Please wait a minute...
1Traditional Medicine Research  2019, Vol. 4 Issue (3): 131-139    DOI: 10.12032/TMR20190403113
Special Issue on Persian Medicine     
The potential role of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) in prevention of threatened abortion via immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory abilities: a hypothesis
Malihe Tabarrai1, Mozhgan Mehriardestani2, Sharareh Hekmat2, Fatemeh Nejatbakhsh1, Fatemeh Moradi1,*()
1Department of Traditional Medicine, School of Persian Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
2Department of Traditional Pharmacy, School of Persian Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Download: HTML     PDF(465KB)
Export: BibTeX | EndNote (RIS)      


This paper proposed a hypothesis that grape (Vitis vinifera L.) could control threatened abortion due to its immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-contraction, hormonal and anti-stress activities.


According to the records of traditional Persian medicine literatures, Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) had the function of fetal protection. Grape and grape molasses could produce good blood humor, the basic substances and fluids found in human body. As mentioned in Makhzan al-Advieh (1670 A.D.-1749 A.D.) and Tohfat al-Momenin (16th century), the leaf extract of Grapevine could prevent abortion. Rhazes, a great scientist of the 9th century A.D., also poineted out that unripe grapes juice could fortify the stomach of pregnant women and prevent the fetus from abortion in Al-Hawi (854 A.D.-925 A.D.) .


Threatened abortion is a common problem in early pregnancy. This early vaginal bleeding happens in about 25% of pregnant women. The medications including progesterone, uterine muscle relaxant or human chorionic gonadotropin have essential effects in developing pregnancy, but the clinical data are insufficient to prescribe them. In recent decades, medicinal herbs can help us to present new treatments. Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) can protect the fetus from the perspective of Persian medicine. So, we hypothesize about the salutary effects of grape in miscarriage prevention. We found five standard expected mechanisms of grape to prevent threatened abortion: immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-contraction, hormonal and anti-stress activities. Grape reduces nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2, expression of nuclear factor κB and other pro-inflammatory cytokines like IL (Interleukin)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-α. It also elevates anti-inflammatory mediators and expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ. Grape polyphenols have a crucial role in fetus protection with high antioxidant power and other functions such as prevention of stress-triggered abortion with proanthocyanidins, or hormonal effects and inhibition of uterine contractions with resveratrol. So according to these studies, grape probably has effects on the immune and endocrine factors involved in threatened miscarriage.

Key wordsVitis vinifera L.      Grape      Oxidation      Immunomodulation      Inflammation      Abortion      Persian medicine     
Published: 04 May 2019
Fund:  This study has been partially supported by Tehran University of Medical Sciences (Grant No. 95-04-86-33380).
Corresponding Authors: Moradi Fatemeh     E-mail:
Cite this article:

Malihe Tabarrai, Mozhgan Mehriardestani, Sharareh Hekmat, Fatemeh Nejatbakhsh, Fatemeh Moradi. The potential role of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) in prevention of threatened abortion via immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory abilities: a hypothesis. 1Traditional Medicine Research, 2019, 4(3): 131-139. doi: 10.12032/TMR20190403113

URL:     OR

Figure 1 Expected mechanisms of grape to prevent threatened abortion
1.   Threatened Abortion. 2018/2019 ICD-10-CM Diagnosis Code O20.0. available at: .
2.   Cunningham GLK, Bloom SL, Spong CY, et al.Williams Obstetrics. 24nd Edition. New York: Mcgraw-Hill Professional Publishing. 2014. p. 354.
3.   Tulandi T, Al-Fozan HM. Spontaneous abortion: Management. Last updated: Aug 10, 2018. Available at: .
4.   Rahimi R, Ghiasi S, Azimi H, et al. A review of the herbal phosphodiesterase inhibitors; future perspective of new drugs. Cytokine 2010, 49: 123-129.
doi: 10.1016/j.cyto.2009.11.005 pmid: 20005737
5.   Njamen D, Mvondo MA, Djiogue S, et al. Phytotherapy and women's reproductive health: the Cameroonian perspective. Planta Medica 2013, 79: 600-611.
