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The potential effects of Caper (Capparis spinosa L.) in the treatment of diabetic neuropathy
Hamid Reza Esmaeilpour, Reza Boostani, Ali Shoeibi, Mojtaba Mousavi Bazzaz, Roshanak salari, Mahdi Yousefi
1Traditional Medicine Research    https://doi.org/10.12032/TMR20200223167
Gastrointestinal effects of Artemisia absinthium Linn. based on traditional Persian medicine and new studies
Hamide Khorram Pazhouh, Shokouhsadat Hamedi, Seyyed Musa-al-Reza Hosseini, Ali Taghipour, Behjat Javadi, Mohammadreza Noras
1Traditional Medicine Research    https://doi.org/10.12032/TMR20200210160
Assessment of microwave assisted and hydrodistllation extraction on Echinops persicus essential oils chemical composition and evaluation of its biological activity
Maryam Soori, Hossein Abbaspour, Hamid Hashemi-Moghaddam
1Traditional Medicine Research    2019, 4 (5): 246-256.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMR20190826132
Abstract HTML PDF (437KB)  

Highlights

Microwave assisted hydrodistillation method can extract more compounds and yield of essential oils from Echinops persicus than conventional hydrothermal method as well as further confirms that the methanol extract of E. persicus plant exhibits considerable antioxidant and antimicrobial properties.

Abstract

Background: E. persicus which is well-known as Shakarook in local Persian botany and is extensively utilized in different parts of in Iran. Materials and methods: Essential oils from the aerial parts of Echinops persicus were isolated using hydrodistillation (HD) and microwave assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD) methods and the respective chemical profiles were analyzed by means of GC-MS technique. The in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of methanol extracts of E. persicus were investigated via using 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay as well as agar well-diffusion methods. The minimun inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the methanol extracts of E. persicus against the test microorganisms were determined by the broth microdilution method. Results: GC-MS essential oils analysis shows 29 and 36 compounds constituting 91.9% and 98.2% of the total oils using HD and MAHD methods, respectively. Furthermore, the methanol extracts of E. persicus exhibited higher DPPH radical scavenging activity than vitamin C with an IC50 value of 0.42 ± 0.16 μg/mL. Moreover, the prepared methanol extracts preliminarily showed promising antimicrobial activities against S. aureus with the MIC value of 6.2 mg/mL. Conclusion: This study confirms that the methanol extract of E. persicus plant exhibits considerable antioxidant and antimicrobial properties in vitro.

Quantitation of phytochemical constituents of Fumaria vaillantii L. with different extract methods
Fahimeh Mohajerani, Zeinab Pourjabbar, Fatemeh Zamani Mazdeh, Roja Rahimi, Gholam-Reza Amin, Tayebeh Toliyat, Sareh Kargar, Mannan Hajimahmoodi
1Traditional Medicine Research    2019, 4 (5): 237-245.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMR20190905134
Abstract HTML PDF (413KB)  

Highlights

Total phenolic, total flavonoid, total alkaloid, ascorbic and organic acids yields in Fumaria vaillantii L. aerial parts with different extract methods are evaluated and compared by spectrophotometric and HPLC methods.

Abstract

Objective: The genus fumaria includes more than 40 species in the world. The aim of this study was to quantify the phytochemical constituents of Fumaria vaillantii L. aerial parts and compare the different methods of extraction. Total phenol, total flavonoid, total alkaloid, ascorbic and organic acids (oxalic, maleic, citric, succinic and fumaric acids) yields were evaluated in terms of the temperature effect, type of solvent and maceration time. Methods: Dried plant samples were extracted by different procedures. Total phenolic, total flavonoid, total alkaloid and ascorbic acid yields were determined by spectrophotometric methods. Also, the organic acid yields were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography method. Results: With the same extraction method, the natural flora extract was showed more yields of oxalic, maleic and citric acids than the commercial one, while the commercial extract was showed more yields of total phenol, ascorbic, succinic and fumaric acids than the natural flora one. The water-boiled extract was showed more yields of total phenol and total flavonoid. The macerated in ethanol 80% extract was also demonstrated more amounts of total alkaloid and ascorbic acid. Among different aqueous macerated extracts of the commercial sample, as the maceration time increased, total phenol, total flavonoid, oxalic, maleic, succinic, fumaric and ascorbic acids yields decreased. Macerated commercial dried fumitory in double-distilled water for 24 hrs resulted in an extract with the highest possible fumaric acid yield. Conclusion: It can be concluded that both water-boiled and macerated in ethanol 80% extracts can be used as rich sources of total phenolic and total flavonoid, which are considered as the important antioxidants.

Treatment of diabetic foot ulcer with medicinal leech therapy and honey curcumin dressing: a case report
Shirbeigi Laila, Eghbalian Fatemeh, Bakhtyari Lida
1Traditional Medicine Research    2019, 4 (6): 338-344.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMR20190728128
Abstract HTML PDF (393KB)  

Highlights

Wound healing impairment and ulcers in the foot, with pain and disability, are common complications of diabetes. The present case report shows the effectiveness of leech therapy in combination with honey and curcumin dressing on disease progression in a patient with diabetic foot ulcer.

