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Application of EGFR targeted therapy in cancer
Dan Liu
Precision Medicine Research    2019, 1 (1): 2-8.   https://doi.org/10.12032/PMR201900002
Abstract PDF (258KB)  
EGFR signal pathway involved in many of cellular physiological and pathological processes including proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, tumorigenesis and other complex processes. EGFR overexpression is associated with poorer prognosis and outcomes in many cancers. EGFR targeted therapy has been widely studied. In this review, we reviewed the mechanism, treatment in cancer and drug resistance for EGFR targeted therapy.
The genomic and microenvironmental factors affecting neuroendocrine differentiation in prostate cancer induced by androgen deprivation therapy
Ya-Nan Man, Yan-Fang Chen
Precision Medicine Research    2019, 1 (1): 9-16.   https://doi.org/10.12032/PMR201900003
Abstract PDF (262KB)  
Although advanced prostate cancer (PCa) can be initially controlled by androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), recurrence normally occurs due to the appearance of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Neuroendocrine differentiation (NED) in PCa can be partly explained the androgen resistance and progression to CRPC. NED normally associates with more aggressive clinical behaviour and poor outcomes in PCa. Although more and more studies are performed on NED in PCa recent decades, the molecular profiles that are implicated in NED are still poorly elucidated. Of these studies, signaling factors involved in genomic and microenvironmental components are deeply researched and most likely to provide the potential therapeutic targets for advanced PCa with NED. In this article, we review the hypothesis about the origin of NE cells and the molecular mechanisms driving NED from the point of genomic and environmental views. In addition, we discuss the current potential therapeutic targets and ongoing clinical trails associated with these molecular factors for the treatment of NED patients induced by ADT.
Bioinformatics analysis of hepatic fibrosis based on hepatic stellate cells
Yang Zheng, Jia-Hui Wang, Jia-Ru Wang, Tie-Jian Zhao
94Precision Medicine Research    2020, 2 (1): 1-10.   https://doi.org/10.12032/PMR201900021
Abstract HTML PDF (1915KB)  

Highlights

Hepatic fibrosis is a pathophysiological process and refers to abnormal proliferation of connective tissue in the liver caused by various pathogenic factors. Some studies have shown that the activation and transformation of hepatic stellate cell into myofibroblast is an important link between the genesis and development of HF, and that myofibroblast is the main source of extracellular matrix. The author understands the molecular mechanism of HF through data collection, gene function enrichment analysis, protein-protein interaction network and module analysis and provides reliable HF target genes for further experiments.

Abstract

Objective: To analyze differentially expressed genes in human hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) based on data from the GEO database and to identify important target genes for hepatic fibrosis (HF). Methods: In GEO database, microarray GSE11954 of the GEO database was used to obtain data on differential gene expression in human HSCs and was analyzed using GEO2R, using a P value of < 0. 01 and log2FC value of ≥ 2 for the screening. The genes were input into the DAVID database for enrichment analysis of genes and pathways, followed by protein interaction analysis and module analysis. The results were compared with the results found through text mining. Results: Two hundred sixty two differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified. The results of gene bulk enrichment showed that the functional molecules encoded by the DEGS were mainly located in the cytoplasm, extracellular matrix and nucleosome, while the molecular functions were mainly related to "regulating actin binding", "protein kinase binding" and "kinase activity". The biological processes they were found to be involved in "regulating cell division", "immune response" and "collagen decomposition reaction". KEGG signaling pathway analysis found that they were mainly involved in "cell cycle signaling pathway", "ECM receptor interaction signaling pathway", "p53 signaling pathway" and "FOXO signaling pathway". Text mining results suggested that MMP1 and ETV6 are potential molecular targets for HF therapy. Conclusion: The results of bioinformatics analysis identified targets and signaling pathways involved in the pathogenesis of HF, but these require further experimental verification.

Anti-tumor research progress of Herba Hedyotidis Diffusae
Jin-Feng Liu
94Precision Medicine Research    2020, 2 (1): 11-16.   https://doi.org/10.12032/PMR201900022
Abstract HTML PDF (966KB)  

Highlights

As the incidence of tumors continues to rise, effective treatment of tumors is currently a major concern. Herba Hedyotidis Diffusae, as one of the traditional Chinese medicines, was found to have good antitumor effects. The author describes the antitumor mechanism of Herba Hedyotidis Diffusae based on multiple antitumor components of Herba Hedyotidis Diffusae.

