review Manager 5.3.3 software was used for the data analyses, and the GRADE profiler software was applied to classify the systematic review results. Results: Seventeen studies were identified (n = 1,408). Acupuncture (electro-acupuncture or magnetic needle) was equally as effective as sham treatment (needle acupuncture) (relative risk [RR], 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.72-1.24). Acupuncture (needle acupuncture, electro-acupuncture, moxibustion, and acupoint catgut embedding) was as effective as statin therapy (RR 0.10; 95%CI, 0.97-1.24). Acupuncture was as effective as Chinese herbal preparations (electro-acupuncture and auricular acupoint) (RR, 0.97; 95%CI, 0.89-1.06). However, insufficient evidence was available to demonstrate whether acupressure was effective compared with acupuncture plus other treatments (RR, 1.04; 95%CI, 0.87-1.25). Conclusion: Acupuncture may improve hyperlipidemia levels. However, additional large, properly randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind studies are required.
1. This manuscript has not been published or submitted elsewhere, in whole or in part.2. Comprehensive and systematic study using the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of acupuncture therapy for hyperlipidaemia in adults.3. GRADE profiler software was applied to classify the systematic review quality of evidence.4. We found limited evidence to suggest that acupressure decreased TC, LDL-C, and increased HDL-C compared with either placebo or sham acupuncture.5. Acupuncture may increase total effective rate when compared against pravastatin, but no difference in total effective rate when compared against simvastatin and atorvastatin.6. Acupressure may increase HDL-C to a greater degree than statin treatment, but there was no statistical difference.
Objective:To systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety of Yiyiren Decoction combined with western medicine and western medicine alone in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Methods:Databases of CNKI, VIP, Wanfang Data, PubMed, Medline, Cochrane Library, and Embase were retrieved by computers. The references of the included studies, relevant dissertations, and conference proceedings were manually retrieved. The search intervals were from the database inception until July 2017. The retrieval and screening of studies were carried out respectively by 2 researchers, and the quality and data were evaluated and extracted according to Jadad quality scale. Meta-analysis was performed with RevMan5.3 software. Results:(1) A total of 7 randomized controlled trials and 485 patients were enrolled, among which 262 cases were in experimental group and 223 cases were in control group. The point of 2 studies was 3, other studies were 1-2. The studies included indicated that the group baselines were comparable. (2)The total effective rate of Yiyiren Decoction with western medicine group was higher than that of western medicine group (RR = 0.85, 95%CI [0.78, 0.92]. Improved Conditions of tender joint count (MD = -2.79, 95%CI [-3.47, -2.12]); erythrocyte sedimentation rate (MD = -9.5, 95%CI [15.67, -3.33]); and C-reactive protein (MD = -3.36, 95%CI [-5.45, -1.27]) were superior to control group. There was no significant difference on the side effects of drugs and the rheumatoid factor between the two groups. Conclusion:Yiyiren Decoction with western medicine had advantages in alleviating clinical symptoms and laboratory index of rheumatoid arthritis patients. While, the quality of included studies was low and possible publication bias was present, further multi-center double-blind randomized control trials with larger sample are needed.
The article systematically evaluated the efficacy and safety of Yiyiren Decoction combined with western medicine and western medicine alone in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. The results of this meta-analysis showed that Yiyiren Decoction combined with western medicine had certain advantages over the clinical symptoms and laboratory indicators of rheumatoid arthritis.
Atrial fibrillation is of public health importance and profoundly increases morbidity, mortality and health-related expenditures. Morbidities include the increased risks of cardiovascular outcomes such as heart failure and stroke, and the deleterious effects on quality of life, functional status and cognition. Our purpose is to understand the molecular mechanism of atrial fibrillation, a model under pathological conditions should be established. Acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter in the vagus nerve, has been established with numerous atrial fibrillation models. We will discuss the established model of atrial fibrillation which induced by acetylcholine, aiming to seek a model which are more close to the clinical condition. The underlying mechanisms will be discussed in order to observe the mechanism of antiarrhythmic drugs.
Acetylcholine as a neurotransmitter of the vagus nerve which plays an important role in the occurrence and maintenance of atrial fibrillation, is important in basic researches. The acetylcholine is another novel candidate target for atrial-specific drug therapy. The constitutively active form of this current increased in human atrial fibrillation and pharmacological inhibition might be of therapeutic value.