Traditionality

In Iranian traditional medicine, leeches are used to treat many diseases. Natural honey and curcumin are available for dressing all types of ulcers. Hakim Aghili reported several operative properties that make them appropriate for wounds. Medicinal leech therapy was first documented in a painting of an Egyptian tomb in 1500 B.C.E. Subsequently, the use of leech therapy for medicinal purposes increased dramatically in the 17th and 18th centuries in Europe and Asia. In 1960s, leeches were used in reconstructive surgery to eliminate intravenous congestion. In 1970s, leech therapy was used only in microsurgeries. The Food and Drug Administration legalized medicinal leech therapy in 2004.

Abstract

Background: Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) are common in patients with diabetes. The mortality rate of DFUs is ranked the highest after cancer. With advancements in modern medicine, leech therapy, a traditional treatment method for chronic wounds in Iranian medicine, has proven effective in relieving venous congestion. Herein, we aimed to observe the curative effects of leech therapy in combination with honey and curcumin dressing in a 77-year-old patient with a diabetic foot ulcer (UFC). Methods: Two medium-sized medicinal leeches were placed surrounding a grade 2 wound, based on Wagner’s classification system, located on the right first toe. The patient reported a visual analogue scale (VAS) score of 8. After leech therapy, the wound was covered with honey and curcumin, followed by oral administration of ciprofloxacin for 10 days. Results: Pain increased immediately after leech therapy (VAS: 9-10) but decreased significantly (VAS: 6) 2 days after the therapy. At the end of the 2nd day, pain completely disappeared. After 3 weeks, there was no wound on the toe. After 12 weeks, there were no traces of the wound. Conclusion: Leech therapy in combination with honey and curcumin dressing is effective against disease progression in patients with DFUs.

Evaluation of scientific evidence for abortifacient medicinal plants mentioned in traditional Persian medicine
Ensiye aafi, Malihe Tabarrai, Mehran Mirabzadeh Ardakani, Mohammad Reza Shams Ardakani, Seyede Nargess Sadati Lamardi
1Traditional Medicine Research    https://doi.org/10.12032/TMR20200106150
Identification of prognostic markers by integrating the genome and transcriptomics in ovarian cancer
Xin Wu, Dong-Xin Tang, Xia-Nan Sang, Kui-Long Wang, Min Hao, Gang Cao
6TMR Modern Herbal Medicine    2019, 2 (4): 192-205.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMRmhm2017A59
Abstract PDF (5262KB)  

Objective: In order to find a genetic marker to predict the prognosis of patients with ovarian cancer based on multi-omics data. Methods: We download RNA-Seq SNP, CNV data and clinical follow-up information from TCGA database and randomly divide them into training set and test set. GSE17260 dataset in GEO is taken as an external validation set. Prognosis-related genes, copy number difference genes and mutant genes are screened in the training set. After the integration of genes, the random forest algorithm is further used for feature selection, ultimately obtaining a robust biomarker. On this basis, a gene-related prognostic model is established and verified in the test set and verification set. Results: We have obtained 2097 prognostic related genes, 447 copy amplification genes, 1069 copy deletion genes and 654 significant mutations genes. Through the feature selection of random forest algorithm, five feature genes (PSMB1, COL6A6, SLC22A2, KLHL23 and CD3G) are obtained by integrating these genes, some of which have been reported to be related to tumor progress. Furthermore, the prognostic risk assessment model of 5-gene signature is established by Cox regression analysis. The model can evaluate the risk of patient samples in training set, test set and external verification set. 5-gene signature shows strong robustness and clinical independence. The results of GSEA analysis also show that the pathway of 5-gene signature enrichment is significantly related to the pathway and biological process of the occurrence and development of ovarian cancer. Conclusion: In this study, 5-gene signature is constructed as a new prognostic marker to predict the survival of patients with ovarian cancer.

Application of herbal rectal suppositories beyond intestinal disorders in Persian medicine
Fatemeh Ebrahimi, Mohammadali Torbati, Zoleikha Khoshbakht, Laleh Khodaie
1Traditional Medicine Research    2019, 4 (3): 160-172.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMR20190414115
Abstract HTML PDF (555KB)  

Highlights

This review provides a new insights of the application of herbal rectal suppositories beyond anorectic and intestinal disorders in traditional Persian medicine, such as sciatic, lower back pain and joint aches, fever and ascites.

Traditionality

The first application of rectal suppositories was recorded in Egyptian civilization (3150 B.C.). Other literatres in traditional Chinese, Persian, and Ayurveda medicines showed its prevalence as a dosage form.