Abstract

Cancer, as one of the major public health problems in the world, dramatically harms human health. In recent years, studies have found that Herba Hedyotidis Diffusae not only plays a huge role in anti-infection but also has a strong effect on anti-tumor. Several studies have shown that the components contained in Herba Hedyotidis Diffusae have different levels of antitumor results in multiple pathways. This article summarizes the antitumor elements in Herba Hedyotidis Diffusae, and describes the antitumor mechanism of Herba Hedyotidis Diffusae. Provide new ideas for further clinical use.

Screening ulcerative colitis key target gene and pathway based on KEGG pathway
Zhi-Hua Yang, Yan Liu, Yi-Hua Fan, Hai-Feng Yan
94Precision Medicine Research    2020, 2 (1): 17-25.   https://doi.org/10.12032/PMR201900023
Abstract HTML PDF (1631KB)  

Highlights

Ulcerative colitis is a chronic, non-acute, onset disease that is characterized by continuous diffuse inflammation of the colonic mucosa. The author summarized the genes related to ulcerative colitis from a variety of disease databases and performed professional analysis. By analyzing the pathways and network diagrams of the interactions between genes and disease-related genes, it is helpful to understand the pathogenesis of diseases and provide reliable targets for the development of new drugs.

Abstract

Objective: To obtain the relevant information of pathway and gene by using the database of DAVID, analyze the function and distribution of important genes, screen out the target genes related to Ulcerative Colitis and promote the study of the pathogenesis of UC and the development of new drugs. Methods: The Ulcerative Colitis was used to search UC related genes in TTD, Drugbank, DisGeNET database. The obtained gene data was input to the database of Daved, and the data of gene enriched pathway was obtained 87 genes were Significant enriched in the first 20 KEGG pathways. The 87 genes were input to the string database to make the interaction network diagram, and the key genes enriched in the pathway were also made the network diagram, and the two network diagrams were compared. Results: RELA, TNF, IL1B, NFKB1, IL6 and IL10 were among the highest ranked genes in two network diagrams. Conclusion: The study of RELA, TNF, IL1B, NFKB1, IL6 and IL10 is necessary for us to study further. The pathogenesis of UC was associated with multiple pathways such as NF-kappa B signaling pathway, Jak-STAT signaling pathway, TNF signaling pathway and so on. It is helpful to understand the pathogenesis of disease and provide a reliable target for the development of new drugs by analyzing the pathway and the network diagram of the interaction between genes and disease related genes.

Advances in precision treatment of ovarian cancer
Xiao-Dong Wang, Jin-Feng Liu
94Precision Medicine Research    2020, 2 (1): 26-32.   https://doi.org/10.12032/PMR201900024
Abstract HTML PDF (1075KB)  

Highlights

Due to the lack of effective screening and early diagnosis methods, the vast majority of patients with ovarian cancer are in advanced stages once diagnosed. The current treatment of ovarian cancer is mainly surgery and chemotherapy. As the side effects of treatment methods are relatively large, emerging precise treatments are gradually applied in clinical trials. Precise treatment reduces the toxic and side effects of the drug on the normal tissues and also increases the drug's stronger lethality to tumor tissues.

Abstract

Ovarian cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors in female reproductive organs. Due to the lack of effective screening and early diagnosis methods, the vast majority of patients with ovarian cancer are in advanced stages once diagnosed. Precision therapy mainly includes immunotherapy, targeted therapy, biological therapy, and gene therapy. At present, precision therapy is increasingly used in the clinical treatment of ovarian cancer due to its advantages, such as fewer side effects and a high degree of killing. This article summarizes the recent advances in the precise treatment of ovarian cancer.

Research progress in clinical efficacy evaluation of tumor immunotherapy
Xiao-Hui Liu
94Precision Medicine Research    2020, 2 (1): 33-37.   https://doi.org/10.12032/PMR201900025
Abstract HTML PDF (945KB)  

Highlights

Unlike the cytotoxic effects of traditional therapies, tumor immunotherapy mainly suppresses tumor immune escape and induces specific immune responses to produce antitumor effects. Its clinical mechanisms of anti-tumor effects are significantly different from traditional treatments such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Therefore, traditional treatment evaluation criteria are not completely applicable to tumor immunotherapy.

Abstract

Tumor immunotherapy has been a research hotspot in the field of tumor therapy in recent years, especially the successful development and application of immune checkpoint inhibitors, which has brought tumor immunotherapy into a new era. Unlike conventional treatment methods, such as chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and targeted therapy which directly affect tumor cells, immune checkpoint inhibitors block tumor immune environment checkpoint pathways and stimulate tumor-specific T cell functions to achieve anti-tumor effects. However, the clinical efficacy evaluation of immune checkpoint blockers still faces many challenges, and the solid tumor evaluation criteria (response evaluation criteria in solid tumors, RECIST) applicable to traditional chemotherapy drugs cannot accurately assess the efficacy of immunotherapy. Immune-related response criteria need further research.