Alzheimer’s disease as one of the neurodegenerative diseases, its pathological mechanisms still remains unclear. There’s evidence that diabetes is associated with Alzheimer’s disease. However, the fundamental cause of diabetes is abnormal glucose metabolism. There may be an inseparable relationship between glucose metabolism regulating hormones and Alzheimer’s disease. Here, we review the studies that connect the glucose metabolism regulating hormones to Alzheimer’s disease, and that suggest the quality of Alzheimer’s patients is improved by regulating glucose metabolism.
This article reviews the studies that connect the glucose metabolism regulating hormones to Alzheimer’s disease, and that suggest the quality of Alzheimer’s patients is improved by regulating glucose metabolism. Because there are a substantial epidemiological studies that have established clearly association between metabolic and neurodegenerative disorders in general, and it has also been found that the pathologic changes of insulin resistance and glucose metabolism disorder in AD are similar with that in diabetes, it is promising to find a new pathway to consider the research strategy on exploring the nootropics candidates rooting in herbal medicine and its formula.
Objective: This meta-analysis evaluated the efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) combined with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and/or angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARBs)for treatment of incipient diabetic nephropathy(IDN). Methods: Nine data bases were searched for randomized controlled trials of Chinese herbal medicine(CHM) and ACEI/ARB for treatment of IDN. Included articles were published between January2006 and December 2016. All studies were divided into prescriptions containing both Astragali Radix and Rehmanniae Radix (i subgroup), Astragali Radix(Huangqi) or Rehmanniae Radix(Dihuang) (ii subgroup), neither Astragali Radix nor Rehmanniae Radix (iii subgroup). Review Manager 5.3was used for subgroup analysis. Results: In total, 28 RCTs with 2017 patients were included. The results showed 1)the urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) can be reduced significantly using CHM with ACEI or ARB for treatment of IDN compared to ACEI or ARB alone, and reduction of the UAER of the i subgroup was superior to that of the other two subgroups;2)serum creatinine (Scr) levels can be reduced significantly using CHM combined with ACEI or ARB, and reduction of Scr in the ii subgroup was superior to that in the iii subgroup;3)reduction of BUN in group A was not better than that in group B. Conclusion: In summary, CHMs combined with ACEI/ARB can decrease UAER and Scr significantly compared to the use of ACEI/ARB during IDN treatment. The effect was more significant in the CHM group containing Astragali Radix or Rehmanniae Radix. The application of Astragali Radix and Rehmanniae Radix should be emphasized in third stage diabetic nephropathy.
Objective: To explore and identify the concept of adherence in the context of cardiac rehabilitation. This concept analysis will provide a framework for clinical decision-making and intervention to improve patients’ adherence to cardiac rehabilitation programme. Method: Walker and Avant’s framework was used to analysis the concept of adherence. Results: Adherence is defined as patients collaboration with health care provider, active involvement in the treatment regimen, and persistence in practice characterized by self-efficacy and relapse-prevention. Defining Attributes of adherence include collaboration relationship; self-efficacy promotion and relapse-prevention. Antecedents of adherence include health care provider’s prescription, illness perceptions, social-economic and environmental factors. Patients adherence to cardiac rehabilitation programme can improve clinical outcomes. However, there is no standard instrument to measure adherence. Conclusion:Based on the concept analysis, in order to improve patients’ adherence to cardiac rehabilitation, health care provider should invite patients active involvement in making rehabilitation plan and promote patients’ self-efficacy and prevention relapse.
Objective: To explore and analyze the concept of intensive care unit (ICU) delirium. Method: Walker and Avant’s strategy of analysis was adopted to this research. Results: ICU delirium is defined as the presence of an acute cognitive impairment, accompanied by a disturbance of consciousness with fluctuating inattention, and the array of dysfunctions only developed for a short period of time in ICU. The antecedents of ICU delirium include (1) the high severity of illness, (2) pain, (3) sedative use, (4) immobilization, (5) sleep deprivation and (6) unpleasant awareness. The consequences involve (1) promoting the risks of self-extubation and unplanned removal of catheters, (2) prolonging the length of ICU stay, (3) increasing the mortality of critical patients and (4) Some different ICU delirium assessment instruments are gathered. Confusion Assessment Method for Intensive Care Unit assessment tool (CAM-ICU) was the most popular diagnostic tool used by nurses. Conclusion: Concept analysis as an extension and development of nursing theory can create a linkage between practice and theory. It will create a knowledge foundation of ICU delirium and provide a theoretical basis to construct nursing theory. This study can help ICU nurses to understand and recognize ICU delirium. ICU nurses will be enlightened to develop effective interventions of ICU delirium to improve critical patients’ clinical outcomes.
