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Computation of drug efficacy indices Q(VPK) of certain common formulations (Curnas) used in Siddha system of medicine
Abhilash Mullasseril
2TMR Integrative Medicine    2019, 3: e19021.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMRIM201903021
Abstract PDF (340KB)  

The Siddha system of medicine is one of the ancient systems of the world that is believed to be originated and found popular in the southern parts of India. The philosophical bases of this alternative system are also found comparable with the Ayurveda. The process of computing the Drug Efficacy Index Q(VPK) of various Ayurvedic formulations was reported earlier and supported by many research publications. In this modern era of medicine, the incorporation of artificial intelligence to various research fields is found common. In this paper, it is tried to incorporate artificial intelligence to predict the efficacy of certain unique powder formulations of the Siddha System of medicine that are frequently prescribed in the common parlance. We computes the Drug Efficacy Indices Q(VPK) of certain common simple curnas of Siddha System of Medicine, such as Amukkara kizzhangu Curnam, Arathai Curnam, Nannari Curnam, Nellivattral Curnam and Punaikali Curnam, using a previously reported method which was found successful for the computation of efficacies of various Ayurvedic formulations. The possible variations in the efficacies of these powder formulations with respective recommended adjuvants used in common parlance were also studied from the computed values and compared accordingly. The selected curnas are unique and common but simple/single powder formulations for the practice of Siddha system of medicine.

A darkfield microscopic evaluation of the live blood effects caused by Moringa oleifera
Howard W. Fisher, Colombe Gauvin
90Life Research    2019, 2 (3): 87-92.   https://doi.org/10.12032/life2019-0725-002
Abstract HTML PDF (5462KB)  

Erythrocyte aggregation is the tendency of erythrocytes to form aggregates whose shapes change according to normal variations or pathological conditions. Consequently, regardless of cause, these anomalies effect changes to flow dynamics and predispose the inability to carry out transportation activities and decrease functional capillary density or decrease erythrocyte surface area, also decreasing functional efficiency. Functional capillary density is the determination of the number of capillaries in an area that have erythrocyte flow and relates to the subsequent ability of the blood to deliver nutrients, fluid and solute exchange, and waste product excretion. Red blood cell aggregation has a significant impact on functional capillary density. Moringa oleifera, one of the most phytonutrient dense plants as identified by the NIH, has garnered interest by those involved with anti-aging medicine. The US National Institutes of Health, the nation’s medical research agency whose mission is to seek fundamental knowledge about the nature and behavior of living systems and the application of that knowledge to enhance health, lengthen life, and reduce the burdens of illness and disability, has affirmed Moringa oleifera can “arrest, reverse, and cure, over 300 different diseases and disorders.” Regular use of Moringa oleifera has been shown to have a multitude of health benefits. In addition to this, Moringa oleifera provides all of the essential amino acids, vital vitamins, contains several important minerals, is an incredibly powerful antioxidant, is high in fiber, stimulates the immune system to fight cancerous cells, tumours, ulcers, epileptic seizures and cleanses and detoxifies the entire body. Moringa oleifera has been shown to protect platelets against aggregation. In this investigation, live blood microscopic evaluation indicates positive changes in the shape and spatial orientation of the erythrocytes and decreased incidence of aggregation and rouleaux indicating improved functional capillary density. In conclusion, a proprietary formula of raw organic Moringa oleifera has empirically demonstrated subjective beneficial changes in patients who have supplemented with this formula.

A summary of the pharmacologically tested aphrodisiac plants for sexual dysfunction
Marko Mornar Jelavic, Hrvoje Pintaric
90Life Research    2019, 2 (3): 93-98.   https://doi.org/10.12032/life2019-0725-301
Abstract HTML PDF (1003KB)  

