Microwave assisted hydrodistillation method can extract more compounds and yield of essential oils from Echinops persicus than conventional hydrothermal method as well as further confirms that the methanol extract of E. persicus plant exhibits considerable antioxidant and antimicrobial properties.
Background: E. persicus which is well-known as Shakarook in local Persian botany and is extensively utilized in different parts of in Iran. Materials and methods: Essential oils from the aerial parts of Echinops persicus were isolated using hydrodistillation (HD) and microwave assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD) methods and the respective chemical profiles were analyzed by means of GC-MS technique. The in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of methanol extracts of E. persicus were investigated via using 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay as well as agar well-diffusion methods. The minimun inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the methanol extracts of E. persicus against the test microorganisms were determined by the broth microdilution method. Results: GC-MS essential oils analysis shows 29 and 36 compounds constituting 91.9% and 98.2% of the total oils using HD and MAHD methods, respectively. Furthermore, the methanol extracts of E. persicus exhibited higher DPPH radical scavenging activity than vitamin C with an IC50 value of 0.42 ± 0.16 μg/mL. Moreover, the prepared methanol extracts preliminarily showed promising antimicrobial activities against S. aureus with the MIC value of 6.2 mg/mL. Conclusion: This study confirms that the methanol extract of E. persicus plant exhibits considerable antioxidant and antimicrobial properties in vitro.
Total phenolic, total flavonoid, total alkaloid, ascorbic and organic acids yields in Fumaria vaillantii L. aerial parts with different extract methods are evaluated and compared by spectrophotometric and HPLC methods.
Objective: The genus fumaria includes more than 40 species in the world. The aim of this study was to quantify the phytochemical constituents of Fumaria vaillantii L. aerial parts and compare the different methods of extraction. Total phenol, total flavonoid, total alkaloid, ascorbic and organic acids (oxalic, maleic, citric, succinic and fumaric acids) yields were evaluated in terms of the temperature effect, type of solvent and maceration time. Methods: Dried plant samples were extracted by different procedures. Total phenolic, total flavonoid, total alkaloid and ascorbic acid yields were determined by spectrophotometric methods. Also, the organic acid yields were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography method. Results: With the same extraction method, the natural flora extract was showed more yields of oxalic, maleic and citric acids than the commercial one, while the commercial extract was showed more yields of total phenol, ascorbic, succinic and fumaric acids than the natural flora one. The water-boiled extract was showed more yields of total phenol and total flavonoid. The macerated in ethanol 80% extract was also demonstrated more amounts of total alkaloid and ascorbic acid. Among different aqueous macerated extracts of the commercial sample, as the maceration time increased, total phenol, total flavonoid, oxalic, maleic, succinic, fumaric and ascorbic acids yields decreased. Macerated commercial dried fumitory in double-distilled water for 24 hrs resulted in an extract with the highest possible fumaric acid yield. Conclusion: It can be concluded that both water-boiled and macerated in ethanol 80% extracts can be used as rich sources of total phenolic and total flavonoid, which are considered as the important antioxidants.
Wound healing impairment and ulcers in the foot, with pain and disability, are common complications of diabetes. The present case report shows the effectiveness of leech therapy in combination with honey and curcumin dressing on disease progression in a patient with diabetic foot ulcer.
In Iranian traditional medicine, leeches are used to treat many diseases. Natural honey and curcumin are available for dressing all types of ulcers. Hakim Aghili reported several operative properties that make them appropriate for wounds. Medicinal leech therapy was first documented in a painting of an Egyptian tomb in 1500 B.C.E. Subsequently, the use of leech therapy for medicinal purposes increased dramatically in the 17th and 18th centuries in Europe and Asia. In 1960s, leeches were used in reconstructive surgery to eliminate intravenous congestion. In 1970s, leech therapy was used only in microsurgeries. The Food and Drug Administration legalized medicinal leech therapy in 2004.
Background: Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) are common in patients with diabetes. The mortality rate of DFUs is ranked the highest after cancer. With advancements in modern medicine, leech therapy, a traditional treatment method for chronic wounds in Iranian medicine, has proven effective in relieving venous congestion. Herein, we aimed to observe the curative effects of leech therapy in combination with honey and curcumin dressing in a 77-year-old patient with a diabetic foot ulcer (UFC). Methods: Two medium-sized medicinal leeches were placed surrounding a grade 2 wound, based on Wagner’s classification system, located on the right first toe. The patient reported a visual analogue scale (VAS) score of 8. After leech therapy, the wound was covered with honey and curcumin, followed by oral administration of ciprofloxacin for 10 days. Results: Pain increased immediately after leech therapy (VAS: 9-10) but decreased significantly (VAS: 6) 2 days after the therapy. At the end of the 2nd day, pain completely disappeared. After 3 weeks, there was no wound on the toe. After 12 weeks, there were no traces of the wound. Conclusion: Leech therapy in combination with honey and curcumin dressing is effective against disease progression in patients with DFUs.
