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05 May 2019, Volume 4 Issue 3 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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Unveiling the book of Persian medicine — the official document of Persian medicine in Iran and delivering it to the WHO representative
Arman Zargaran
1Traditional Medicine Research. 2019, 4 (3): 109-110.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMR20190430118
Abstract ( 351 )   HTML ( 11 )     PDF (234KB) ( 170 )  

Persian medicine is one of the oldest traditional systems of medicine that its history in Persia (Iran) dates back to at least 7000 years ago [1]. This traditional medical system has a holistic approach to health care and treat and is based on humoral theory [2]. Persian medicine was the main paradigm of medicine in Europe, west of Asia and some parts of Africa for centuries. It was flourished during Islamic Golden Age (9th to 13th century). In that time, great Persian physicians and pharmacists like Akhawayni, Rhazes, Avicenna, Haly Abbas, etc wrote important medical texts such as Canon of Medicine and Liber Continent which were taught as main medical references in the west and the east at least until 17th century [3].

In current era, Persian medicine can be used as one kind of traditional and complementary therapies by medical practitioners. In Iran, it is more than one decade that Persian medicine is accepted as a branch of medical practice and is taught as PhD program to the physicians who apply for this program. Also, there is another PhD program as “Traditional Pharmacy” available for pharmacists with PharmD degree. Iran follows WHO strategies for traditional medicine that indicates integrating traditional medicine with conventional medicine. Therefore, according to the Iranian academic program for traditional medicine, only physicians and pharmacists can be involved to PhD programs and use both conventional and traditional opportunities to serve best services to the patients [4].

On January 23 and 24, 2019, the national congress of “Persian medicine: one decade of academic activities; the critique of the past and the future perspective” was held in Mashahad. During the first day of this congress, the official document of Persian medicine (Persian Medicine 2018) was unveiled by the presence of Dr. Velayati (the supreme leader adviser for international affairs), Dr. Harirchi (Deputy of Iranian Ministry of Health), Dr. Hamelmann (WHO representative in Iran), Dr. Khodadust (Director general of Persian medicine in Iranian Ministry of Health), Dr. Ahn (representative of department of traditional medicine in WHO headquarter) and many other authorities, faculties, students and researchers in the field of Persian medicine. This book was edited and written by Dr. Arman Zargaran, the assistant professor of traditional pharmacy at Tehran University of medical sciences and vice-general director for international affairs in Persian medicine office at Iranian Ministry of Health.

This document officially was delivered to representative of WHO headquarter as Iranian official document on the situation of traditional medicine in Iran. This book and the report of representative would be considered by the directorate of department of traditional medicine in WHO headquarter to be aware about Persian medicine practice and regulations in Iran. According to this visit, it is hoped to write and accept WHO’s benchmarks of education and practice for Persian medicine in near future.

In the rest of the 2 days congress, specialized committees considered the academic activities in the field of Persian medicine during last decade in Iran to find future perspective.

Annual Advances
Annual advances of traditional medicine toxicity in 2018
Shu-Li Man, Gen-Bei Wang, Chang-Xiao Liu, Wen-Yuan Gao
1Traditional Medicine Research. 2019, 4 (3): 111-117.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMR20190426117
Abstract ( 540 )   HTML ( 21 )     PDF (439KB) ( 292 )  

Highlights

1. Liver and kidney are the mainly toxic target organs of traditional medicine.

2. Recently, zebrafish embryoes are popular to evaluate the safety of traditional medicine.

3. The safety assessment of Aconitum, Tripterygium, Strychnine, etc. is still hot issue.

Traditionality

This annual review summarized different analysis methods of toxicology research, common evaluated models, toxic target organs, toxic mechanisms, and popular research issues and herbs in 2018. China, India, USA and Morocco were ranked from the first to fourth important countries researching the toxicology of traditional medicine.

Abstract

There were many researches concerning toxicology of traditional medicine (TM) and active natural products during the past 12 months. This annual toxicology review summarized different analysis methods of toxicology research, common evaluated models, toxic target organs, toxic mechanisms, and popular research issues and herbs in 2018. The emphasis was on hepatorenal toxicity induced by TM through cell apoptosis, metabolic disorder, oxidative stress, inflammatory damage, liver and renal fibrosis and even inducing carcinogenesis. Meanwhile, traditional herbs were listed in this review. Taken together, the herbs mentioned in this paper should be used with caution. Combination of TM, processing drugs, quality control and dose control can be used in the prevention of TM toxicology in the future.