This study identifiedthe attributes of ICU delirium emerged from a number of literature: acute cognitive impairment, acute disturbance of consciousness, fluctuating inattention, and developed for a short period of time.The presentation of a model case and a contrary case has shown the differences related to attributes between effective or invalid ICU delirium.
Though a growing number of research publications made great contributions to understand ICU delirium, serious under-recognized issues still remain in healthcare providers globally. This study carry out an assessment, a professional judgment, and a concept analysis of ICU delirium.
Objective: To identify and clarify the existing definitions of quality of life in head and neck cancer survivors. This concept analysis will inform healthcare professionals of promoting nursing care for head and neck cancer survivors and eventually improve their quality of life. Method: Concept analysis based on Walker and Avant’s framework. Results: Quality of life is a subjective and personally derived cognitive evaluation of global well-being by perceiving a feeling of overall life satisfaction in his/her own value, happiness, and the independence to manage daily activities and life experience. Three defining attributes for quality of life were identified: a feeling of overall life satisfaction in his/her value, global personal well-being, and independence. An improvement of quality of life means an improvement of clinical outcome. However, the variety of instruments for measuring life quality makes it difficult for healthcare professionals to select a standard one for head and neck cancer survivors. Conclusion: By proposing a comprehensive definition of the concept, this analysis contributes to the advancement of knowledge about quality of life in the context of head and neck cancer survivorship. Through a sound understanding of the phenomenon, healthcare professions will recognize or measure head and neck cancer survivors’ life conditions in a more accurate way and to implement intervention where necessary, eventually, improve patients’ life quality in survivorship.
Objectives: The aim of this paper is to analyse the concept of coping in the cancer context. This concept analysis will provide a theoretical framework for oncology nurses to help patients cope with the influences of cancer and adapt to their new situations. Methods: The concept analysis of coping was conducted according to Walker and Avant's method. Results: Coping is defined as a process of dealing with stressful events by means of cognitive appraisal, purposeful efforts, and use of available supports and resources in order to achieve physiological and psychological adjustment. Antecedents to coping involve stressful events, individual personality, individual experience, and available supports and resources. Different coping strategies based on patients’ responses to suffering from cancer bring about positive or negative results. Effective coping means being well-adapted, which is conducive to patients’ health and optimum quality of life. Roy’s middle range theory of coping and adaptation processing provides a theoretical framework for the study of coping.The Mental Adjustment to Cancer scale and the 15-item Coping and Adaptation Processing Scale are considered practical and effectual instruments to measure coping in the cancer context. Conclusions: This concept analysis contributes to understanding the process of coping with cancer. Oncology nurses should identify cancer patients’ coping patterns, provide timely and proper professional support and educate effective coping strategies in order to help patients adapt to their new situations both physiologically and psychologically.
Background:Slow arrhythmia, a common clinical condition, has a higher incidence in the elderly population. Shenxian Shengmai Oral Liquid has been shown to improve the symptoms of patients with slow arrhythmia in many clinical studies and systematic reviews. Sixty participants with slow arrhythmia will be randomized to treatment group (Shenxian Shengmai Oral Liquid) and control group (Shenxian Shengmai Oral Liquid Placebo) in a 2:1 ratio. This clinical trial is a pilot study to compare the effects of Shenxian Shengmai Oral Liquid and the control groups; to analyze the effect of Shenxian Shengmai Oral Liquid for slow arrhythmia.
1.This is the clinical trial plan of oral liquid of Chinese medicine for the treatment of slow arrhythmia.2.This study is a pilot study. Sixty patients with slow arrhythmia were randomly divided into observation group (40 cases) and control group (20 cases) to explore the safety and effectiveness of Shenxian Shengmai Oral Liquid.3.The study will be a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.