Advances in research on tumor microenvironment of hepatocellular carcinoma
Gao Li, Dong-Xin Tang, Feng-Xi Long, Zhu Yang
93TMR Cancer    2019, 2 (1): 143-150.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMRC201800046
Abstract HTML PDF (649KB)  

Highlights

Chinese and Western medicine have different understandings of the tumor microenvironment and different treatment methods.

Editor’s Summary

The concept of the tumor microenvironment has been widely accepted. In the theory of Chinese and Western medicine, the concept of tumor microenvironment is similar, but there are still differences. Tumor treatment strategies for tumor microenvironment are receiving increasing attention.

Abstract

Modern medical research on cancer shows that hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is related to tumor microenvironment. Studying the relationship between tumor microenvironment and HCC can be used as a new research direction to provide more strategies and ideas for the prevention and treatment of HCC. This article describes the characteristics of tumor microenvironment, cytokines, related signaling pathways, the occurrence and development of traditional Chinese medicine and HCC, and treatment-related knowledge.

Clinical observation of laparoscopic radical gastrectomy for advanced gastric cancer
Xiao-Xiao Yan, Yong-Hong Dong, Jing Wang, Ji-Guang Xie, Jun-Jun Su
93TMR Cancer    2019, 2 (1): 151-156.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMRC201800047
Abstract HTML PDF (711KB)  

Highlights

Endoscopic surgery for advanced gastric cancer significantly reduces operative time and reduces postoperative complications.

Editor’s Summary

At present, there is no unified recommendation for the choice of open surgery or endoscopic surgery for advanced gastric cancer. Comparing the recovery after laparoscopic and laparoscopic surgery may provide recommendations for clinical treatment.

Abstract

Objective: To explore the clinical efficacy of laparoscopic radical gastrectomy and traditional open radical gastrectomy for advanced gastric cancer. Methods: 116 patients with advanced gastric cancer in our hospital were randomly selected, including 55 cases in the experimental group and 61 cases in the control group. The clinical effects, CEA, CA-199, AFP and postoperative complications of the two groups were compared. Results: The indexes of operation and post-operation (average operation time, incision length, exhaust time, intraoperative bleeding volume, hospital stay, enteral nutrition time), and the total number of lymph nodes dissected in the experimental group was less than that in the control group (P < 0.05). There was no difference in CEA, CA-199 and AFP before operation and 1 month after operation. The incidence of complications in laparoscopic group was 9.1% lower than that in control group (27.9%). Conclusion: Laparoscopic radical gastrectomy has many advantages in the treatment of gastric cancer, which can effectively reduce complications and is worth promoting.

Compound Kushen injection combined with chemotherapy in the treatment of gastric cancer: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Su-Tong Liu, Kai-Qi Su, Wen-Xia Zhao
93TMR Cancer    2019, 2 (1): 118-126.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMRC201800043
Abstract HTML PDF (1194KB)  

Highlights

Compound kushen injection is frequently used in patients with malignant tumor for adjuvant therapy in China. We are the first using meta-analysis evaluated the clinical efficacy and safety of compound kushen injection combined chemotherapy in the treatment of gastric cancer.

Editor’s Summary

Kushen injection is widely used in clinical practice, but there is still a lack of data to support its clinical effectiveness. This article summarizes the previous research experience through meta-analysis, and provides the basis for the clinical application of Kushen injection.

Abstract

Objective: This study aims to systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety of compound kushen injection (CKI) in combination with chemotherapy in patients with gastric cancer (GC). Methods: A comprehensive electronic search was conducted by searching PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Chinese Biological Medical disc, China National Knowledge Infrastructure and Wanfang databases (the last update January 20, 2018). All randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of CKI plus chemotherapy versus chemotherapy alone in GC patients were identified. The quality of each study was evaluated using the Jadad’s scale, and the meta-analysis was performed using Review Manager 5.3 and STATA 14 software. Results: A total of nine studies on 688 cases were included in this study. The results showed that CKI combined with chemotherapy had a better effect on improving patients’ overall response rate (ORR) and life quality. The consequences of Egger’s and Begg’s tests showed there was no significant publication bias. Conclusion: The current evidence showed that CKI may enhance the clinical efficacy of chemotherapy, improve the quality of life and increase the safety in patients with gastric cancer.

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