Special Issue on Persian Medicine
Editor-in-Chief of Special Issue on Persian Medicine 
1Traditional Medicine Research. 2019, 4 (3)  
Abstract ( 169 )     PDF (154KB) ( 40 )  
Dr. Roshanak Ghods is working as an Assistant professor in the Department of Persian medicine (PM), Iran University of Medical Sciences (IUMS), Tehran-Iran. She has done her medical degree (MD) in Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan- Iran (2001), and her Ph.D. in PM from Iran University of Medical Sciences (IUMS), Tehran-Iran (2014). 
   She has qualified for being an academic member at 2014 and very soon selected as the dean of the faculty of Persian medicine of IUMS due to her scientific and management capabilities (resigned by her request at 2017). She is a member of the Iranian Academy of Science, Hikmat, Islamic and Traditional Medicine group, since 2015. She has around 8 years of familiarity with clinical research. Published and presented several national and international peer-reviewed articles related to PM. She is guiding many postgraduate students to complete their thesis. She has published some books. Recently, she completed an intensive one year course in MBA in August 2018. Her research interests include PM, cardiovascular diseases (hypertension and palpitation) from the viewpoint of PM, diabetes treatments from the viewpoint of PM, wet cupping and leech therapy.
   Iran University of Medical Sciences (IUMS) is one of the largest public medical universities in Iran, founded in 1974 in Tehran, located near Milad Tower, which is the sixth-tallest tower in the World. Its students rank among the top 1% of Iran's students in the national ranking entrance exams for universities. Today, Iran University of Medical Sciences (IUMS) is a pioneer in providing academic and health care services to approximately 5.2% of the country's population, including professors, researchers, students, staff and the general public. In this regard, IUMS international affair, in collaboration with the Faculty of PM, intends to take the first steps in attracting foreign students to study PM in 2019. These courses will be designed and presented at the request of a majority of applicants and in the form of multi-day workshops, short-term intensive courses, or even master's degrees or doctoral degrees. All interested applicants may apply by submitting a cover letter of interest and resume along with all certificate and diploma to: ghods.r@iums.ac.ir.
Special Issue on Persian Medicine
Leech therapy indications: a scoping review
Roshanak Ghods, Mojtaba Abdi, Matineh Pourrahimi, Fataneh Hashem Dabaghian
1Traditional Medicine Research. 2019, 4 (3): 118-130.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMR20190225105
Abstract ( 1178 )   HTML ( 26 )     PDF (468KB) ( 482 )  

Highlights

The present scoping review provides evidence for the application of leech therapy in the treatment of plastic and reconstructive surgery, musculoskeletal diseases, osteoarthritis, etc..

Traditionality

The first recorded report of the use of leeches is in a medical poem, Alexipharma, for Nicander of Colophon, born 200 B.C.. There is also evidence of the using leeches by large scholars such as Avicenna in The Canon of Medicine and Abd-el-Latif al-Baghdadi in Al-Mukhtarat fi al-Tibb. Barbers-surgeons in the middle ages used to use leeches to shed blood for treating some kind of diseases. With the development of modern medicine, the first use of medical leeches occurred in the 1960's, for intravenous congestion after reconstructive surgery. In 2004 the FDA approved leech therapy to accelerate tissue transplantation.

Abstract

After the developments of modern medicine, leeches were not used as before, but in the late nineteenth century, leeches were still being used in many countries around the world. Until now, leeches have been used to treat a wide range of diseases. The present study, is a scoping review of the evidence of the indication of leech therapy. The results of this study are based on English articles and dissertations published in databases from 2000 up to July 10, 2017. The results showed that leech therapy could be used in different conditions including venous congestion in plastic and reconstructive surgery, osteoarthritis, cardiovascular diseases due to blood coagulation disorders, migraine headache, skin disorders, diabetic foot ulcers, macroglossia, priapism, cancer complications, and wounds. More researches are needed in wider areas with more precise methodologies to ensure the potential therapeutic effects of leech therapy.

The potential role of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) in prevention of threatened abortion via immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory abilities: a hypothesis
Malihe Tabarrai, Mozhgan Mehriardestani, Sharareh Hekmat, Fatemeh Nejatbakhsh, Fatemeh Moradi
1Traditional Medicine Research. 2019, 4 (3): 131-139.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMR20190403113
Abstract ( 436 )   HTML ( 7 )     PDF (465KB) ( 206 )  

Highlights

This paper proposed a hypothesis that grape (Vitis vinifera L.) could control threatened abortion due to its immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-contraction, hormonal and anti-stress activities.