Objective: To establish a simple, effective and high-purity primary culture method for fetal rat hippocampal neurons. Methods: Wistar rats of gestational age 18 days were taken and the brain tissue was separated under the microscope. Single neuronal cells were obtained by digestion with Brain Dissociation Kit, and then were seeded in cell plates to observe the basic morphologic structure after 24h, 3d, and 5d. Immunofluorescence of microtubule associated protein 2 was applied to assess cell purity of the culture. Results: The hippocampal neurons obtained in this culture method are in good condition and grow vigorously. On the 7th day after culture, the purity of neurons was up to 99.62%. Conclusion: The method is simple and effective for obtaining the high-purity and stable neurons.
This report reviews the etiology, pathogenesis, treatment, and prevention of recurrent miscarriage discussed in the traditional Chinese medicine literature and lists the pharmacological studies that evaluated traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions for recurrent miscarriage.
The first cases of recurrent miscarriage as a fertility abnormality were reported in Chanjing, written during the Nanbei Dynasty of China (420 A.D. - 589 A.D.).
Recurrent miscarriage (RM) as a gynecological disorder was recognized by traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) practitioners long before the age of modern medicine. TCM physicians reported and recorded RM in the canonical TCM literature, which dates back more than 1500 years. The first cases of RM as a fertility abnormality were reported in Chanjing, which was written during the Nanbei Dynasty of China (420 A.D. - 589 A.D.). Some prescriptions for the treatment of RM are still actively used by modern TCM practitioners. In addition, many recent pharmacological and clinical studies have focused on the TCM therapy for RM. To identify the new therapeutic targets for RM and further promote the interest in treating RM with TCM, we reviewed the etiology, pathogenesis, treatment, and prevention of RM discussed both in the TCM literature and in contemporary pharmacological and clinical studies.
This article summarizes the application of Chinese medicines and their mechanisms of action in the treatment of diabetic retinopathy.
More and more Chinese formulaes have been used by China FDA for the prevention and treatment of diabetic retinopathy. And their mechanisms of action have gained increasing attention around the world.
Diabetic retinopathy is one of the main causes of visual impairment and blindness on a global scale. At present, the limitations of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents, steroids, laser photocoagulation, and vitreous surgery have led to a growing awareness of the role of Chinese medicines in the treatment of diabetic retinopathy. This review first describes the ingredients and characteristics of the formulae including Chinese herbal formulaes, Chinese patent drugs and ancient processed drugs and summarizes the application of Chinese medicines and their mechanisms of action in the treatment of diabetic retinopathy. Due to the complexity of Chinese medicines, in-depth mechanisms, side effects of herb, and drug interactions need to be elaborated in future research. Chinese medicines have the potencial to protect the residual eyesight and delay the progression of disease, thereby offering a beneficial, exploitable option in the treatment/prevention of diabetic retinopathy.
The proceeding of cancer development seems to be driven by the complex interaction among cells, stroma and adjacent tissue. Here we advocate a new conception, cancer field, to describe the development of cancer, a complex adaptive system. Cancer field may be divided into center of tumor, periphery of tumor and adjacent tissue. The balance of inhibitors and inducers, including the interaction among cancer cells, niche and adjacent tissue, governs the switch of development of cancer field, which mimic embryonic development, a dynamic process of self-organization. The radial component of intra-tumor heterogeneity raises the field change effects in cancer field. Research strategy may be changed from single cancer cell to cancer field, from malignant transform to cancer development biology. Highlights：The proceeding of cancer development seems to be driven by the complex interaction among cells, stroma and adjacent tissue. Here we advocate a new conception, cancer field, to describe the development of cancer, a complex adaptive system. Editor’s Summary：The radial component of intra-tumor heterogeneity raises the field change effects in cancer field. Research strategy may be changed from single cancer cell to cancer field, from malignant transform to cancer development biology.
Pancreatic cancer is among the most lethal malignancies resistant to conventional therapies. The urgent need for new therapies has turned the spotlights on immunotherapy. In recent years, a growing body of evidence has already been gathered regarding the efficacy of genetic engineering modified T-cells, checkpoint inhibitors of T-cells, killer cells induced by dendritic cells and cytokine in patients with pancreatic cancer. Cryoimmunotherapy in situ and extra-tumor and immunotherapy combined with chemotherapy could also increase the effectiveness. Research of pancreatic cancer vaccine has made some progress. The immunity enhancing function of some traditional herbs have been reported, such as Ginsenoside Rg3, which could enhance T-cell subsets and NK cell activity in pancreatic cancer patients with chemotherapy.
