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Traditional Medicine Research  2018, Vol. 3 Issue (2): 62-69    DOI: 10.12032/TMR201810065
Review     
History of recurrent miscarriage in traditional Chinese medicine literature
Li-Lin Yanga, Jie Gaob, Hai-Wang Wu a, Song-Ping Luoa*()
aFirst School of Clinical Medicine, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, China.
bDepartment of Gynecology, First Affiliated Hospital, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, China.
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Highlights

This report reviews the etiology, pathogenesis, treatment, and prevention of recurrent miscarriage discussed in the traditional Chinese medicine literature and lists the pharmacological studies that evaluated traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions for recurrent miscarriage.

Editor’s Summary

The first cases of recurrent miscarriage as a fertility abnormality were reported in Chanjing, written during the Nanbei Dynasty of China (420 A.D. - 589 A.D.).

Abstract

Recurrent miscarriage (RM) as a gynecological disorder was recognized by traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) practitioners long before the age of modern medicine. TCM physicians reported and recorded RM in the canonical TCM literature, which dates back more than 1500 years. The first cases of RM as a fertility abnormality were reported in Chanjing, which was written during the Nanbei Dynasty of China (420 A.D. - 589 A.D.). Some prescriptions for the treatment of RM are still actively used by modern TCM practitioners. In addition, many recent pharmacological and clinical studies have focused on the TCM therapy for RM. To identify the new therapeutic targets for RM and further promote the interest in treating RM with TCM, we reviewed the etiology, pathogenesis, treatment, and prevention of RM discussed both in the TCM literature and in contemporary pharmacological and clinical studies.



Key wordsRecurrent miscarriage      Traditional Chinese medicine      Literature     
Published: 05 March 2018
Fund:  Funding: This study was supported by the Center of Clinical Medical Research and Commercialization for Prevention and Treatment of Recurrent Miscarriage by TCM in Guangzhou (NO. 155700014) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant NO. 81273795).
Corresponding Authors: Luo Song-Ping     E-mail: gynspluo@hotmail.com.
Cite this article:

Li-Lin Yang, Jie Gao, Hai-Wang Wu, Song-Ping Luo. History of recurrent miscarriage in traditional Chinese medicine literature. Traditional Medicine Research, 2018, 3(2): 62-69. doi: 10.12032/TMR201810065

URL:

https://www.tmrjournals.com/tmr/EN/10.12032/TMR201810065     OR     https://www.tmrjournals.com/tmr/EN/Y2018/V3/I2/62

Age (year) Phenomenon
7 The emanations of the kidney become abundant and promote the growths of hair and teeth.
14 Menstruation begins and the female is able to conceive.
21 The emanations of the kidney become regular and the female becomes sexually mature.
28 The female reaches the peak of all the physical features and the body is flourishing and fertile.
35 The physical conditions start to deteriorate including appearances of wrinkle and enhanced hair fall.
42 The physical appearance continues to decline.
49 and onwards Menstruation stops and the female is no longer suitable to conceive due to hormonal and physical changes.
Table 1 7 cycles of female reproduction described in Huangdineijing
Name Origin Function Major ingredients
Taishanpanshi Powder Zhang Jingyue, Jingyuequanshu, Ming Dynasty of China (1368 A.D. - 1644 A.D.) Supplementing Qi to invigorate spleen and nourishing blood to prevent miscarriage Xiyangshen (Radix panacis ginseng), Huangqi (Radix astragali membranacei), Danggui (Radix angelicae sinensis), Xuduan (Radix dipsaci), Huangqin (Radix scutellariae baicalensis), Chuanxiong (Radix ligusticum wallichii), Shudihuang (Cooked radix rehmanniae), Baizhu (Rhizoma atractylodes macrocephalae), Sharen (Fructus amomi), Gancao (Radix glycyrrhizae)
Taiyuan Decoction Zhang Jingyue, Jingyuequanshu, Ming Dynasty of China (1368 A.D. - 1644 A.D.) Tonifying kidney to prevent miscarriage Xiyangshen (Radix panacis ginseng), Danggui (Radix angelicae sinensis), Duzhong (Cortex eucommiae ulmoidis), Baishao (Radix albus paeoniae lactiflorae), Shudihuang (Cooked radix rehmanniae), Baizhu (Rhizoma atractylodes macrocephalae), Gancao (Radix glycyrrhizae), Chenpi (Percarpium citri reticulatae)
Shoutai Pill Zhang Xichun, Yixue -zhongzhongcanxilu, Qing Dynasty of China (1644 A.D. - 1912 A.D.) Tonifying kidney to prevent miscarriage Tusizi (Semen cuscutae), Banlangen (Radix loranthi seu visci), Xuduan (Radix dipsaci), Ejiao (Gelatinum corii asinii)
Andianertian Decoction Fu Qingzhu, Fuqingzhunükei, Qing Dynasty of China (1644 A.D. - 1912 A.D.) Nourishing spleen and tonifying kidney Xiyangshen (Radix panacis ginseng), Shudihuang (Cooked radix rehmanniae), Baizhu (Rhizoma atractylodes macrocephalae), Shanyao (Radix dioscoreae oppositae), Shanzhuyu (Fructus corni officinalis), Gancao (Radix glycyrrhizae), Duzhong (Cortex eucommiae ulmoidis), Gouqizi (Fructus lycii), Baibiandou (Semen dolichoris lablab)
Table 2 Classic prescriptions treating recurrent miscarriage
Reference Prescription Subject Sample content Function
Experiment group Controlgroup
Li et al. 199825 Bushenjianpi Recipe Rat 8 8 Ameliorate the luteal function
Cao et al. 200126 Yiqiyangxue Recipe Rat 6 (high dose)
8 (moderate dose) 7 (low dose)
8 Reduce the level of anti-trophoblastic cells and interleukin-2
Luo et al. 200327 Zhuyun No.3 Recipe Rat 16 13 Up-regulate the expression of progestin receptor;
Relax the uterine smooth muscle
Liu et al. 200728 Bushenyiqi Recipe Mice 6 6 Up-regulate the expression of progestin receptor
Liu et al. 200829 Shoutai Pill Mice 10 (high dose)
10 (moderate dose) 10 (low dose)
10 Down-regulate the expression of the protein of suppressor of cytokine signaling-1
Zeng 200930 Zhuyun No.3 Recipe Rat 10 (high dose)
10 (moderate dose)
10 (low dose)
10 Up-regulate the expression of cytotoxic T cell lymphocyte antigen, interleukin-4 and interleukin-10 at maternal-fetal interface
Cao et al. 201131 Bushenjianpi Recipe Rat 10 10 Increase the expression of leukemia inhibitory factor and improve the endometrial receptivity
Tan et al. 201332 Shoutai Pill Mice 10 10 Up-regulate the expression of annexin A in decidua
Li et al. 201433 Shoutai Pill Mice 10 (high dose)
10 (moderate dose)
10 (low dose)
10 Up-regulate the expression of transferrin;
Down-regulate the expression of heat shock protein 27
Li et al. 201534 Bushenjianpi Recipe Mice 17 17 Up-regulate the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and microvessel density in decidua
Table 3 Modern prescriptions for recurrent miscarriage
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