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Modulation of various enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation by Schima wallichii (DC.) Korth in mice bearing Dalton's ascitic lymphoma
Ganesh Chandra Jagetia, K. Lalhminghlui
2TMR Integrative Medicine    2019, 3: e19018.
Abstract PDF (663KB)  
The effect of ethanol extract of Schima wallichii (SWE) was studied in the Swiss albino mice bearing Dalton's ascitic lymphoma (DAL) after nine consecutive days administration. The tumor cells were then extracted at 2, 4, 8, 12 and 24 h post drug treatment for the estimation of glutathione (GSH), glutathione-s-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and lipid peroxidation. We found that tumor cells had higher amount of GSH, GST, CAT and SOD; Treating tumorized mice with SWE reduced the level of GSH and the activities of GST, CAT and SOD in a time dependent manner up to 24h post-treatment followed by an increased lipid peroxidation. The liver function test revealed that aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) did not increase, indicating that it did not exert toxic effects on the liver. The assay of uric acid and creatinine were also in normal range. Our study indicated that tumor cells had higher amount of GSH, GST, CAT and SOD; the treatment of SWE reduced the level of GSH, GST, CAT and SOD, increased the lipid peroxidation at the same time, which may be responsible for its tumor cell killing effects. Meanwhile, it did not produce biochemical stress in the liver of tumorized mice.
Computation of drug efficacy indices Q(VPK) of certain common formulations (Curnas) used in Siddha system of medicine
Abhilash Mullasseril
2TMR Integrative Medicine    2019, 3: e19021.
Abstract PDF (340KB)  

The Siddha system of medicine is one of the ancient systems of the world that is believed to be originated and found popular in the southern parts of India. The philosophical bases of this alternative system are also found comparable with the Ayurveda. The process of computing the Drug Efficacy Index Q(VPK) of various Ayurvedic formulations was reported earlier and supported by many research publications. In this modern era of medicine, the incorporation of artificial intelligence to various research fields is found common. In this paper, it is tried to incorporate artificial intelligence to predict the efficacy of certain unique powder formulations of the Siddha System of medicine that are frequently prescribed in the common parlance. We computes the Drug Efficacy Indices Q(VPK) of certain common simple curnas of Siddha System of Medicine, such as Amukkara kizzhangu Curnam, Arathai Curnam, Nannari Curnam, Nellivattral Curnam and Punaikali Curnam, using a previously reported method which was found successful for the computation of efficacies of various Ayurvedic formulations. The possible variations in the efficacies of these powder formulations with respective recommended adjuvants used in common parlance were also studied from the computed values and compared accordingly. The selected curnas are unique and common but simple/single powder formulations for the practice of Siddha system of medicine.

Postulation of a period of an unexplored manuscript —— Kashyapa Samhita
Divya Jyothi, Deepa K K
92Medical Data Mining    2019, 2 (2): 50-55.
Abstract PDF (414KB)  
Fixing the date of an unexplored manuscript is always a challenging task for a research scholar. The chronology of an unpublished manuscript can be postulated based on internal and external evidence. Here is the study of a manuscript named Kashyapasamhita which is quite different from deemed Kashyapasamhita that is known off. The study was carried out by deciphering and critically editing six manuscripts collected from IPGT & RA (with accession no 6512 and 10779), Tanjore Sarasvati Mahal Library (with accession no.11045), Sampurnananda Library Varanasi (with accession no 1088604) and Oriental Research Institute Mysore (with accession no A129), MS University Baroda Library (with accession no 13474B). The study resulted in the exploration of the concepts regarding Desha (place), Nadi (pulse), Dosha (the three humours of the body), Daivavyapashravya Chikitsa (rituals related to god) and Rasayoga (mercurial formulations). The full paper details the postulation of a period of an unexplored manuscript -Kashyapa Samhita based on the chronology of available Ayurvedic classics.
Bioactive molecules in Siddha Polyherbal Nilavembu Kudineer alleviating symptoms of Dengue/Chikugunya
Rubeena Mattummal, Divya Kallingilkalathil Gopi, Sathiya Rajeshwaran Parameswaran, Sunil Kumar Koppala Narayana
Traditional Medicine Research    2018, 3 (5): 215-229.
Abstract HTML PDF (365KB)  


The current study aims at exploring the bioactive molecules in Siddha Polyherbal Nilavembu Kudineer alleviating symptoms of Dengue/ Chikugunya.