Background and Objectives: the effects of oral enteral nutrition (EN) in lung cancer patients receiving chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy were controversial, so we made a systematic review to analyze the clinical efficacy of EN in lung cancer patients after chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. Methods and Study Design: Pertinent studies were identified by searching in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), WanFang Database, China Biomedical Literature database (CBM) and Chinese Science and Technology Periodical Database (VIP). Energy intake, protein intake, weight and other data were extracted. Results: Finally, 5 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included in this systematic review. Patients in 3 studies received chemotherapy, in 1 with radiotherapy and in 1 with chemo-radiotherapy. The combined results showed that EN significantly increased energy and protein intake in lung cancer during chemotherapy, while there was no significant effect on other results after patients had received chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. Conclusions: Limited evidence is available to judge whether EN can improve clinical effect of lung cancer with or without chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy, as clinical heterogeneity and other potential variation existed in this review. Further studies are needed.
Objective: Evaluation of discrimination between two Mylabris Species based on HPLC fingerprinting and spectrum-antitumor effect relationship. Methods: In this study, a simple and efficient high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method integrating with chemometric analysis and spectrum-antitumor effect relationship was developed for discrimination between two species ofMylabris: Mylabrisphalerata Pallas (MP) and MylabriscichoriiLinnaeus (MC).Results: In the fingerprint analysis, 14 characteristic peaks were selected to assess the differences between MP and MC using the similarity and pattern recognition analysis using PCA and OPLS-DA. The HPLC chromatograms of samples from 10 regions of China showed differences between MP and MC, and 7 characteristic chemical markers were found. In the spectrum-antitumor effect relationship analysis, 4 activity markers played a vital role in decreasing the IC50 and might be the antitumor components of Mylabris by grey relational analysis and multivariate linear regression analysis. The chemometric analysis in combination with spectrum-effect relationship results indicated that peaks 2(cytosine), 4 (unknown) and 14 (unknown) were important differential markers for distinguishing the two species of Mylabris. Conclusion: The method is applicable, credible and more efficient to discriminate MP and MC, and will offer a new way for facilitating quality control of insect medicines.
This study provides an applicable, credible and more efficient HPLC method for discriminating two Mylabris species. And, the HPLC fingerprinting and spectrum-antitumor effects were integrated and the three important differential markers were found for new marker ofMylabris.
Objective: To explore the direct and/or the enhancing antihypertensive effects of wind-dispelling herbs involving Fangfeng(Saposhnikoviae Radix) and Baizhi(Angelicaedahuricae Radix)using liver-yang hyperactivity renal hypertension rat.Methods: Model rats with hyperactivity of liver-yang hyperactivity were prepared using male SD rats. Once successful, the rats were randomly divided into groups and given medicine by gavage for 4 weeks. Blood was collected from the abdominal aorta to prepare serum. Serum nitric oxide (NO) concentration was determined by chemical colorimetry. The contents of ET, TXB2 and 6-K-PGF1a were determined byenzyme linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA).Results: Compared withthe control model group, the blood pressure, serum ET and TXB2 of rats in the wind dispelling medicine group was not significantly reduced, while those of rats in captopril group, TianmaGoutengDecoction I group (TGD group) decreased significantly (P<0.05 for both). Interestingly, the blood pressure, serum ET and TXB2 of rats in the combination group (wind dispelling medicine& TGD) decreased significantly compared with both wind dispelling medicine group and TGD group. Meanwhile, the levels of serum NO and 6- K-PGF1a in the combination group was much higher than those in the wind dispelling medicine group or TGD group (P<0.05 for both). However, the levels of serum NO and 6- K-PGF1a in the wind dispelling medicine group was not significantly increasedcompared with the model group. Conclusion: There is no direct pressure lowering effects of wind dispelling medicine alone, while wind dispelling medicine could potentiates theantihypertensive effects of TianmaGoutengDecoction I. Besides, thesynergistic effects may be related to decreased ET and TXB2 levels and the increased NO and 6- K-PGF1a levels.
