Please wait a minute...
Traditional Medicine Research  2018, Vol. 3 Issue (1): 52-61    DOI: 10.12032/TMR201809064
Empirical Formula Research     
Data mining analysis of Professor Liu Shangyi’s prescription characteristics in clinical medicine for the treatment of cancer patients with stomachache
Wen-Qi Huang1, Zhu Yang1, Dong-Xin Tang2,*(), Li Luo2, Feng-Xi Long1, Jing-Hui Wang2, Bing Yang1
1Guiyang College of TCM, Guiyang, Guizhou, China,
2The First Affiliated Hospital of Guiyang College of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Guiyang, Guizhou, China.
Download: HTML     PDF(495KB)
Export: BibTeX | EndNote (RIS)      


The characteristics of Chinese medicine prescribed by Professor Liu Shangyi for the treatment of cancer patients with stomachache include the activation of blood circulation, removal of dampness, and alleviation of pain.

Editor’s Summary

The results of this study may provide guidance for the clinical treatment of cancer patients with stomachache.


Objective: To analyze National Chinese Medicine Master Liu Shangyi’s prescription characteristics of clinical medicine for the treatment of cancer patients with stomachache. Methods: Data on prescriptions for cancer patients with stomachache between January 2014 and July 2016 were collected. The composing principles were analyzed by unsupervised data mining methods including Apriori algorithm in association rules and complex system entropy cluster. Results: Based on the analysis of 120 prescriptions, the frequency of each herb and association rules among the herbs were computed. Four core combinations and two new prescriptions were mined from the database. Compared to the before treatment, the clinical symptomatic grading of stomachache after treatment was lower (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Professor Liu has been successful in the treatment of cancer patients with stomachache by prescribing medication that aids in activating blood circulation, removing dampness, and alleviating pain.

Key wordsNational Chinese Medicine Master      Liu Shangyi      Tumor      Stomachache     
Published: 05 January 2018
Fund:  The National Natural Science Foundation Project Area Science Foundation (81460697), Guizhou Project of Modernization of Traditional Chinese Medicine Department (SY [2014] 3008-1), Graduate Workstation Plan of Guizhou Province (Department of Education) (JYSZ [2014] 018), Science and Technology Support Program of Guizhou Province (Social Development Research Department) (SY [2014] 3026), Key Disciplines of the Department of Education and Graduate Education Innovation Program (GZS [2016] 08)
Corresponding Authors: Tang Dong-Xin     E-mail:
Cite this article:

Wen-Qi Huang, Zhu Yang, Dong-Xin Tang, Li Luo, Feng-Xi Long, Jing-Hui Wang, Bing Yang. Data mining analysis of Professor Liu Shangyi’s prescription characteristics in clinical medicine for the treatment of cancer patients with stomachache. Traditional Medicine Research, 2018, 3(1): 52-61. doi: 10.12032/TMR201809064

URL:     OR

Symptom Mild (+) Moderate (++) Serious (+++)
Stomachache Mild stomachache, occasional stomachache, does not affect work Stomachache can be tolerated, frequent episodes, affects work and rest Stomach pain is hard to bear, continuous pain, painkillers often required for pain relief
Table 1 Symptomatic grading of stomachaches
Herbs Frequency
Ezhu (Rhizoma Curcumae) 120
Biejia (Carapax Trionycis) 120
Donglingcao (Rabdosia rubescens) 74
Huanglian (Rhizoma Coptidis) 48
Maozhuacao (Radix Ranunculi Ternati) 42
Wuzhuyu (Fructus Evodiae) 41
Chuanxiong (Rhizoma Ligustici Chuanxiong) 36