Editor’s Summary

Nilavembu Kudineer is one of the thirty-two types of internal medicines described in the ancient Siddha system of medicine in south India which reduces fever and relieves body aches.


Dengue is the most prevalent arthropod-borne viral diseases in terms of morbidity and mortality in the recent decade with the classic symptoms of high fever, headache as well as muscle and joint pain. Nilavembu Kudineer (NK) is one among the 32 types of internal medicines described in the ancient Siddha system of medicine in south India which reduces fever and relieves body aches. NK, a polyherbal formulation made up of eight traditional herbs in equal parts, is also recommended for prevention and management of all types of viral infections including Dengue/Chikugunya. Exploration of bioactive compounds in the plants is the primary step for the standardization and bioactivity screening of plants and formulations. So the current study aims at recording the chemical constituents and medicinal activities of each ingredient of NK. The anti-pyretic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and immunostimulant effects of NK have been attributed to more than one ingredient in NK. The medicinal property of the NK can be also attributed to the combined effect of all phytochemicals present in these eight herbs. The current study encompasses the various chemicals and the activities of individual herbs but a thorough stereoscopic and chromatographic investigation is required to trace out the major phytochemical entities which are retained once the NK is prepared by the traditional methods.

A systematical review of traditional Ayurvedic and morden medical perspectives on Ghrita (clarified butter): a boon or bane
Vd. Varnika Singh, Vd. Shalini Rai, Vd. Vijay Kumar Rai
1Traditional Medicine Research    2019, 4 (6): 293-304.
Abstract HTML PDF (435KB)  


Ghrita (clarified butter), treated as the culprit of a number of diseases, has been depicted incorrectly for a long time. This review presents the complete picture in view of Ayurvedic perspective and recent researches on Ghrita to let the readers contemplate again on Ghrita.


Ghrita, also called as clarified butter in Sanskrita, has been used for more than 5, 000 years throughout the Indian subcontinent and has been an inevitable part of diet in the Indian cuisine. It has also been traditionally associated with a number of health benefits recorded in Charaka (the most ancient written text of Ayurveda dating to second century B.C.), such as promoting strength and longevity, promoting appetite and digestion, increasing cognition, etc.


Background: For long dietary guidelines, it is recommended to avoid foods rich in saturated fatlike Ghrita, also named clarified butter or ghee, which is considered as the culprit of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, stroke, etc. Contradictory to the modern medical science, Ayurveda advocated for numerous benefits of the usage of Ghrita in the judicious manner. This paper systematically reviews and analyses the scientific researches that carried out on the benefits and harms associated with the usage of Ghrita. Methods and Findings: A search over the various search engines like Pubmed, Google was made. The relevant articles and chapters from books retrieved in English language were saved to a folder and analysed for their utility relevant to the topic and the matter was presented in a systematic manner. Results: Ghrita consisted various fats (saturated, monosaturated and polyunsaturated), fatty acids, minerals, vitamins etc. And the composition of Ghrita varies along with the method of preparation. Scientific researches carried out on Ghrita plain as well as medicated have reported about the depressant effects of medicated Ghrita in gross behavioural tests, potentiated phentobarbitone sleeping time, analgesic effect and stimulatory effect on cognition. Further, studies conducted to evaluate the effect of Ghrita on the serum lipid levels showed a dose dependant decrease in the total cholesterol, low density lipoproteins, and very low density lipoproteins. Ghrita was also reported to have wound healing activity. Conclusion: The results of the study suggest the beneficial effects of plain as well as medicated Ghrita on the various components of health and break the myth associated to the exclusion of Ghrita in diet. These researches also substantiate the claims made by the classical texts of Ayurveda.

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