Using liver-yang hyperactivity renal hypertension rat, the author explored the direct and/or the enhancing antihypertensive effects of wind-dispelling herbs. They found that, there was no direct pressure lowering effects of wind dispelling medicine alone as the blood pressure was not decreased after the treatment. However, wind dispelling medicine could potentiate theantihypertensive effects of TianmaGoutengDecoction I, as the blood pressure, serum ET and TXB2 of ratsin the combination group were much lower than those in any of the single drug group. Besides, they found thesynergistic effects may be related to decreased ET and TXB2 levels and the increased NO and 6- K-PGF1a levels.
Biosensor is an instrument which is sensitive to biological material and converts its concentration into electrical signals. Organisms such as enzymes, antibodies, tissues, cells and so on can selectively identify specific substances. These molecular recognition functions can be combined with the target, such as the binding of antibodies and antigens, and the binding of enzymes to the substrate through the recognition process. Biosensor has the advantages of high specificity, high sensitivity, fast reaction speed, low cost and easy operation. It has wide application prospect in food, pharmacy, chemical industry, clinical examination, biomedicine, environmental monitoring and so on,especially as a new technology means, in the field of modern herbal medicine research influence. Studies have demonstrated that the biosensing technology has been applied to, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) targets, isolation and purification of TCM, the mechanism of TCM, quality control of TCM, the active ingredients detection of TCM and other basic researches. Biosensor technology has made an important contribution to the research of modern herbal medicine, and has become a Hot-spot in future research.
The current application of biosensors as a new technology in purification, identification of active compound, study of mechanism and quality control of traditional Chinese medicine were summarized and a prospect for biosensors in traditional Chinese medicine study was given as well.
Objective: Mangiferin (MF) is a polyphenol isolated from the root of AnemarrhenaasphodeloidesBge.. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of MF on hyperglycemia in animal models of insulin resistance and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. Methods: The diabetes mellitus model was established in mice by receiving a multiple hypodermic injection of hydrocortisone sodium succinate (HCSS) (70 mg/kg) or a single intravenous injection of STZ (130 mg/kg). Meanwhile MF at different dosage (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) were oral administrated for consecutive 10 days. Data of blood glucose were collected at different time after intraperitoneal injection of insulin (0.5 U/kg) to investigate the insulin resistant. As well as the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of kidney were measured. The in vitro experiment was established to investigate the inhibitory capacity of MF to α-glucosidase.Results: Oral administration of MF significantly prevented insulin resistance caused by HCSS injection. STZ-induced diabetic symptoms were also improved, including fasting blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, plasma triglycerides, hepatic glycogen, kidney SOD and ORAC level. The in vitro experiment demonstrated that MF had potent α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Conclusion: The obtained results demonstrate that MF ameliorates insulin resistance and STZ-induced glucose metabolism disturbance. The MF exerts the protective effects through improving the antioxidant ability, promoting hepatic glycogen synthesis and inhibiting α-glucosidase activity.
Mangiferin (MF), a polyphenol extracted from the root of AnemarrhenaasphodeloidesBge., significantly ameliorates insulin resistance and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic symptoms. Potential mechanisms were involved in improving the antioxidant ability and inhibiting α-glucosidase activity. This study provides corresponding evidence for the clinical application of mangiferin.
Clinical trials have shown that early enteral nutrition supplemented with probiotics may have potential of benefit for SHI patients; however, conflicting conclusion obstacle the decision-making. This protocol will provide approach to resolve this issue.
Although early enteral nutrition combined with probiotics were supposed to have potential of treating SHI patients, conclusive results have not yet been generated. This protocol will address this issue with quantitative synthesis method.
Objective: The aim of this systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) is to determine the effects of early enteral nutrition supplemented with probiotics on clinical outcomes in patients with SHI. Methods and analysis: A systematic search will be carried out in PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), WanFang database, and Chinese Biomedical Literature (CBM) in order to identify the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigated the potential of early enteral nutrition supplemented with probiotics on patients with severe head injury, as well as we will also manually check the bibliographies of eligible studies and topic-related reviews. We will assign two investigators to independently search all potential citations, extracted data, and appraised risk of bias accordingly, and then STATA software version 12.0 will be used to statistically analyze all data.Ethics and dissemination: The ethics approval and patient written informed consent will not be required because all analyses in the present study will be performed based on data from published studies. We will submit our systematic review to a peer-reviewed scientific journal for publication.
