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20 October 2019, Volume 1 Issue 1   
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Tumor microenvironment: a new target for cancer therapy
Xiong-Zhi Wu
93Tumor Microenvironment Research. 2019, 1 (1): 1-1.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMER201900001
Abstract ( 171 )     PDF (268KB) ( 89 )  

After a long period of preparation, Tumor Microenvironment Research, an English international academic journal focusing on the cancer microenvironment, has been finally launched. Tumor Microenvironment Research is one of the TMR series of journals focused on oncology research.  It is an open access, peer-reviewed, online journal publishing articles of the highest quality pertaining to the fields of basic, translational, and clinical research for all aspects of cancer cell and associated microenvironment that support the growth of the cancer cells and cancer invasion.

The tumor microenvironment is composed of cancer cells and various stromal cells, cytokines, chemokines etc. For a long time, research on tumor invasion and metastasis has focused on the adhesion and migration abilities inherent in tumor cells themselves. However, in recent decades studies have found that stromal cells in the tumor microenvironment play an important role in the formation of tumor invasion and metastasis. In order to enhance tumor invasion, stromal cells can promote angiogenesis and basement membrane destruction by producing chemokines, growth factors, and matrix degrading enzymes. A large number of cytokines (TNF, VEGF, IL-1, etc.) and chemokines (CXCL12, CCL27, CCL21, etc.) in the tumor microenvironment play a vital role in tumor invasion and metastasis by participating in tumor cell proliferation, survival, and angiogenesis.

BFGF induces proliferation and migration of mouse bone mesenchymal stem cells
Xue Yang, Xiu-Li Ding, Rui Cao, Xin-Yuan Luan, Xiong-Zhi Wu
93Tumor Microenvironment Research. 2019, 1 (1): 2-7.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMER201900002
Abstract ( 61 )     PDF (892KB) ( 17 )  
In order to investigate the effects of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) on the proliferation and migration of bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). Mouse BMSCs were isolated by adherent culture in vitro. The surface markers CD29 and CD44 were detected by flow cytometry. The effect of 10 ng/ml bFGF on the proliferation of BMSCs was detected by trypan blue counting method for 48 hours. Scratch test and transwell assay were used to detect the effect of 10 ng/ml bFGF on cell migration of BMSCs. Mouse BMSCs were successfully isolated and purified. The surface markers CD29 and CD44 was positive. Trypan blue staining showed that 10 ng/ml bFGF significantly promoted the proliferation of BMSCs (P < 0.05); the scratch test showed that after adding 10 ng/ml bFGF, the migration distance of the experimental group was significantly longer than that of the control group. And the mobility ratios at 6h and 12h were 1.57 + 0.31(P < 0.05)and 2.07 + 0.95 (P < 0.05). Transwell results showed that the number of cell migration in the experimental group was significantly higher than that in the control group after 12 h of 10 ng/ml bFGF (P < 0.01). Result confirmed that bFGF induces proliferation and migration of mouse bone mesenchymal stem cells.
Study on the interaction between inflammation and tumor microenvironment
Jin-Feng Liu
93Tumor Microenvironment Research. 2019, 1 (1): 8-13.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMER201900003
Abstract ( 79 )     PDF (727KB) ( 33 )  
In recent years, through the study of tumor microenvironment, it is found that inflammation plays an important role in the occurrence of tumors. The relationship between inflammation and tumors is becoming more and more clear: the long-term existence of uncontrollable inflammation can promote tumors. The occurrence of the tumor microenvironment formed by the tumor and other surrounding cells also promotes further uncontrolled development of inflammation. Based on the relationship between inflammation and tumor microenvironment, this paper describes the tumor microenvironment and its characteristics, the role of several major mediators in inflammation on tumors, and provides a new strategy for the precise immunotherapy of tumors.
Relationship between tumor lymphangiogenesis and tumor metastasis
Ya-Nan Man, Rui Cao, Xiong-Zhi Wu
93Tumor Microenvironment Research. 2019, 1 (1): 14-22.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMER201900004
Abstract ( 54 )     PDF (645KB) ( 32 )  
Objective: To summarize the research progress on the relationship between tumor lymphangiogenesis and tumor metastasis. Methods: PubMed and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) database were used to search for related literatures with the keywords of "tumor, lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis". Inclusion criteria: (1) the morphology and function of tumor lymphatic vessels; (2) the markers of lymphatic vessels; (3) the mechanism of tumor lymphangiogenesis; (4) the molecular regulation mechanism of tumor lymphangiogenesis. Results: The lymphatic vessel wall is only composed of endothelial cells, and the basement membrane is discontinuous with high permeability. The markers of lymphatic vessels include VEGFR-3, LYVE-1, podoplanin and thehomeoboxgene Prox-1, which facilitate the research on the function of lymphatic vessels in tumor. The mechanism of tumor lymphangiogenesis is very complicated, and there is no conclusion yet. It is believed that the tumor lymphangiogenesis is mainly derived from the existing lymphatic endothelial cells in the tissue. During the process of tumor lymphangiogenesis, many factors, such as VEGF-C, VEGF-D, VEGF-A, bFGF, PDGF-BB, Ang-2, NO and COX-2, are directly or indirectly involved. However, most studies believe that VEGF-C and VEGF-D are the most important regulators of tumor lymphangiogenesis. Conclusion: Tumor lymphangiogenesis is closely related to tumor lymphatic metastasis. Inhibition of tumor lymphangiogenesis can open a new way for tumor treatment.
Study on the high risk factors related to different metastatic sites of advanced breast cancer
Xiao-Hui Liu
93Tumor Microenvironment Research. 2019, 1 (1): 23-29.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMER201900006
Abstract ( 49 )     PDF (625KB) ( 12 )  
Objective: Several studies indicated that many factors have relationship with the metastatic sites of advanced breast cancer. This retrospective study investigated the high risk factors which related to the different metastatic sites of stage IV breast cancer. Patients and methods: From January 2003 to December 2005 a total of 387 consecutive breast cancer patients were retrospectively analyzed. The relationships between different categorical variables and breast cancer were identified by Chi-square tests. Results: The high risk factors of metastatic breast cancer included the overexpression of HER-2 and lymph nodes invasion. The overexpression of HER-2 and lymph nodes invasion had a significantly difference between metastatic breast cancer and breast cancer without metastasis (P = 0.018, P < 0.001, respectively). As for metastatic breast cancer patients with only one single metastatic organ, the overexpression of HER-2 had a significantly high positive rate in patients with visceral metastases when compared with bone metastasis (P = 0.045). Conclusion: The overexpression of HER-2 and lymph nodes invasion significantly influenced the metastasis of breast cancer. Overexpression of Her-2 was high risk factors for breast cancer developed to visceral metastases disease.

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