Sexual dysfunction is a disruption of normal sexual intercourse and may be a consequence of various organic and psychological disorders. It is the most frequent at patients with cardiovascular and neurological diseases sedentary lifestyle arterial hypertension diabetes obesity and metabolic syndrome and may disrupt their emotional life. But sexual dysfunction may occur simply because of the physical aging of the body. Physiologic changes that occur with aging will affect sexual function and could be exacerbated by the above-mentioned diseases. Except for the sexual counseling and standard medications (phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) - inhibitors local estrogen therapy) some of the herbal medicines (aphrodisiacs) may be helpful in the treatment of these patients making them emotionally younger and happier. In this review we bring a list of the pharmacologically tested aphrodisiac plants. But we have a lack of information about their mechanisms of action drug interaction and safety profile. Until the relevant information is collected uses of these products may be risky to the human being and should be prescribed only in consultation with a specialist. Sexual dysfunction is a disruption of normal sexual intercourse and may be a consequence of various organic and psychological disorders. It is the most frequent at patients with cardiovascular and neurological diseases sedentary lifestyle arterial hypertension diabetes obesity and metabolic syndrome and may disrupt their emotional life. But sexual dysfunction may occur simply because of the physical aging of the body. Physiologic changes that occur with aging will affect sexual function and could be exacerbated by the above-mentioned diseases. Except for the sexual counseling and standard medications (phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) - inhibitors local estrogen therapy) some of the herbal medicines (aphrodisiacs) may be helpful in the treatment of these patients making them emotionally younger and happier. In this review we bring a list of the pharmacologically tested aphrodisiac plants. But we have a lack of information about their mechanisms of action drug interaction and safety profile. Until the relevant information is collected uses of these products may be risky to the human being and should be prescribed only in consultation with a specialist.

A foreword from the Editor-in-Chief
Chang-Gang Sun
TMR Theory and Hypothesis    2018, 1 (1): 1-1.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMRTH201801001
Abstract PDF (159KB)  

The traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an effective and precious medical heritage shown by the history. It has formed unique and complete theoretical system in prevention and treatment for disease. Many ancient medical literatures recorded the massive medical theories and abundant medical experience and was expressed with the distinct characteristics of ancient Chinese.Up to now, TCM still retains its new vitality in clinical practice, and participates in the maintenance of human health in its unique way. However, the inherent national culture attribute and language of TCM restrict its internationalization cognition, communication and dissemination. But the value of TCM will not vanish because of the development of modern science and technology. On the contrary, with the renewal and reform of the theoretical system of modern medical methods, traditional medical research is endowed with a new significance of the times, and the value of traditional medicine has been excavated and elucidated to a greater extent.

Tumor: Life Retrogression?
Xiong-Zhi Wu, Hao-Ran Zhang
4TMR Theory and Hypothesis    2018, 1 (1): 2-8.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMRTH201801002
Abstract PDF (270KB)  
Cancer emerged in human history for centuries. It seems that while human beings are evolving, tumors are always on their heels. In order to explain and study the mechanism of tumor progression, we proposed a new hypothesis that the tumor is a retrogression of life evolution, in other word, a resurgence of some past fragments in human development history. Our inference was based on the fact that tumors are not foreign diseases, but use of human inherent developmental genes to achieve self-improvement. Characteristics and biological behavior of tumor cells are similar to human normal stem cell to some degree. Thus, studying the process of human evolution could speculate and analyze the occurrence and development of tumors. The latest research showed that many cancer treatment were also taking advantages of those features about retrogression. Continuous in-depth analysis about tumor environmental characteristics and internal law of human evolution may produce new approaches to promote cancer prevention and treatment. Our hypothesis, for the first time, proposed that taking advantage of the evolution laws to reverse the tumor progression as a path of life retrogression is better than exterminating them completely as outside enemies. Some new studies on tumor induced differentiation had also demonstrated the clinical significance of our hypothesis
Construction of traditional Chinese medicine culture and characteristic community culture : a review
Jia- Jia Zhou, Wen-Wen Zhao, Hui-Xing Ding, Chun-Hua Zhang, Pei-Yao Li, Chun-Guang Yu
4TMR Theory and Hypothesis    2018, 1 (1): 9-12.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMRTH201801003
Abstract PDF (183KB)  
The broad and profound Chinese medicine culture is an important part of Chinese traditional culture, which nourishes the vigorous development of modern Chinese medicine. At present, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) culture faces challenges and opportunities. As the inheritor of Chinese medicine culture,we bear the burden of inheriting and carrying forward TCM culture. Distinctive community culture is mainly playing value guidance and education transmission function in the process of residents identifying with the culture of Chinese medicine. Therefore, building a distinctive community culture under the guidance of the essence of TCM can effectively inherit and develop TCM culture. 
Analysis of Mechanism of Indigo Naturalis in Treating Chronic Myelocytic Leukemia Based on Two-dimentional Model of Protein-protein Interaction Network-molecular Docking Technique
Xiao-Ming Zhang, Li-Juan Liu, Chao Zhou, Jing Zhuang, Hong Liu, Jing Zhuang
4TMR Theory and Hypothesis    2018, 1 (1): 13-17.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMRTH201801004
Abstract PDF (570KB)  
To explore the molecular mechanism of Indigo Naturalis in intervening chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML) under the guidance of protein-protein interaction network, the molecular docking technique and in vitro cell experiment were chosen. CML-related genes were obtained from the online mendelian inheritance in man database (OMIM), then String 10. 0 was used for text mining and constructing the CML protein-protein interaction network. The interaction data were input in Cytoscape 3. 4. 0 software, plug-in CentiScaPe 2. 1 was used for implement topology analysis. Small active substances of Indigo Naturalis were obtained from a third-party database, which were optimized by Chemoffice 8. 0 and Sybyl 8. 1, then small molecular ligand library was obtained. The molecular docking was carried out by Surflex-Dock module, the key target was received after scoring. Protein-protein interaction network of CML was constructed, which was consisted of 425 nodes ( proteins) and 2 799 sides ( interactions). The key gene JAK2 was got. CML is a polygenic disease and JAK2 is likely to be a key node. 
Progress in the expression of P-glycoprotein in brain metastases of lung cancer and related TCM research
Shuai Zhu, Ling-Yu Qi, Xue Wang, Hua-Yao Li, Jia Li, Jing Yang
TMR Theory and Hypothesis    2018, 1 (1): 18-25.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMRTH201801005
Abstract PDF (441KB)  