doi: 10.1055/s-0032-1328326 pmid: 23539352
6.   Zhu X, Qi X, Hao J, et al. Pattern of drug use during the first trimester among Chinese women: data from a population-based cohort study. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2010, 66: 511-518.
doi: 10.1007/s00228-009-0781-x pmid: 20127231
7.   Chuang CH, Chang PJ, Hsieh WS, et al. Chinese herbal medicine use in Taiwan during pregnancy and the postpartum period: a population-based cohort study. Int J Nurs Stud 2009, 46: 787-795.
doi: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2008.12.015 pmid: 19193377
8.   Kaingu CK, Oduma JA, Kanui TI.Practices of traditional birth attendants in Machakos District, kenya. J Ethnopharmacol 2011, 137: 495-502.
doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2011.05.044 pmid: 21679761
9.   Amusan OO, Dlamini PS, Msonthi JD, et al. Some herbal remedies from Manzini region of Swaziland. J Ethnopharmacol 2002, 79: 109-112.
doi: 10.1016/S0378-8741(01)00381-6 pmid: 11744303
10.   Nassiri-Asl M, Hosseinzadeh H.Review of the pharmacological effects of Vitis vinifera (Grape) and its bioactive constituents: an update. Phytother Res 2016, 30: 1392-1403.
doi: 10.1002/ptr.5644 pmid: 27196869
11.   Mukherjee S, Das SK, Vasudevan D.Dietary grapes (Vitis vinifera) feeding attenuates ethanol-induced oxidative stress in blood and modulates immune functions in mice. Indian J Biochem Biophys 2012, 49: 379-385.
doi: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2011.00999.x pmid: 23259325
12.   Vega CC, Reyes-Castro LA, Rodriguez-Gonzalez GL, et al. Resveratrol partially prevents oxidative stress and metabolic dysfunction in pregnant rats fed a low protein diet and their offspring. J Physiol 2016, 594:1483-1499.
doi: 10.1113/JP271543 pmid: 26662841
13.   Cheshti MA. Exir Azam (Great Elixir). Tehran: Iran University of Medical Science, Institute for Islamic and Complementary Medicine; 2007. p. 728-733. (Persian).
14.   Arzani MA. Tebb-e Akbari (Akbari Medicine). Iran, Qom: Jalal al-Din; 2008. p. 948-951. (Persian).
15.   Baladi A. Tadbir al-Hobali val-Atfal val-Sebyan. Tehran: Iran University of Medical Science, Institute for Islamic and Complementary Medicine; 2004. p. 128. (Arabic).
16.   Ibn Sina AAH (Avicenna). Al-Qanun fi-Teb (Canon of Medicine). Shams-od-Din E (editor). Beirut: Al-Aalamy lel-Matbooat Institute; 2005. Volume 3, p. 426-429. (Arabic).
17.   Aghili SMH. Makhzan-Al' Advieh. Shams MR (editor). Tehran: Tehran University publication; 2008, p. 357, 741. (Persian).
18.   Momen Tonekaboni SM. Tohfe Momenin. Qom, Iran: Noore Vahy; 2011. Volume 1, p. 320-321, 701. (Persian).
19.   Razi AM (Rhazes). Al-Hawi fit-Teb (The book of the collector of medicine; Liber Continent). Taaimi HK (editor). Beirut: Dar Ihyaa al-Turaath al-Arabi. 2002. Volume 21, p. 269. (Arabic).
20.   Abdoli A.Salt and miscarriage: Is there a link? Med Hypotheses 2016, 89: 58-62.
doi: 10.1016/j.mehy.2016.02.003 pmid: 26968910
21.   Monastra G, De Grazia S, Cilaker Micili S, et al. Immunomodulatory activities of alpha lipoic acid with a special focus on its efficacy in preventing miscarriage. Expert Opin Drug Deliv 2016, 13: 1695-1708.
doi: 10.1080/17425247.2016.1200556 pmid: 27292272
22.   Liu F, Luo SP.Effect of Chinese herbal treatment on Th1- and Th2-type cytokines, progesterone and beta-human chorionic gonadotropin in early pregnant women of threatened abortion. Chin J Integr Med 2009, 15: 353-358.