order to find a genetic marker to predict the prognosis of patients with
ovarian cancer based on multi-omics data. Methods: We download RNA-Seq
SNP, CNV data and clinical follow-up information from TCGA database and
randomly divide them into training set and test set. GSE17260 dataset in GEO is
taken as an external validation set. Prognosis-related genes, copy number
difference genes and mutant genes are screened in the training set. After the
integration of genes, the random forest algorithm is further used for feature
selection, ultimately obtaining a robust biomarker. On this basis, a
gene-related prognostic model is established and verified in the test set and
verification set. Results: We have obtained 2097 prognostic related
genes, 447 copy amplification genes, 1069 copy deletion genes and 654
significant mutations genes. Through the feature selection of random forest
algorithm, five feature genes (PSMB1, COL6A6, SLC22A2, KLHL23 and CD3G) are
obtained by integrating these genes, some of which have been reported to be
related to tumor progress. Furthermore, the prognostic risk assessment model of
5-gene signature is established by Cox regression analysis. The model can
evaluate the risk of patient samples in training set, test set and external
verification set. 5-gene signature shows strong robustness and clinical
independence. The results of GSEA analysis also show that the pathway of 5-gene
signature enrichment is significantly related to the pathway and biological
process of the occurrence and development of ovarian cancer. Conclusion: In
this study, 5-gene signature is constructed as a new prognostic marker to
predict the survival of patients with ovarian cancer.
This review provides a new insights of the application of herbal rectal suppositories beyond anorectic and intestinal disorders in traditional Persian medicine, such as sciatic, lower back pain and joint aches, fever and ascites.
The first application of rectal suppositories was recorded in Egyptian civilization (3150 B.C.). Other literatres in traditional Chinese, Persian, and Ayurveda medicines showed its prevalence as a dosage form.
Background: Herbal rectal suppositories (RSs) were prescribed not only as a drug delivery system but also as a storing method in Persian medicine. According to the record of ancient references, RSs were clinically administered for diarrhea, constipation, colitis, ascites, dysentery and intestinal parasites, sciatic, lower back pain and joint aches, fever, kidney disease and as an aphrodisiac. Objectives: The aim of this study is to categorize and review different types of RSs, their main herbal components and to find evidence to elucidate their clinical administration. Results: In this study, 7 manuscripts were studied to extract and categorize 11 types of herbal rectal suppositorie (RS) formulations, their ingredients and therapeutic indications. Furthermore, the Persian and scientific names of 43 herbs and their temperaments were mentioned in this study. Hence, ancient therapeutic indications of herbs used in RS formulations as well as their proven effects have been studied, which makes it possible to compare ancient and proven indications of medicinal plants used as ingredients of RSs. Conclusions: In modern medicine, RSs are mostly used for anorectic disorders. However in traditional Persian medicine, they were commonly used not only for anorectic and intestinal diseases, but also as an aphrodisiac, an agent for healing joint, sciatic pain and lumbago, an anti-fever, and an anti-ascites. Other implications of this study could be producing new insights of utilizing herbal RSs in diseases and disorders beyond anorectic and intestinal disorders.
This paper proposed a hypothesis that camel milk could be helpful in the treatment of asthma.
Food is a double-edged sword of health. On the one hand, cow milk could lead to the occurence of asthma. On the other hand, camel milk could be used to treat asthma via its effects of immunoregulation, antiinflammation and antioxygenation.
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease with excessive irritability and airway narrowing and inflammation plays an important role in it. There are 300 million asthmatic people in the world currently. Main treatments for asthma include two groups of bronchodilators and inflammation controllers. Researches was continued in order to reach new treatments to reduce drug side effects and treatment-resistant cases or the types associated with weak treatment response. Today, World Health Organization recommends the application of traditional medicine especially in underdeveloped countries because of insufficient health resources and spread of diseases. Iranian traditional medicine (ITM) or Persian medicine is one of the oldest comprehensive traditional medicines with thousands years history which could help us to manage different diseases. The aim of this hypothesis is to investigate the camel milk as a complementary treatment of asthma because this chronic disease is sometimes resistant or response weakly to the treatment. In this article, the administration of camel milk in lung inflammatory diseases was studied by searching the PubMed and Scopus scientific databases. The results of this study indicated that camel milk due to having anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and anti-oxidant effects could decrease the levels of inflammatory factors such as tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-17 (IL-17), IL-6, IL-1B and transforming growth factor-β1 in a human and animal samples with inflammatory diseases. Besides, based on ITM, camel milk was used in treatment patients with asthma. But, clinical studies are needed to validate the effectiveness of camel milk in asthma and its mechanisms.
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