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Preliminary studies on the mechanism of blistering cupping therapy
Chen Xiang-Hong, Chen Bo, Chen Ze-Lin, Li Meng-dan, Long Qin
TMR Non-Drug Therapy    2018, 1 (2): 53-59.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMRND201801008
Abstract HTML PDF (6785KB)  

Highlights

The autogenetic inflammatory reaction of selected cupping area and formation of scar induced by blistering cupping was involved in mobilizing the immune response of whole body, thereby achieving favorable therapeutic effects.

Editor’s Summary

The present study preliminarily summaried the underlying mechanism of blistering cupping from the levels of biomechanics and molecular biology.

Abstract

Blistering cupping therapy, as a new type of cupping therapy, has attracted more and more attention of clinical doctor and scholars in home and abroad. Blistering cupping therapy achieves better effects through the formation of blistering fluid after suction. However, it is still controversial whether cupping induced blisters are beneficial to recovery of diseases, and the mechanism is still not completely clear. Here on the basis of the traditional cupping method, we aimed to identify the mechanism of blistering cupping from the levels of biomechanics and molecular biology. The negative pressure attraction induced by cupping suck should be of value in increasing pain threshold and relieving pain as well as improving the blood circulation and metabolism. Furthermore, the blistering fluid induced by cupping was the inflammatory substance actually that discharged through the superficial lymphatic vessels, including immunoglobulin, lysozyme, erythrocytes, etc. which could cause the autogenetic inflammatory reaction of selected cupping area, and further activated certain immune pathways including anti-oxidation, anti-apoptosis, tissue repairing and metabolic regulation. Besides, the formation of scar induced by blistering cupping was not only the result of excessive inflammatory response, but also involved in mobilizing the immune response.

Pricking cupping bloodletting combined with slide cupping for acne: a case report
Liang Bo, Liao Hui-Ling
TMR Non-Drug Therapy    2018, 1 (3): 119-122.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMRND201801016
Abstract HTML PDF (1224KB)  

Highlights

Pricking cupping bloodletting combined with slide cupping can successfully relieve acne and promote skin healing.

Editor’s Summary

The earliest record about cupping was in the ancient book called 52 Bingfang, which was unearthed from Mawangdui tomb (B.C. 202~220, Han Dynasty) in Changsha, China in 1973.

Abstract

Objective: To report a patient with acne by using the combined treatment of pricking cupping bloodletting and slide cupping. Methods: Pricking cupping bloodletting was prescribed at the points of Feishu (BL13) in the bladder meridian of foot-Taiyang and Dazhui (DU14) in governor vessel and slide cupping was prescribed at the points on the back in the bladder meridian of foot-Taiyang. Results: Clinical manifestations revealed that acne and scar were significantly reduced after two courses. Conclusion: Pricking cupping bloodletting combined with slide cupping can successfully relieve acne and promote skin healing, which may provide us a new idea for the non-drug therapy of acne.

Efficacy of blood-letting puncture and cupping in the treatment of periarthritis of shoulder: a systematic review
Li-Hui Zhang, Li-Xin Wang, Qian Cui, Guo-Wei Zhang
2TMR Integrative Medicine    2018, 2 (4): 175-191.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMRIM201802033
Abstract HTML PDF (1123KB)  

Highlights:

The application of blood-letting puncture and cupping in the treatment of scapulohumeral periarthritis can provide strong evidence for future clinical treatment.

Abstract

Objective: To systematically evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of blood-letting puncture and cupping in the treatment of periarthritis of shoulder. Methods: We electronically searched databases including CNKI, VIP, PubMed, WanFang Data, EMbase Cochrane Library and to collect randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-randomized controlled trials about blood-letting puncture and cupping for periarthritis of shoulder and evaluated the quality of the documents collected by the Cochrane collaboration, provided by Review Manager 5 software for statistical analysis. Then the quality of the included trials was assessed using the Jadad scale and GRADE system was used to score the quality and grade recommendation. Results: Thirty RCTs involving 2556 patients were included. The results of meta-analysis showed that: Total effective rate OR = 6.21 [OR = 6.21, 95%CI (4.69, 8.21), P < 0.001]. The results of GRADE system evaluation showed that the level of evidence was B, and the recommendation level was weak recommendation. Conclusion: Blood-letting puncture and cupping shows better effects than other treatments and preferably security in the treatment of periarthritis of shoulder. We do not find any serious adverse reaction reports. Due to limited quality of the included studies, more high quality studies are needed to verify the above conclusion.