Abstract

Background: Herbal rectal suppositories (RSs) were prescribed not only as a drug delivery system but also as a storing method in Persian medicine. According to the record of ancient references, RSs were clinically administered for diarrhea, constipation, colitis, ascites, dysentery and intestinal parasites, sciatic, lower back pain and joint aches, fever, kidney disease and as an aphrodisiac. Objectives: The aim of this study is to categorize and review different types of RSs, their main herbal components and to find evidence to elucidate their clinical administration. Results: In this study, 7 manuscripts were studied to extract and categorize 11 types of herbal rectal suppositorie (RS) formulations, their ingredients and therapeutic indications. Furthermore, the Persian and scientific names of 43 herbs and their temperaments were mentioned in this study. Hence, ancient therapeutic indications of herbs used in RS formulations as well as their proven effects have been studied, which makes it possible to compare ancient and proven indications of medicinal plants used as ingredients of RSs. Conclusions: In modern medicine, RSs are mostly used for anorectic disorders. However in traditional Persian medicine, they were commonly used not only for anorectic and intestinal diseases, but also as an aphrodisiac, an agent for healing joint, sciatic pain and lumbago, an anti-fever, and an anti-ascites. Other implications of this study could be producing new insights of utilizing herbal RSs in diseases and disorders beyond anorectic and intestinal disorders.

Editor-in-Chief of Special Issue on Persian Medicine 
1Traditional Medicine Research    2019, 4 (3): 0-.  
Abstract PDF (154KB)  
Dr. Roshanak Ghods is working as an Assistant professor in the Department of Persian medicine (PM), Iran University of Medical Sciences (IUMS), Tehran-Iran. She has done her medical degree (MD) in Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan- Iran (2001), and her Ph.D. in PM from Iran University of Medical Sciences (IUMS), Tehran-Iran (2014). 
   She has qualified for being an academic member at 2014 and very soon selected as the dean of the faculty of Persian medicine of IUMS due to her scientific and management capabilities (resigned by her request at 2017). She is a member of the Iranian Academy of Science, Hikmat, Islamic and Traditional Medicine group, since 2015. She has around 8 years of familiarity with clinical research. Published and presented several national and international peer-reviewed articles related to PM. She is guiding many postgraduate students to complete their thesis. She has published some books. Recently, she completed an intensive one year course in MBA in August 2018. Her research interests include PM, cardiovascular diseases (hypertension and palpitation) from the viewpoint of PM, diabetes treatments from the viewpoint of PM, wet cupping and leech therapy.
   Iran University of Medical Sciences (IUMS) is one of the largest public medical universities in Iran, founded in 1974 in Tehran, located near Milad Tower, which is the sixth-tallest tower in the World. Its students rank among the top 1% of Iran's students in the national ranking entrance exams for universities. Today, Iran University of Medical Sciences (IUMS) is a pioneer in providing academic and health care services to approximately 5.2% of the country's population, including professors, researchers, students, staff and the general public. In this regard, IUMS international affair, in collaboration with the Faculty of PM, intends to take the first steps in attracting foreign students to study PM in 2019. These courses will be designed and presented at the request of a majority of applicants and in the form of multi-day workshops, short-term intensive courses, or even master's degrees or doctoral degrees. All interested applicants may apply by submitting a cover letter of interest and resume along with all certificate and diploma to: ghods.r@iums.ac.ir.
Camel milk could be helpful in the treatment of asthma
Mohammad Ravaghi, Mahdi Yousefi, Seyed Mousalreza Hosseini, Saeed Zibaee, Zohreh Feyzabadi, Roshanak Salari
Traditional Medicine Research    2018, 3 (6): 307-312.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMR201814090
Abstract HTML PDF (443KB)  

Highlights

This paper proposed a hypothesis that camel milk could be helpful in the treatment of asthma.

Editor’s Summary

Food is a double-edged sword of health. On the one hand, cow milk could lead to the occurence of asthma. On the other hand, camel milk could be used to treat asthma via its effects of immunoregulation, antiinflammation and antioxygenation.

Abstract

Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease with excessive irritability and airway narrowing and inflammation plays an important role in it. There are 300 million asthmatic people in the world currently. Main treatments for asthma include two groups of bronchodilators and inflammation controllers. Researches was continued in order to reach new treatments to reduce drug side effects and treatment-resistant cases or the types associated with weak treatment response. Today, World Health Organization recommends the application of traditional medicine especially in underdeveloped countries because of insufficient health resources and spread of diseases. Iranian traditional medicine (ITM) or Persian medicine is one of the oldest comprehensive traditional medicines with thousands years history which could help us to manage different diseases. The aim of this hypothesis is to investigate the camel milk as a complementary treatment of asthma because this chronic disease is sometimes resistant or response weakly to the treatment. In this article, the administration of camel milk in lung inflammatory diseases was studied by searching the PubMed and Scopus scientific databases. The results of this study indicated that camel milk due to having anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and anti-oxidant effects could decrease the levels of inflammatory factors such as tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-17 (IL-17), IL-6, IL-1B and transforming growth factor-β1 in a human and animal samples with inflammatory diseases. Besides, based on ITM, camel milk was used in treatment patients with asthma. But, clinical studies are needed to validate the effectiveness of camel milk in asthma and its mechanisms.

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