This meta-analysis systematically evaluated the efficacy of TCM washing combined with massage for neonatal jaundice, and showed TCM washing combined with massage can accelerate the excretion of meconium, shorten the time for transformation of meconium, and decrease transcutaneous bilirubin index and the level of serum bilirubin.
TCM washing combined with massage is one of the common therapies avoiding the side effects of common treatments. However, the potential of TCM washing combined with massage remains debate. This article found that TCM washing combined with massage may be an effective therapy for the treatment of neonatal jaundice.
Objective: To systematically assess the effect of traditional Chinese medicine washing (TCM washing) combined with massage for the treatment of neonatal jaundice. Methods and analysis: Databases, including PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Embase, Web of Science, the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), CNKI, and Wanfang Data were electronically searched for randomized controlled trials (from inception to July 2017). The methodological qualities of included trials were evaluated by the Cochrane risk of bias assessment tool. The meta-analysis was performed by using RevMan 5.3 software.Results: Overall, thirteen trials with a total of 1998 participants were included. The results of meta-analysis indicated that TCM washing combined with massage group was significantly superior to the control group in the first meconium time (MD, -16.67; 95% CI, -24.59 to -8.74; P<0.001), time for transformation of meconium (MD, -15.44; 95% CI, -23.59 to -7.28; P<0.001), transcutaneous bilirubin index changes [after treating three days (MD, -1.99; 95% CI, -2.57 to -1.40; P<0.001), after treating four days (MD, -1.86; 95% CI, -2.77 to -0.95; P<0.001), after treating five days (MD, -2.44; 95% CI, -3.47 to -1.42; P<0.001), after treating six days (MD, -2.23; 95% CI, -3.30 to -1.16; P<0.001), and the changes of serum bilirubin levels [after treating five days (MD, -3.17; 95% CI, -5.83 to -0.50; P=0.02), after treating six days (MD, -1.63; 95% CI, -3.10 to -0.16; P=0.03), after treating fifteen days (MD,-1.20; 95% CI, -1.99 to -0.41; P=0.003).Conclusions: TCM washing combined with massage may be an effective therapy for the treatment of neonatal jaundice. It can accelerate the excretion of meconium, shorten the time for transformation of meconium, and decrease transcutaneous bilirubin index and the level of serum bilirubin. But it should be careful to interpreting these findings. Well-designed RCTs are needed to further clarify the conclusion.
This review summarized the toxicity and carcinogenesis of aristolochic acids and the underlying mechanisms.
The mutational signature of aristolochic acids is related to the occurrence of HCC. However, the frequency of administration and dose, exposure time to aristolochic acids, and infectious situations of hepatitis B virus should also be further identified.
Aristolochic acids (AAs), a natural mixture of 8-methoxy-6-nitro-phenanthro-(3,4-d)-1,3-dioxolo-5-carboxylic acid (AAI) and 6-nitro-phenanthro-(3,4-d)-1,3-dioxolo-5-carboxylic acid (AAII), derived from aristolochiaceae species, has been reported to cause AAS-induced nephropathy and upper urothelial cancer. In this review, we summarize the information on the nephrotoxicity and carcinogenesis of AAs and their derivatives. AAs nephrotoxicity can lead to apoptosis and oxidative stress of renal tubular cells, and inhibition of the expression of aquaporins. AAs can also reduce the capability for renal tubular epithelial cell repair after acute injury and further produce renal fibrosis by activating TGF-β-Smad signaling and promoting the migration of macrophages. Moreover, AAs-induced carcinogenesis may be due to the formation of covalent adducts with DNA which can lead to the mutation in certain tumor suppressor genes or proto-oncogenes and the different catalyzing capacity of the microsomal cytochrome P450 of individuals in AAI metabolism.
Melittin can inhibit the growth of tumors and angiogenesis by blocking the Cathepsin S-VEGF-A signaling pathway.
The earliest literature recording on bee venom appeared in the book of Jishenlu, which published in Song Dynasty by Xu Xun (916 A.D. - 991 A.D.) and referenced the use of bee venom in the treatment of rheumatism.