doi: 10.1007/s11655-009-0353-z
23.   Di Renzo GC, Giardina I, Clerici G, et al. Progesterone in normal and pathological pregnancy. Horm Mol Biol Clin Investig 2016, 27: 35-48.
doi: 10.1515/hmbci-2016-0038 pmid: 27662646
24.   Chernyshov VP, Vodyanik MA, Pisareva SP.Lack of soluble TNF-receptors in women with recurrent spontaneous abortion and possibility for its correction. Am J Reprod Immunol 2005, 54: 284-291.
doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0897.2005.00308.x pmid: 16212650
25.   Albrecht ED, Aberdeen GW, Pepe GJ.The role of estrogen in the maintenance of primate pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2000, 182: 432-438.
doi: 10.1016/S0002-9378(00)70235-3 pmid: 10694348
26.   Gurka G, Rocklin RE.Reproductive immunology. JAMA 1987, 258: 2983-2987.
doi: 10.1001/jama.1987.03400200189024
27.   Kastner P, Krust A, Turcotte B, et al. Two distinct estrogen-regulated promoters generate transcripts encoding the two functionally different human progesterone receptor forms A and B. EMBO J 1990, 9: 1603-1614.
doi: 10.1002/embj.1990.9.issue-5
28.   Gupta S, Agarwal A, Banerjee J, et al. The role of oxidative stress in spontaneous abortion and recurrent pregnancy loss: a systematic review. Obstet Gynecol Surv 2007, 62: 335-347.
doi: 10.1097/01.ogx.0000261644.89300.df pmid: 17425812
29.   Mure?an A, Alb C, Suciu S, et al. Studies on antioxidant effects of the red grapes seed extract from Vitis vinifera, Burgund Mare, Reca? in pregnant rats. Acta Physiologica Hungarica 2010, 97: 240-246.
doi: 10.1159/000045715 pmid: 20511134
30.   Nakhai-Pour HR, Broy P, Sheehy O, et al. Use of nonaspirin nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs during pregnancy and the risk of spontaneous abortion. CMAJ 2011, 183: 1713-1720.
doi: 10.1503/cmaj.110454 pmid: 3193112
31.   Paradisi R, Fabbri R, Battaglia C, et al. Nitric oxide levels in women with missed and threatened abortion: results of a pilot study. Fertil Steril 2007, 88: 744-748.
doi: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2006.12.026 pmid: 17349639
32.   Vaisanen-Tommiska M, Nuutila M, Aittomaki K, et al. Nitric oxide metabolites in cervical fluid during pregnancy: further evidence for the role of cervical nitric oxide in cervical ripening. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2003, 188: 779-785.
doi: 10.1067/mob.2003.161 pmid: 12634657
33.   Makino A, Nakanishi T, Sugiura-Ogasawara M, et al. No association of C677T methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and an endothelial nitric oxide synthase polymorphism with recurrent pregnancy loss. Am J Reprod Immunol 2004, 52: 60-66.
doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0897.2004.00187.x pmid: 15214944
34.   Clark DA, Banwatt D, Chaouat G.Effect of prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors on spontaneous and endotoxin-induced abortion in mice. J Reprod Immunol 1993, 24: 29-44.
doi: 10.1016/0165-0378(93)90034-F pmid: 8350304
35.   Li DK, Ferber JR, Odouli R, et al. Use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs during pregnancy. Use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs during pregnancy and the risk of miscarriage. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2018, 219: 275.e1-275.e8.
doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2018.06.002
36.   Chen SJ, Liu YL, Sytwu HK.Immunologic regulation in pregnancy: from mechanism to therapeutic strategy for immunomodulation. clinical and developmental immunology. Clin Dev Immunol 2012, 2012: 258391.