In vitro evaluation of transdermal permeation effects of Fu’s cupping therapy via six diffusion kinetics models
Wei-Jie Xie, Yu-Mei Wu, Shuai-Shuai Chen, Jian Xu, Fang-Fang Yang, Yong-Ping Zhang, Xiao-Bo Sun
1Traditional Medicine Research    2019, 4 (1): 42-53.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMR201915098
Abstract HTML PDF (758KB)  

Highlights

The combination of cupping therapy and transdermal drug delivery can improve the transdermal rate of the drug.

Editor’s Summary

Traditional cuping therapy helps to the skin absorption. As a new physical transdermal drug delivery technology, Fu’s cupping therapy combines traditional cuping therapy and drug therapy, which is worthy of further research.

Abstract

In this study, six kinetics models of indomethacin hydrophilic gel patch transdermal in vitro release was established, including zero-level, first-order, Higuchi-level, Ritger-Peppas, Weibull and Hixcon-Crowell dynamic equations. The chemical permeation enhancers, including 3% and 5% Azone, and iontophoresis were used as the control. Transdermal diffusion tests were performed in vitro and indomethacin was quantified by high performance liquid chromatography system. The transdermal parameter of the Higuchi and Weibull dynamic equations, indicated that Fu’s cupping therapy (FCT) could significantly improve Higuchi and Weibull kinetic parameters in vitro transdermal, increased transdermal rate and permeability coefficient, reduced lagging time. Additionally, statistical analysis speculated the skin barrier function could be restored after 46 h treatment. Hence, as a new physical transdermal drug delivery technology, transdermal permeation effects produced by FCT are obvious, which has the characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine and has important clinical application value.

A multi-center randomized controlled clinical trial of three-step acupuncture and cupping therapy for cervicogenic headache
Kai Zhang, Ge-Li Jiang, Lei Xiao, Li-Tai Chen
1Traditional Medicine Research    2019, 4 (1): 33-41.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMR201915097
Abstract HTML PDF (297KB)  

Highlights

The three-step acupuncture and cupping method has a beneficial effect in the treatment of cervicogenic headache, which provides rapid benefits, has better short- and long-term efficacy.

Editor’s Summary

Acupuncture and cupping therapy is proven to be effective as an alternative therapy in treating and strengthening the therapeutic effect of other therapeutic methods in the cervicogenic headache management.

Abstract

Objective: To assess the clinical efficacy and safety of three-step acupuncture and cupping therapy for cervicogenic headache (CEH). Methods: A randomized, single-blind, multi-center, parallel controlled clinical trial was performed, including 63 patients with CEH who met the study criteria. They were randomly divided into treatment (n = 32) and control groups (n = 31). The treatment group was treated with three-step acupuncture and cupping therapy, and the control group was treated with sham acupuncture. The simplified McGill pain scores, comprising three parts: the pain rating index, visual analogue scale score, and present pain intensity, alongside head and neck stiffness and cervical vertebra range of motion, and a safety evaluation were recorded in the two groups before treatment, immediately after the first treatment, after 10 days of treatment, after 20 days of treatment, and 3 months after the end of treatment. Results: Compared with before treatment, the scores at each follow-up time point were significantly improved after treatment; moreover, the treatment group was significantly better than the control group. When the scores at the 3 months follow-up after the end of the treatment were compared with the scores after 20 days of treatment, there were no significant differences in the treatment group while significant differences from the scores of the control group, suggesting that the treatment group had better long-term benefits than the control group. Conclusion: Compared with the sham acupuncture group, the three-step acupuncture and cupping method has a beneficial effect in the treatment of CEH. It provides rapid benefits, has better short- and long-term efficacy than sham acupuncture, and is associated with a low recurrence rate.

A clinical study on medical cupping for metabolic syndrome with abdominal obesity
Cui-Mei Liang, Xiao-Man Wang, Song-Ge Sun, i Hu
1Traditional Medicine Research    2019, 4 (1): 4-11.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMR201915094
Abstract HTML PDF (327KB)  

Highlights

Medical cupping treatment can effectively alleviate metabolic indices and subcutaneous fat thickness at the abdomen in patients with metabolic syndrome and abdominal obesity.

Editor’s Summary

The combination of cupping and Chinese medicine can help prolong the therapeutic effect and reduce the frequency of treatment in the management of metabolic syndrome.