Objective: To study the anti-angiogenesis effect of melittin on human hepatoma Mock/MHCC97-H cells by regulating the expression of cathepsin S (CatS) in vivo. Methods: Models of in situ transplantation tumor of Mock/MHCC97-H cells and silencing cathepsin shRNA-CatS/ MHCC97-H cells in nude mice were established. The model mice were randomly divided into four groups. In the A1 group, the mice were inoculated with shRNA-CatS/MHCC97-H cells and treated with melittin. In the A2 group, the mice were inoculated with shRNA-CatS/MHCC97-H cells and treated with saline. In the B1 group, the mice were inoculated with Mock/MHCC97-H cells and treated with melittin. In the B2 group, the mice were inoculated with Mock/MHCC97-H cells and treated with saline. The A1 and B1 group were injected with melittin (80 mg/kg) intraperitoneally every day. The A2 and B2 group were injected with 0.2 mL normal saline intraperitoneally every day. After administration for 25 days, the animals were sacrificed. The tumor size and weight in nude mice in each group were recorded. The expression of CD34 protein in the xenograft tumor tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry. The expression of Cat S, VEGF-A, p-VEGFR2, Ras, Raf, p-Raf, MEK1, p-MEK1, ERK1/2 and p-ERK1/2 proteins were detected by western blot. Results: The B1 group had significantly smaller tumor volumes and lower tumor weights than the B2 group (both P < 0.001). There was no significant difference between the A1 group and A2 group in tumor volumes and weights. The number of CD34-positive microvessels in the B2 group was significantly higher than that in the A2 group (P < 0.001). The number of CD34-positive microvessels in the B1 group was significantly lesser than that in the A1 group (P < 0.001). Most strikingly, in the model featuring inoculation of Mock/MHCC97-H cells, CatS, VEGF-A, p-VEGFR2, Ras, Raf, p-Raf, MEK1, p-MEK1, ERK1/2 and p-ERK1/2 expression were inhibited when treated with melittin. However, in the model featuring the inoculation of shRNA-CatS/MHCC97-H cells, no such effects were observed with similar treatments. Conclusion: Melittin can inhibit the growth of tumors and angiogenesis by blocking the CatS-VEGf-A signaling pathway.
This work analyzed and summarized the opportunities and challenges for the development of traditional Chinese medicine nursing under the new healthcare reform.
TCM nursing as a young subject is in the primary stage of development, simultaneously also entered the reform and professional development new time.
Based on the “Opinions on Deepening the Reform of Medicine and Health”, “Strategic planning outline of the development of Traditional Chinese Medicine (2016-2030)” and the other relevant polices announced by State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine of the People’s Republic of China, this paper analyzes and summarizes the opportunities and challenges for the development of Traditional Chinese Medicine nursing (TCM nursing) under the new healthcare reform, in order to provide reference and thinking for the professional development of TCM nursing.
This article introduced the concept of stigma level, the related theory of stigma, measuring tools, the effect of stigma on the rehabilitation and the basic strategies for reducing the stigma of urinary incontinence in women.
Stigma seriously affects the quality of life and mental health of women with urinary incontinence. It should be enough attention.
In recent years, stigma has become a social problem because it seriously affects the quality of life and mental health of women with urinary incontinence. This article reviews stigma of urinary incontinence in women and its influencing factors. We also introduced the concept of stigma level, the related theory of stigma, measuring tools, the effect of stigma on the rehabilitation and the basic strategies for reducing the stigma of urinary incontinence in women to provide clinical workers the relevant basis for research on the stigma of urinary incontinence.
This paper analyzed a misdiagnosed case with sudden elevation of blood pressure resulting from syndrome differentiation faults of traditional Chinese medicine.
This study proposed the usage note of Fuzi (Radix Aconiti Carmichaeli）in clinic use.
A 71-year-old woman suffered the pains from her finger joints, arms, shoulders and neck. The first prescription was the add and subtract of Guizhishaoyaozhimu decoction, which could warm Yang via Fuzi (Radix Aconiti Carmichaeli). After three oral doses of medication, she felt sleepy with a blood pressure of 180/60 mmHg. The second prescription was the add of Shengmai Powder which could nourish Yin. The next day, her blood pressure was reduced to 130/65 mmHg.
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