Muxiang (Radix Aucklandiae) 31
Tianjihuang (Hypericum japonicum Thunb) 27
Wugong (Scolopendra) 27
Yuzhu (Radix polygonati officinalis) 26
Shihu (Herba Dendrobii) 26
Yinchen (Herba Artemisiae Scopariae) 25
Lücao (Scandent hop) 25
Binlang (Semen Arecae) 25
Jinqiancao (Herba Lysimachiae) 24
Xuchangqing (Radix Cynanchi Paniculati) 23
Huangjing (Rhizoma polygonati) 21
Huangqin (Radix Scutellariae) 19
Liujinu (Artemisia anomala) 18
Danggui (Radix Angelicae Sinensis) 18
Hanliancao (Eclipta alba) 14
Nüzhenzi (Fructus Ligustri Lucidi) 14
Cangzhu (Rhizoma atractylodis) 13
Banxia (Rhizoma Pinelliae) 13
Houpu (Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis) 12
Jiangxiang (Lignum Dalbergiae Odoriferae) 12
Yujin (Radix curcumae) 11
Caodoukou (Semen Alpiniae Katsumadai) 10
Table 2 The Chinese herbs that were used more than 10 times
Figure 1 Network diagram: “Support” and “Confidence” were set to 30 and 0.6
Herb model Frequency
Ezhu (Rhizoma Curcumae), Biejia (Carapax Trionycis) 120
Donglingcao (Rabdosia rubescens), Ezhu (Rhizoma Curcumae) 74
Donglingcao (Rabdosia rubescens), Biejia (Carapax Trionycis) 74
Donglingcao (Rabdosia rubescens), Ezhu (Rhizoma Curcumae), Biejia (Carapax Trionycis) 74
Ezhu (Rhizoma Curcumae), Huanglian (Rhizoma Coptidis) 48
Huanglian (Rhizoma Coptidis), Biejia (Carapax Trionycis) 48
Ezhu (Rhizoma Curcumae), Huanglian (Rhizoma Coptidis), Biejia (Carapax Trionycis) 48
Ezhu (Rhizoma Curcumae), Maozhuacao (Radix Ranunculi Ternati) 42
Maozhuacao (Radix Ranunculi Ternati), Biejia (Carapax Trionycis) 42
Ezhu (Rhizoma Curcumae), Maozhuacao (Radix Ranunculi Ternati), Biejia (Carapax Trionycis) 42
Wuzhuyu (Fructus Evodiae), Ezhu (Rhizoma Curcumae) 41
Wuzhuyu (Fructus Evodiae), Biejia (Carapax Trionycis) 41
Wuzhuyu (Fructus Evodiae), Huanglian (Rhizoma Coptidis) 41
Wuzhuyu (Fructus Evodiae), Ezhu (Rhizoma Curcumae), Biejia (Carapax Trionycis) 41
Wuzhuyu (Fructus Evodiae), Ezhu (Rhizoma Curcumae), Huanglian (Rhizoma Coptidis) 41
Wuzhuyu (Fructus Evodiae), Huanglian (Rhizoma Coptidis), Biejia (Carapax Trionycis) 41
Wuzhuyu (Fructus Evodiae), Ezhu (Rhizoma Curcumae), Huanglian (Rhizoma Coptidis), Biejia (Carapax Trionycis) 41
Chuanxiong (Rhizoma Ligustici Chuanxiong), Ezhu (Rhizoma Curcumae) 36
Chuanxiong (Rhizoma Ligustici Chuanxiong), Biejia (Carapax Trionycis) 36
Chuanxiong (Rhizoma Ligustici Chuanxiong), Ezhu (Rhizoma Curcumae), Biejia (Carapax Trionycis) 36
Donglingcao (Rabdosia rubescens), Maozhuacao (Radix Ranunculi Ternati) 35
Donglingcao (Rabdosia rubescens), Maozhuacao (Radix Ranunculi Ternati), Ezhu (Rhizoma Curcumae) 35
Donglingcao (Rabdosia rubescens), Maozhuacao (Radix Ranunculi Ternati), Biejia (Carapax Trionycis) 35
Donglingcao (Rabdosia rubescens), Ezhu (Rhizoma Curcumae), Maozhuacao (Radix Ranunculi Ternati), Biejia (Carapax Trionycis) 35
Muxiang (Radix Aucklandiae), Ezhu (Rhizoma Curcumae) 31
Muxiang (Radix Aucklandiae), Biejia (Carapax Trionycis) 31
Muxiang (Radix Aucklandiae), Ezhu (Rhizoma Curcumae), Biejia (Carapax Trionycis) 31
Table 3 More than 31 of the use frequency of couplet medicines
Couplet Medicines Correlation Coefficient Couplet Medicines Correlation Coefficient
Donglingcao (Rabdosia rubescens),
Liujinu (Artemisia anomala)
0.04197 Tianjihuang (Hypericum japonicum Thunb), Caodoukou (Semen Alpiniae Katsumadai) 0.022318
Huangjing (Rhizoma polygonati),
Liujinu (Artemisia anomala)
0.031544 Huangjing (Rhizoma polygonati), Banxia (Rhizoma Pinelliae) 0.022194
Huanglian (Rhizoma Coptidis), Wulingzhi (Faeces Togopteri) 0.03141 Huangjing (Rhizoma polygonati),
Cangzhu (Rhizoma atractylodis)