37.   Gorczynski RM, Hadidi S, Yu G, et al. The same immunoregulatory molecules contribute to successful pregnancy and transplantation. Am J Reprod Immunol 2002, 48: 18-26.
doi: 10.1034/j.1600-0897.2002.01094.x pmid: 12322892
38.   Arck PC, Merali F, Chaouat G, et al. Inhibition of immunoprotective CD8+ T cells as a basis for stress-triggered substance P-mediated abortion in mice. Cell Immunol 1996, 171: 226-230.
doi: 10.1006/cimm.1996.0197 pmid: 8806791
39.   Shi J, Yu J, Pohorly JE, et al. Polyphenolics in grape seeds-biochemistry and functionality. J Med Food 2003, 6: 291-299.
doi: 10.1089/109662003772519831 pmid: 14977436
40.   Xia EQ, Deng GF, Guo YJ, et al. Biological activities of polyphenols from grapes. Int J Mol Sci 2010, 11: 622-646.
doi: 10.3390/ijms11020622
41.   Roberts CL, Algert CS, Rickard KL, et al. Treatment of vaginal candidiasis for the prevention of preterm birth: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Syst Rev 2015, 4: 31.
doi: 10.1186/s13643-015-0018-2 pmid: 25874659
42.   Mart??n AR, Villegas I, La Casa C, et al. Resveratrol, a polyphenol found in grapes, suppresses oxidative damage and stimulates apoptosis during early colonic inflammation in rats. Biochem Pharmacol 2004, 67: 1399-1410.
doi: 10.1016/j.bcp.2003.12.024
43.   McCarty MF. Potential utility of natural polyphenols for reversing fat-induced insulin resistance. Med Hypotheses 2005, 64: 628-635.
doi: 10.1016/j.mehy.2003.11.042 pmid: 15617879
44.   Di Lorenzo C, Sangiovanni E, Fumagalli M, et al. Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory activity of raisins (Vitis vinifera L.) in human gastric epithelial cells: a comparative study. Int J Mol Sci 2016, 17: E1156 .
doi: 10.3390/ijms17071156 pmid: 4964528
45.   Campanholo V, Silva RM, Silva TD, et al. Oral concentrated grape juice suppresses expression of NF-kappa B, TNF-alpha and iNOS in experimentally induced colorectal carcinogenesis in Wistar rats. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2015, 16: 947-952.
doi: 10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.3.947 pmid: 25735387
46.   Gessner D, Ringseis R, Siebers M, et al. Inhibition of the pro‐inflammatory NF‐κB pathway by a grape seed and grape marc meal extract in intestinal epithelial cells. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr. 2012, 96: 1074-1083.
doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0396.2011.01222.x pmid: 21895782
47.   Terra X, Montagut G, Bustos M, et al. Grape-seed procyanidins prevent low-grade inflammation by modulating cytokine expression in rats fed a high-fat diet. J Nutr Biochem 2009, 20: 210-218.
doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2008.02.005 pmid: 18602813
48.   Mitjans M, del Campo J, Abajo C, et al. Immunomodulatory activity of a new family of antioxidants obtained from grape polyphenols. J Agric Food Chem 2004, 52: 7297-7299.
doi: 10.1021/jf049403z pmid: 15563210
49.   Kim YH, Kwon H-S, Kim DH, et al. Piceatannol, a stilbene present in grapes, attenuates dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis. Int Immunopharmacol 2008, 8: 1695-1702.
doi: 10.1016/j.intimp.2008.08.003 pmid: 18773974
50.   Zhou K, Raffoul JJ.Potential anticancer properties of grape antioxidants. J Oncol 2012, 2012: 803294.
doi: 10.1155/2012/803294 pmid: 22919383
51.   Surh YJ, Chun KS, Cha HH, et al. Molecular mechanisms underlying chemopreventive activities of anti-inflammatory phytochemicals: down-regulation of COX-2 and iNOS through suppression of NF-κB activation. Mutat Res 2001, 480: 243-268.
doi: 10.1016/S0027-5107(01)00183-X pmid: 11506818
52.   Jiang M, Wu Y-L, Li X, et al. Oligomeric proanthocyanidin derived from grape seeds inhibited NF-κB signaling in activated HSC: Involvement of JNK/ERK MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways. Biomed Pharmacother 2017, 93: 674-680.
doi: 10.1016/j.biopha.2017.06.105 pmid: 28692939
53.   Calabriso N, Massaro M, Scoditti E, et al. Red grape skin polyphenols blunt matrix metalloproteinase-2 and-9 activity and expression in cell models of vascular inflammation: protective role in degenerative and inflammatory diseases. Molecules 2016, 21: E1147.