Abstract

Objective: To observe the clinical effects of medical cupping for metabolic syndrome (MetS) with abdominal obesity. Methods: In total, 75 patients with MetS with abdominal obesity were randomly divided into three groups: medical cupping, acupuncture, and waiting. Patients in the medical cupping group received smearing of Chinese medicine and cupping twice a week for 8 weeks. Patients in the acupuncture group received acupuncture on regulating the Dai meridian three times a week for 8 weeks. The waiting group was observed without any intervention. Changes in metabolic indices, including waist circumference (WC), blood pressure, fasting triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), fasting blood glucose (FBG), 2-h blood glucose (2hBG), and subcutaneous fat thickness were observed and compared before and after treatment among the three groups. Results: After the treatment, the WC, TG, FBG, and 2hBG in the medical cupping and acupuncture groups were lower than those in the waiting group. No difference was observed between the medical cupping and acupuncture groups. The subcutaneous fat thickness at the upper umbilicus, right side of the umbilicus, and waist in the medical cupping and acupuncture groups were lower than those in the waiting group. The subcutaneous fat thickness at the upper umbilicus and waist in the medical cupping group was lower than that in the acupuncture group. The MetS prevalence in the medical cupping and acupuncture groups was lower than that in the waiting group. Conclusion: medical cupping treatment can effectively alleviate metabolic indices and subcutaneous fat thickness at the abdomen in patients with MetS and abdominal obesity and decrease the MetS prevalence. Its efficacy was better than that of waiting and similar to that of acupuncture. The frequency of medical cupping is lower than that of the acupuncture. Meanwhile, it circumvents some patients’ fear of acupuncture. medical cupping should be clinically promoted.

Three-step acupuncture and cupping therapy: an effective approach to treat cervicogenic headache
1Traditional Medicine Research    2019, 4 (1): 3-3.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMR201915093
Abstract HTML PDF (153KB)  

As early as 1983, Sjaastad proposed the concept of cervicogenic headache (CH) in the World Headache Conference, that is, the pain from upper cervical joints and muscles can be referred to the head. CH is a group of syndromes mainly caused by dysfunction of the upper cervical spine and its component muscles, ligaments, bony, vertebral arteries and/or soft tissue elements, usually not accompanied by neck pain. Therefore, the treatment strategy of CH focuses on pain relief and repair cervical lesions. Patients with painful disorders of upper cervical zygapophysial joints showed significant headache relief after directly treated at disordered cervical joints [1].

The following therapeutic methods are used in the treatment of the CH, including medical therapy, acupuncture, nerve root block, physical therapy, massage, kinezitherapy, traction, surgical treatment, etc [2]. The optimal treatment of CH is still under investigation and it seems that the best results are achieved by a comprehensive treatment.

 CH falls in the category of Bizheng in the theory of traditional Chinese medicine. Early in Qin and Han Dynasties of China (the third century B.C.), Huangdi Neijing recorded the principles and methods of acupuncture in the treatment of Bizheng. That is to say, according to the location of Bizheng, the corresponding viscera acupoints are taken for acupuncture. There are also clinical reports that the efficacy of acupuncture method at cervical Jiaji (EX-B 2) is superior to that of conventional acupuncture for CH [3]. And acupuncture can strengthen the therapeutic effect of simple cervical paravertebral block in relieving headache and improving cervical vertebral activity in CH patients [4]. However, more high quality clinical research about the acupuncture in the CH management are needed to better guide the clinic.

 Here a randomized, single-blind, multi-center, parallel controlled clinical trial was performed to observe the clinical efficacy and safety of a three-step acupuncture and cupping therapy for CH. It suggests that acupuncture is proven to be effective as an alternative therapy in treating and strengthen the therapeutic effect of other therapeutic methods in the CH management.

The effect of hot intermittent cupping on pain, stiffness and disability of patients with knee osteoarthritis
Amir Poorgheysar, Moosa Sajjadi, Habib Shareinia, Moghadam Hosein Mohammdzadeh, Amin Nouroozi
1Traditional Medicine Research    2019, 4 (1): 25-32.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMR201915096
Abstract HTML PDF (290KB)  

Highlights

This study shows that cupping therapy is effective in improving disability, stiffness and pain in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

Editor’s Summary

Taking into account the side effects and complications resulted from many anti-inflammatory chemical drugs, cupping therapy is prone to become an effective and safe way for patients with knee osteoarthritis.

Abstract

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hot intermittent cupping on pain, stiffness and inability of patients with knee osteoarthritis (KO). Methods: The present study was a clinical trial, which was performed on 38 patients with KO referring to Gonabad Rheumatology Specialty Clinic. Based on permutation block method, the research units were divided into cupping therapy and control groups. For the cupping therapy group, four sessions of cupping therapy were performed every four days. To collect data, the form of demographic information, Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and the Western Ontario and McMaster (WOMAC) osteoarthritis scale were used, and the data were analyzed by SPSS software v. 16 using descriptive statistics and independent t-test, paired t-test, Chi-square test and Fishers exact test with a significance level of P < 0.05. Results: Findings showed that there was no significant difference between the cupping therapy and control groups in terms of demographic characteristics and they were homogeneous. Findings indicated that, based on VAS, the mean pain intensity in the left (P < 0.001) and the right knees (P < 0.001), as well as based on WOMAC, stiffness (P = 0.006), pain intensity (P < 0.001) and disability (P < 0.001) in the cupping therapy group significantly decreased compared to the control group. Conclusion: Findings showed that hot intermittent cupping therapy reduced the pain intensity, stiffness and disability in patients with KO.