Jinqiancao (Herba Lysimachiae), Hanliancao (Eclipta alba) 0.030608 Huangqin (Radix Scutellariae),
Nüzhenzi (Fructus Ligustri Lucidi)
Nüzhenzi (Fructus Ligustri Lucidi), Binlang (Semen Arecae) 0.029221 Huangqin (Radix Scutellariae),
Hanliancao (Eclipta alba)
Huangjing (Rhizoma polygonati), Donglingcao (Rabdosia rubescens) 0.029189 Liujinu (Artemisia anomala), Tianjihuang (Hypericum japonicum Thunb) 0.02146
Nüzhenzi (Fructus Ligustri Lucidi), Gegen (Radix Puerariae) 0.028668 Shihu (Herba Dendrobii),
Caodoukou (Semen Alpiniae Katsumadai)
Jinqiancao (Herba Lysimachiae), Liujinu (Artemisia anomala) 0.028092 Huangjing (Rhizoma polygonati), Binlang (Semen Arecae) 0.021304
Banxia (Rhizoma Pinelliae), Yinchen (Herba Artemisiae Scopariae) 0.026992 Donglingcao (Rabdosia rubescens), Yimucao (Herba Leonuri) 0.020703
Jinqiancao (Herba Lysimachiae), Jiangxiang (Lignum Dalbergiae Odoriferae) 0.025583 Shihu (Herba Dendrobii), Tianjihuang (Hypericum japonicum Thunb) 0.020702
Huangjing (Rhizoma polygonati), Chuanxiong (Rhizoma Ligustici Chuanxiong) 0.025116 Tianjihuang (Hypericum japonicum Thunb), Yuzhu (Radix polygonati officinalis) 0.020702
Nüzhenzi (Fructus Ligustri Lucidi), Tianjihuang (Hypericum japonicum Thunb) 0.024496 Jiangxiang (Lignum Dalbergiae Odoriferae), Tianjihuang (Hypericum japonicum Thunb) 0.020506
Tianjihuang (Hypericum japonicum Thunb), Hanliancao (Eclipta alba) 0.024496 Chuanxiong (Rhizoma Ligustici Chuanxiong), Baifupian (Radix Aconitilateralis Preparata) 0.020398
Donglingcao (Rabdosia rubescens), Baihuasheshecao (Herba Hedyotis) 0.02449 Chuanxiong (Rhizoma Ligustici Chuanxiong),
Zizhuye (Folium Callicarpae Macrophyllae)
Wuzhuyu (Fructus Evodiae), Danggui (Radix Angelicae Sinensis) 0.024386 Huangjing (Rhizoma polygonati), Jiangxiang (Lignum Dalbergiae Odoriferae) 0.020383
Jiangxiang (Lignum Dalbergiae Odoriferae), Liujinu (Artemisia anomala) 0.023894 Huangjing (Rhizoma polygonati),
Houpu (Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis)
Donglingcao (Rabdosia rubescens),
Shihu (Herba Dendrobii)
0.023038 Yujin (Radix curcumae),
Banzhilian (Herba Scutellariae Barbatae)
Donglingcao (Rabdosia rubescens), Yuzhu (Radix polygonati officinalis) 0.023038 Yujin (Radix curcumae), Jiuxiangchong (Aspongopus) 0.020269
Wuzhuyu (Fructus Evodiae),
Huangqin (Radix Scutellariae)
Table 4 Analysis of the correlation between Chinese herbs
NO. Core Combination
1 Jinqiancao (Herba Lysimachiae), Nüzhenzi (Fructus Ligustri Lucidi), Huanglian (Rhizoma Coptidis)
2 Tainma (Rhizoma Gastrodiae), Dannanxing (Rhizoma Arisaematis Cum Bile), Baifupian (Radix Aconitilateralis Preparata)
3 Huangqin (Radix Scutellariae), Danggui (Radix Angelicae Sinensis), Huanglian (Rhizoma Coptidis)
4 Zhebeimu (Bulbus Fritillariae Thunbergii), Zelan (Herba Lycopi), Baihe (Bulbus Lilii), Laifuzi (Semen Raphani)
Table 5 Core herb combinations ing
NO. New prescription
1 Jinqiancao (Herba Lysimachiae), Nüzhenzi (Fructus Ligustri Lucidi), Huanglian (Rhizoma Coptidis), Huangqin (Radix Scutellariae), Danggui (Radix Angelicae Sinensis)
2 Tainma (Rhizoma Gastrodiae), Dannanxing (Rhizoma Arisaematis Cum Bile), Baifupian (Radix Aconitilateralis Preparata), Zhebeimu (Bulbus Fritillariae Thunbergii), Zelan (Herba Lycopi), Baihe (Bulbus Lilii), Laifuzi (Semen Raphani)
Table 6 New prescriptions
No stomachache Mild ache
Moderate ache
Serious ache
Before treatment 0 45 60 15 -10.613 P < 0.001
After treatment 72 35 13 0
Table 7 Clinical Symptomatic Grading of stomachache before and after treatment
1.   Zheng XY.Chinese medicine new drug clinical research guidelines. Sec ed. China Medical Science and Technology Press, 2002.