Traditionality

According to the records of traditional Persian medicine literatures, Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) had the function of fetal protection. Grape and grape molasses could produce good blood humor, the basic substances and fluids found in human body. As mentioned in Makhzan al-Advieh (1670 A.D.-1749 A.D.) and Tohfat al-Momenin (16th century), the leaf extract of Grapevine could prevent abortion. Rhazes, a great scientist of the 9th century A.D., also poineted out that unripe grapes juice could fortify the stomach of pregnant women and prevent the fetus from abortion in Al-Hawi (854 A.D.-925 A.D.) .

Abstract

Threatened abortion is a common problem in early pregnancy. This early vaginal bleeding happens in about 25% of pregnant women. The medications including progesterone, uterine muscle relaxant or human chorionic gonadotropin have essential effects in developing pregnancy, but the clinical data are insufficient to prescribe them. In recent decades, medicinal herbs can help us to present new treatments. Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) can protect the fetus from the perspective of Persian medicine. So, we hypothesize about the salutary effects of grape in miscarriage prevention. We found five standard expected mechanisms of grape to prevent threatened abortion: immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-contraction, hormonal and anti-stress activities. Grape reduces nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2, expression of nuclear factor κB and other pro-inflammatory cytokines like IL (Interleukin)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-α. It also elevates anti-inflammatory mediators and expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ. Grape polyphenols have a crucial role in fetus protection with high antioxidant power and other functions such as prevention of stress-triggered abortion with proanthocyanidins, or hormonal effects and inhibition of uterine contractions with resveratrol. So according to these studies, grape probably has effects on the immune and endocrine factors involved in threatened miscarriage.

Digestion process and causes of indigestion based on Avicenna's view and modern medicine
Ali Reza Derakhshan, Mahdi Yousefi, Sohrab Dehghan, Arman Zargaran, Mahmood Khodadoost
1Traditional Medicine Research. 2019, 4 (3): 140-147.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMR20190225100
Abstract ( 579 )   HTML ( 9 )     PDF (371KB) ( 234 )  

Highlights

This manuscript reviews digestion process and the problem of indigestion from the perspective of Avicenna and aims to establish a link between the perspective of Avicenna and the evidence of modern medicine.

Traditionality

Avicenna (born 980, died 1037, Hamadan, Iran) is regarded as the most distinguished Persian medical scholar. His masterwork Canon of Medicine became the mainstream medical system in the west until 17th century. Avicenna paid a lot of attention to gastrointestinal disorders and his view was based on the humoral theory.

Abstract

The process of food digestion is one of the most important physiologic processes in human body. In this review, we are seeking the views of Avicenna, the most distinguished Persian medical scholar about digestion and indigestion. Avicenna’s view was based on the humoral theory. Avicenna has focused scrutiny on the process of digestion. He divided this process into four phases including gastric, hepatic, intravascular and intra-organ digestion. A defect in any of these phases can lead to disturbance in other stages. Avicenna approached the problem of indigestion through factors of diet, lifestyle and inherent structural characteristics of digestive organs. Modern medicine confirms Avicenna's opinion about the start of digestion from the mouth, the role of the stomach in digestion and the role of the liver in the metabolism of foods. Overeating or eating certain foods, snacking between meals, eating variety of different foods together, intense physical activity, sexual activity after a meal, stress and sleep insufficiency are among factors that may be linked to indigestion in modern medicine viewpoints and also have been mentioned in Avicenna's teachings. It seems rational to consider the medical approaches recommended by Avicenna for future studies in the field of digestive disorders.

Ethnobotanical and traditional uses, phytochemical constituents and biological activities of Eryngium species growing in Iran
Masoumeh Ghajarieh Sepanlou, Mehran Mirabzadeh Ardakani, Mannan Hajimahmoodi, Sima Sadrai, Gholam-Reza Amin, Naficeh Sadeghi, Seyedeh Nargess Sadati Lamardi
1Traditional Medicine Research. 2019, 4 (3): 148-159.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMR20190412114
Abstract ( 417 )   HTML ( 9 )     PDF (702KB) ( 281 )  

Highlights

Eryngium is the largest genus of Apiaceae family. Some remarkable biological and pharmacological activities of these species have been demonstrated in present scientific studies, including antimicrobial, cytotoxic and anticancer, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antinociceptive activities as well as antioxidant, antidiabetic, anti-snake and anti-scorpion venom effects.