Brain metastases are common intracranial tumors, and their occurrence not only represents a high degree of malignancy, but also often a major factor in treatment failure and poor prognosis. Primary site of brain metastases often occur in lung. P-glycoprotein is a member of the (ATP binding cassette) transporter superfamily, which is closely related to the development of lung metastases. It is the main reason for influencing the drug through the blood-brain barrier into the brain tissue, and also an important factor affecting the treatment of brain metastases. According to the theory of traditional Chinese medicine, the pathogenesis of brain metastases is due to phlegm, poison, stasis, virtual and so on. The principle of treatment is to resuscitate, promote blood circulation, remove phlegm turbidity and so on. In recent years, the impact of Chinese herbal medicine on P-glycoprotein is increasing. This paper analyzes the mechanism and components of the relevant Chinese medicine on P-glycoprotein. It provides a reference for clinical rational drug use.

Tanshinone ⅡA: an overview of its biological activity and the molecular mechanism

Bin Zhao, Yuan-Bo Wang, Xue-Ling Zheng, Jun-Mei Dong
4TMR Theory and Hypothesis    2018, 1 (2): 40-44.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMRTH201802003
Abstract PDF (295KB)  
Danshen, the rhizome of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, has been used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for treatment of various diseases. Tanshinone IIA (TSA) is one of the main active components of Danshen, which has multiple bioactivities. This article reviews the research progress of TSA in the treatment of cardiovascular disease, anti-inflammatory and immune, anti-tumor, liver protection, neuroprotection. It provides more ideas for the clinical application of TSA and the development of drug resistance.
Live imaging of the effects of fucoidan on cell proliferation for laboratory instruction
Hong Wu
TMR Theory and Hypothesis    2018, 1 (2): 45-50.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMRTH201802004
Abstract PDF (421KB)  
The aim of this study is to introduce live cell imaging and its applications for the evaluation of the effects of fucoidan, a fucose-enriched sulfated polysaccharide, on the proliferation of cultured cells in vitro. In this study, long-term time-lapse observation (87 h) of the effects of fucoidan was conducted using BioStation CT, an integrated cell culture observation system. In contrast, the effects of heparin, which has a similar structure to fucoidan, were observed to distinguish the differences between the two chemicals. At the same time, the viability of the floating cells detached by fucoidan in the medium was measured by culturing them again in the absence of fucoidan. Finally, total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRF) was used to confirm when the detachment of the cells by fucoidan occurred. The results indicate that the inhibitory effects of fucoidan on the proliferation of cells are dose-dependent (from 0.125 mg/ml to 1.0 mg/ml). Fucoidan also causes cell detachment without killing all the cells within 24 hours. The cell detachment did not occur until after half an hour, as observed under the TIRF microscope. Combined with our previous study, the findings suggest that the inhibition of calcium responses by fucoidan may be one of the mechanisms underlying its inhibition of cell proliferation, which is responsible for the death of cancer cells. Cell proliferation can be visualized in the real time and the images can provide important information regarding when and how the cells grow and proliferate.
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