2.   Zhao ZY, Yao ZM.Research Overview and Clinical Application of Biejiajian Pill. Research tradit Chin Med 1998, 14: 58-60.
3.   Wang D, Ai H.Bie jia Decoction of the Need for Liver Neoplasms 22 Dutch Anti-cancer Role of the Mouse Experiments to Study. Chin arch tradit Chin med 2007, 25: 582-584.
4.   Gan YX, Zhao SL, Luo NN, et al.Comparative Research on Efficacy of Promoting the Flow of Qi and Eliminate Blood Stasis of Curcuma Rhizoma before and after Processing with Vinegar. Chin Med J Res Prac 2015, 29: 29-32.
5.   Deng R, Chen JM, Yao CS, et al.Progress in the study of Curcuma Phaeocaulis Val. Pract med clin 2001, 4: 37-39.
6.   Zhong ZF, Chen XP, Wu T, et al.Progress in the study of Curcuma Phaeocaulis Val, Chin pharm 2010, (31): 2959-2961.
7.   Zeng JH, Chen X, Pang YW, et al.Progress in the study of Curcuma Phaeocaulis Val, Chin herb med 2008, 31: 168-170.
8.   Tang ZY, Zong CG, Lin Y.Experimental Study on Curcumol in Promoting Blood Circulation and Removing Blood. Pharmacol Clinic Tradit Chin Med 2003, 19: 15.
9.   Liu TT, Wang M.Research Progress of Chemical Composition and Pharmacological Effects of Fructus Figustri Lucidi. Chin J Exp Tradit Med Formulae 2014, 20: 228-234.
10.   Huang MS, Huang W, Wu QN, et al.Study on oleanolic acid-induced apoptosis and related to intracellular Ca2+ level in human breast carcinoma cells. China J Mod Med 2004, 14: 58-63.
11.   Zhang DF, Huang W, Huang JQ, et al.Study on proliferation inhibition and anti-invasion and apoptotic induction of oleanolic acid in human lung cancer cell line. Cancer Res Prey Treat 2003, 30: 181-183.
12.   Xiang M, Gu ZL, Liang ZQ, et al.Antitumor effect of extracts from Ligustrum Lucidum Ait on mice. Infect dis pharm 2001, 11: 3-5.
13.   Yang YH, Zhang N, Liu LJ, et al.Study on the inhibition of berberine on gastric cancer cells. J Guangdong Pharm Univ 2017, 33: 1-5.
14.   Xu L, Wang Y, Chen FX, et al.The effect of wogonin on NK cell cytotoxicity against gastric cancer MKN45 cells in vitro and the mechanism. Immunol J 2014, 30: 805-808.
15.   Lu X, Wu XL, Li Y, et al.Inhibitory effect of Wogonin on gastric cancer SGC7901 cell in Vitro. Chin Phram 2011, 46: 512-517.
doi: 10.1631/jzus.B1000135
16.   Yin Q, Dai QS, Zhao YK, et al.Inhibitory effects on glucose metabolism of human gastric carcinoma MGC-803 cells induced by wogonin. J China Pharm Univ 2015, 46: 345-349.
doi: 10.11665/j.issn.1000-5048.20150314
17.   Qian B, Li F, Zhao L X, et al.Ligustilide ameliorates inflammatory pain and inhibits TLR4 upregulation in spinal astrocytes following complete freund’s adjuvant peripheral injection. Cell Mol Neurobiol 2016, 36: 143-149.
doi: 10.1007/s10571-015-0228-0 pmid: 26115624
18.   Guo XY, Nie YX.Recent effects of gastrodin in the treatment of migraine. Chin General Practice 2011, 9(4): 579.
19.   Liu HL, Cao KG, Gao YH, et al.The efficacy evaluation and mechanism of gastrodin on the prevention of migraine attack in rats, Chin J Inf TCM 2008, 15: 32-33.