Dry cupping therapy and the wellness management of health travelers
Salman Majeed, Mahwash Majeed, Moshood Ameenat Ajike
1Traditional Medicine Research    2019, 4 (1): 12-24.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMR201915095
Abstract HTML PDF (389KB)  

Highlights

Dry cupping therapy can improve the health and overall quality of life of the people by positively influencing their physical and psychological health perceptions.

Editor’s Summary

Cupping therapy was first mentioned in Eber’s papyrus in the ancient Egypt, which is considered an oldest medical book published in 1550 B.C.

Abstract

Objective: Individuals travel locally and internationally in order to find alternative treatments which are less-toxic and more beneficial to their health and wellness. Despite the popularity of the western system of medicine, cupping therapies are gaining enormous attention in Pakistan as a system of traditional and complementary medicine to ensure the quality of life and wellness notions of the people. The present study aims to examine the effectiveness of dry cupping therapy (DCT) on the health, wellness, and quality of life preferences of health-seeking travelers in a sample of Faisalabad. Methods: DCT was performed for 15 - 20 minutes on subjects by using 3 - 5 disposable cupping glasses. Study participants filled the questionnaires before and after DCT interventions. Partial least square structural equation modeling technique is used in order to statistically analyze the data. Results: A total of 187 subjects participated in two DCT interventions at Coural Wellness Center Faisalabad and provided their final responses after 30 days from 2nd DCT. Respondents’ perceptions of their physical feelings were generally found in a significantly positive and direct relation with DCT and health status (HS), i.e., body pain (β = 0.019), vitality (β = 0.138), and bodily movement (β = 0.207). This trend was observed in the psychological feelings of respondents as well, i.e., emotional feelings (β = 0.169). DCT significantly mediated the overall phenomenon and variance account for values were found between 20% and 80 % for all the study constructs. The scores of all the health and wellness items on the questionnaire were significantly improved in 79.68% of studied participants after 1st and 2nd DCT interventions except for social functioning. Conclusion: Findings of the present study suggest that DCT has an important role in determining the health perceptions and HS of health travelers without potential side-effects. It can improve the health and overall quality of life of the people by positively influencing their physical and psychological health perceptions. It additionally leads to improve travelers’ emotion, behavior, and other daily matters.

Systematic evaluation and Meta-analysis of acupuncture and collaterals cupping therapy for Knee Osteoarthritis
Zhang Li-Hui, Zhao Yong-Chen
6TMR Modern Herbal Medicine    2019, 2 (1): 36-47.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMRmhm2017B36
Abstract HTML PDF (581KB)  

Objective: In order to obtain the best treatment program for Knee Osteoarthritis (KOA), to alleviate the pain of patients with KOA, and to systematically evaluate the efficacy of acupuncture cupping therapy for KOA. Methods: we used computer to search the databases of CNKI (1989-2018.10), Wanfang (1989-2018.10), VIP (1989-2018.10), PubMed (1966-2018.10), EMbase (1986-2018.10) and Cochrane Library (the 3rd issue of 2018). And the literature quality was evaluated by Jadad scale. Results: A total of 19 eligible RCT studies were included, and a total of 2,088 patients participated in the eligible clinical study. Meta-analysis results showed that the total effective rate OR combination =2.85[OR =3.98, 95%CI (2.98,5.32), P < 0.00001]. The results showed that the curative effect of acupuncture and collaterals cupping in the treatment of KOA was superior to other therapies. Conclusion: Acupuncture and cupping therapy of traditional Chinese medicine is effective and safe in treating KOA. Due to the impact of the original study on Meta-analysis results, more large samples and high-quality clinical trials are still needed to verify.

Highlights
Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is one of the most common orthopedic diseases. Most of the patients were elderly, and the clinical manifestations were mainly pain. This paper aims to explore the research progress of TCM acupuncture and cupping therapy for the prevention and treatment of KOA. In this paper, we reviewed the published literature, systematically evaluated and Meta analyzed the efficacy of acupuncture and cupping therapy for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis, and provided better evidence for the clinical treatment of knee osteoarthritis patients.

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