Traditionality

Eryngium genus is one of the medicinal herbs mentioned in several Persian medicine references by the name of “Qaracaane”. It contains 274 accepted species that are distributed all around the world especially in Europe, Africa, America and Australia. Ten species of Eryngium have been identified in Iran including E. caeruleum M.B. (syn: E. caucasicum Trautv.), E. creticum Lam., E. bungei Boiss., E. billardieri F. Delaroche. (syn: E. kotschyi Boiss.), E. glomeratum Lam. (syn: E. parviflorum Sm.), E. bornumulleri Nab., E. pyramidale Boiss. & Husson., E. noeanum Boiss., E. wanaturi Woron. (syn: E. woronowii Bordz.), and E. thyrsoideum Boiss. These species are distributed in all regions of Iran and especially are abundant in the northern provinces such as Gilan and Mazandaran.

Abstract

Objective: Eryngium with the 274 accepted species, is the largest genus of Apiaceae family which are distributed all over the world and have been used in traditional remedies to manage various ailments in different nations. Ten species of Eryngium have been identified in Iran including E. caeruleum M.B. (syn: E. caucasicum Trautv.), E. creticum Lam., E. bungei Boiss., E. billardieri F. Delaroche. (syn: E. kotschyi Boiss.), E. glomeratum Lam. (syn: E. parviflorum Sm.), E. bornumulleri Nab., E. pyramidale Boiss. & Husson., E. noeanum Boiss., E. wanaturi Woron. (syn: E. woronowii Bordz.), and E. thyrsoideum Boiss. The aim of the present research is to review pharmacological activity, and phytochemical constituents as well as ethnobotany and traditional uses of Iranian species of Eryngium. Materials and methods: Electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct (ISI Web of Knowledge) and Embase library were comprehensively searched for research on Eryngium. The search period was from 1966 to October 2018. The related articles were selected according to the inclusion and exclusion criterias in our study. Results: A total of 57 papers were enrolled in analyses. The findings showed that Iranian species of Eryngium, had a noticeable diverse of traditional medicinal uses and also broad range of pharmacological activities as well as various phytochemical compounds. Some remarkable biological and pharmacological activities of these species have been demonstrated in present scientific studies, including antimicrobial, cytotoxic and anticancer, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antinociceptive activities as well as antioxidant, antidiabetic, anti-snake and anti-scorpion venom effects. Conclusion: Iranian Eryngium species have enormous potential for prospective preparation of herbal medicinal products and are good candidates for discovering new drugs.

Application of herbal rectal suppositories beyond intestinal disorders in Persian medicine
Fatemeh Ebrahimi, Mohammadali Torbati, Zoleikha Khoshbakht, Laleh Khodaie
1Traditional Medicine Research. 2019, 4 (3): 160-172.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMR20190414115
Abstract ( 579 )   HTML ( 12 )     PDF (555KB) ( 242 )  

Highlights

This review provides a new insights of the application of herbal rectal suppositories beyond anorectic and intestinal disorders in traditional Persian medicine, such as sciatic, lower back pain and joint aches, fever and ascites.

Traditionality

The first application of rectal suppositories was recorded in Egyptian civilization (3150 B.C.). Other literatres in traditional Chinese, Persian, and Ayurveda medicines showed its prevalence as a dosage form.

Abstract

Background: Herbal rectal suppositories (RSs) were prescribed not only as a drug delivery system but also as a storing method in Persian medicine. According to the record of ancient references, RSs were clinically administered for diarrhea, constipation, colitis, ascites, dysentery and intestinal parasites, sciatic, lower back pain and joint aches, fever, kidney disease and as an aphrodisiac. Objectives: The aim of this study is to categorize and review different types of RSs, their main herbal components and to find evidence to elucidate their clinical administration. Results: In this study, 7 manuscripts were studied to extract and categorize 11 types of herbal rectal suppositorie (RS) formulations, their ingredients and therapeutic indications. Furthermore, the Persian and scientific names of 43 herbs and their temperaments were mentioned in this study. Hence, ancient therapeutic indications of herbs used in RS formulations as well as their proven effects have been studied, which makes it possible to compare ancient and proven indications of medicinal plants used as ingredients of RSs. Conclusions: In modern medicine, RSs are mostly used for anorectic disorders. However in traditional Persian medicine, they were commonly used not only for anorectic and intestinal diseases, but also as an aphrodisiac, an agent for healing joint, sciatic pain and lumbago, an anti-fever, and an anti-ascites. Other implications of this study could be producing new insights of utilizing herbal RSs in diseases and disorders beyond anorectic and intestinal disorders.

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