20.   Ren DB.Analgesic effect of continuous administration of Gastrodia elata Blume on mice. Agric Technol 1999, 19: 74.
21.   Zhang JZ, Huang GQ, Zheng WH, et al.Effects of mangiferin on blood glucose and blood lipids metabolism in alloxan diabetic mice. Pharmacol Clin Chin Mate Med 2012, 28: 44-46.
22.   Lin Q, Li XF, Li WJ, et al.Antiaggregation Effects of Fractions from Gastrodia Rhizome. Chin microcirc 2006, 10: 33-35.
23.   He Y, Wu LY, Wang XT.Experimental study on the pharmacodynamics and toxicity of different processed products of Arisaema Cumbie. Chin Herb Med 1997, 20: 459-461.
24.   Pan YZ, Yin DF.Clinical study of Arisaema Cum bile in the treatment of cancer pain. J Basic Chin Med 2016, 22: 1251-1254.
25.   Liou SS, Liu IM, LAI MC, et al.Comparison of the antinociceptive action of crude Fuzei, the root of Aconitum, and its processed products. Prod J Ethnopharmacol 2005, 99: 379-383.
doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2005.02.014 pmid: 15885941
26.   Zhang XD, Wu YT.Study on Aconitum extract confrontation stomach cancer SGC-7901 cell and induced apoptosis of cancer cells. J Zhejiang Univ Tradit Chin Med 2011, 35: 665-668.
27.   Chen PY, Zeng SP.Study on Aconitum extract induced B Lymphocyte apoptosis. Chin J Basic Med Tradit Chin Med 2007, 13: 454-456.
28.   Ren LY, Zeng SP.Study on Aconitum extract transplanted liver cancer H22 cell apoptosis influences. Henan Tradit Chin Med 2008, 28: 34-37.
doi: 10.1016/S0254-6272(08)60010-2 pmid: 18416081
29.   Li Y, Xu C, Zhang Q, et al.In vitro anti-Helicobacter pylori action of 30 Chinese herbal medicines used to treat ulcer diseases. J ethnopharmacology 2005, 98: 329-333.
doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2005.01.020 pmid: 15814268
30.   Shi HZ, Gao NN, Li YZ, et al.Effects of L.F04, the active fraction of Lycopus lucidus, on erythrocytes rheological property. Chin J Integr Med 2005, 11: 132-135.
doi: 10.1007/BF02836470
31.   National Pharmacopoeia Commission, People’s Republic of China Pharmacopoeia, Beijing: Chemical Industry Press, 2010: 212.
32.   Luo LM, Pei G, Qin L, et al. Research progress on chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of Lilium plants. .
33.   Sun X, Gao RL, Xiong YK, et al.Antitumor and immunomodulatory effects of a water-soluble polysaccharide from Liliibulbus in mice. Carbohydr Polym 2014, 102: 543-549.
doi: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2013.12.002 pmid: 24507317
34.   Li HL, Li M, Jin S, et al.Effects of radish seeds on contractile activity of isolated antral circular muscle strips in guinea pigs. Chin J Integr Trad West Med Dig 2008, 16: 215-217.
doi: 10.1016/j.ejrad.2013.01.001 pmid: 20476563
35.   Tang JY, Zhang L, Peng C, et al.Study on Mechanism of Semen Raphani in Moving qi and Removing Food Retention. Chin J Integr Trad West Med Dig 2003, 10: 287-289.
[1] Yan-Lan Hu, Shao-Hui Wang, Cui-Wei He, Tong-Xiang Liu. Research progress on anti-tumor properties of Marsdenia tenacissima[J]. Traditional Medicine Research, 2018, 3(4): 202-213.
[2] Jian Hao, Dan Chen. TGF-β signaling in hepatocellular carcinoma suppression and progression[J]. Traditional Medicine Research, 2018, 3(1): 10-21.
[3] Yang Xue, Wu Xiong-Zhi. Revaluation of Xihuang Pill on tumor treatment: from ancient literatures to modern studies[J]. Traditional Medicine Research, 2016, 1(2): 60-74.