doi: 10.3390/molecules21091147 pmid: 27589705
54.   Kaliora AC, Kountouri AM, Karathanos VT, et al. Effect of Greek raisins (Vitis vinifera L.) from different origins on gastric cancer cell growth. Nutr Cancer 2008, 60: 792-799.
doi: 10.1080/01635580802295776 pmid: 19005979
55.   Puglisi MJ, Vaishnav U, Shrestha S, et al. Raisins and additional walking have distinct effects on plasma lipids and inflammatory cytokines. Lipids Health Dis 2008, 7: 14.
doi: 10.1186/1476-511X-7-14 pmid: 18416823
56.   Kalfin R, Righi A, Del Rosso A, et al. Activin, a grape seed-derived proanthocyanidin extract, reduces plasma levels of oxidative stress and adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and E-selectin) in systemic sclerosis. Free Radic Res 2002, 36: 819-825.
doi: 10.1080/1071576021000005249
57.   Gessner D, Koch C, Romberg FJ, et al. The effect of grape seed and grape marc meal extract on milk performance and the expression of genes of endoplasmic reticulum stress and inflammation in the liver of dairy cows in early lactation. J Dairy Sci 2015, 98: 8856-8868.
doi: 10.3168/jds.2015-9478 pmid: 26409958
58.   Godichaud S, Si-Tayeb K, Augé N, et al. The grape-derived polyphenol resveratrol differentially affects epidermal and platelet-derived growth factor signaling in human liver myofibroblasts. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 2006, 38: 629-637.
doi: 10.1016/j.biocel.2005.11.001 pmid: 16343977
59.   Katar-Yildirim C, Tokmak A, Yildirim C, et al. Investigation of serum thiol/disulphide homeostasis in patients with abortus imminens. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2018, 31: 2457-2462.
doi: 10.1080/14767058.2017.1344962 pmid: 28629274
60.   Costantino M, Guaraldi C, Costantino D.Resolution of subchorionic hematoma and symptoms of threatened miscarriage using vaginal alpha lipoic acid or progesterone: clinical evidences. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2016, 20: 1656-1663.
pmid: 27160142
61.   Gil-Villa AM, Cardona-Maya W, Agarwal A, et al. Role of male factor in early recurrent embryo loss: do antioxidants have any effect? Fertil Steril 2009, 92: 565-571.
doi: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2008.07.1715 pmid: 18829003
62.   Karakaya S, El SN, Tas AA.Antioxidant activity of some foods containing phenolic compounds. Int J Food Sci Nutr 2001, 52: 501-508.
doi: 10.1080/713671810 pmid: 11570016
63.   Manchester LC, Tan DX, Reiter RJ, et al. High levels of melatonin in the seeds of edible plants: possible function in germ tissue protection. Life Sci 2000, 67: 3023-3029.
doi: 10.1016/S0024-3205(00)00896-1
64.   McCarty MF. Scavenging of peroxynitrite-derived radicals by flavonoids may support endothelial NO synthase activity, contributing to the vascular protection associated with high fruit and vegetable intakes. Med Hypotheses 2008, 70: 170-181.
doi: 10.1016/j.mehy.2005.09.058 pmid: 17825500
65.   Lesser MNR, Keen CL, Lanoue L.Reproductive and developmental outcomes, and influence on maternal and offspring tissue mineral concentrations, of (-)-epicatechin, (+)-catechin, and rutin ingestion prior to, and during pregnancy and lactation in C57BL/6J mice. Toxicol Rep 2015, 2: 443-449.
doi: 10.1016/j.toxrep.2015.01.003 pmid: 5598508
66.   Hsia SM, Wang KL, Wang PS.Effects of resveratrol, a grape polyphenol, on uterine contraction and Ca2+ mobilization in rats in vivo and in vitro. Endocrinology 2011, 152: 2090-2099.
doi: 10.1210/en.2010-1223
67.   Ernst M, Munkert J, Campa M, et al. Steroid 5β-reductase from leaves of Vitis vinifera: molecular cloning, expression, and modeling. J Agric Food Chem 2015, 63: 10112-10120.
doi: 10.1021/acs.jafc.5b04261
68.   Charbonneau A.Genomic organization of a human 5β-reductase and its pseudogene and substrate selectivity of the expressed enzyme. Biochim Biophys Acta 2001, 1517: 228-235.
doi: 10.1016/S0167-4781(00)00278-5 pmid: 11342103
69.   Gurbuz B, Yalti S, Ozden S, et al. High basal estradiol level and FSH/LH ratio in unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss. Arch Gynecol Obstet 2004, 270: 37-39.
doi: 10.1007/s00404-003-0490-0 pmid: 12756582
70.   Trout SW, Seifer DB.Do women with unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss have higher day 3 serum FSH and estradiol values? Fertil Steril 2000, 74: 335-337.
doi: 10.1016/S0015-0282(00)00625-7 pmid: 10927054
71.   Vaid M, Singh T, Prasad R, et al. Bioactive grape proanthocyanidins enhance immune reactivity in UV-irradiated skin through functional activation of dendritic cells in mice. Cancer Prev Res 2013, 6: 242-252.
doi: 10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-12-0320 pmid: 23321928
72.   Simonetti G, Santamaria AR, et al. Evaluation of anti-Candida activity of Vitis vinifera L. seed extracts obtained from wine and table cultivars. Biomed Res Int 2014, 2014: 127021.
doi: 10.1155/2014/127021 pmid: 4017847
73.   Nair N, Mahajan S, Chawda R, et al. Grape seed extract activates Th1 cells in vitro. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2002, 9: 470-476.
doi: 10.1128/CDLI.9.2.470-476.2002 pmid: 11874895
74.   Kwak-Kim J, Lee SK, Gilman-Sachs A.Elevated Th1/Th2 cell ratios in a pregnant woman with a history of RSA, secondary Sjogren's syndrome and rheumatoid arthritis complicated with one fetal demise of twin pregnancy. Am J Reprod Immunol 2007, 58: 325-329.
doi: 10.1111/aji.2007.58.issue-4
75.   Hudic I, Fatusic Z.Progesterone-induced blocking factor (PIBF) and Th(1)/Th(2) cytokine in women with threatened spontaneous abortion. J Perinat Med 2009, 37: 338-342.
doi: 10.1515/JPM.2009.061 pmid: 19290853
76.   Kalinka J, Radwan M.The impact of dydrogesterone supplementation on serum cytokine profile in women with threatened abortion. Am J Reprod Immunol 2006, 55: 115-121.
doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0897.2005.00333.x pmid: 16433830
77.   Kr?ncke KD, Fehsel K, Kolb-Bachofen V.Inducible nitric oxide synthase in human diseases. Clin Exp Immunol 1998, 113: 147-156
doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2249.1998.00648.x pmid: 9717962
78.   Zargaran A, Azizi A, Kordafshari G, et al. Rhazes contribution to the role of nutrition in preventive medicine and public health. Iran J Public Health 2014, 43: 1461-1462.
doi: 10.1017/S1049023X00049918 pmid: 26056653
[1] Ali Reza Derakhshan, Mahdi Yousefi, Sohrab Dehghan, Arman Zargaran, Mahmood Khodadoost. Digestion process and causes of indigestion based on Avicenna's view and modern medicine[J]. 1Traditional Medicine Research, 2019, 4(3): 140-147.
[2] Ke-Wu Zeng. Annual advances of integrative pharmacology in 2018[J]. 1Traditional Medicine Research, 2019, 4(2): 56-67.
[3] Shang-Jin Song, Ren-Jie Xu, Li-Juan Xiu, Xuan Liu, Xiao-Qiang Yue. Network pharmacology-based approach to investigate the mechanisms of Yiyi Fuzi Baijiang Powder in the treatment of malignant tumors[J]. 1Traditional Medicine Research, 2018, 3(6): 295-306.
[4] Wang Yi-Teng, Zhang Min, Liu Mei-Lun, Zhang Li-Ming, Chen Hong, Li Tan. Pseudolaric acid B extracted from the Chinese medicinal herb Cortex Pseudolaricis ameliorates DNFB-induced atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in BALB/c mice[J]. 1Traditional Medicine Research, 2017, 2(4): 169-175.