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1Traditional Medicine Research  2019, Vol. 4 Issue (3): 148-159    DOI: 10.12032/TMR20190412114
Special Issue on Persian Medicine     
Ethnobotanical and traditional uses, phytochemical constituents and biological activities of Eryngium species growing in Iran
Masoumeh Ghajarieh Sepanlou1, Mehran Mirabzadeh Ardakani1, Mannan Hajimahmoodi1,2,3, Sima Sadrai4, Gholam-Reza Amin5, Naficeh Sadeghi2, Seyedeh Nargess Sadati Lamardi1,*()
1Department of Traditional Pharmacy, School of Persian Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
2Drug and Food Control Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
3Persian Medicine and Pharmacy Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
4Pharmaceutical Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
5Pharmacognosy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
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Highlights

Eryngium is the largest genus of Apiaceae family. Some remarkable biological and pharmacological activities of these species have been demonstrated in present scientific studies, including antimicrobial, cytotoxic and anticancer, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antinociceptive activities as well as antioxidant, antidiabetic, anti-snake and anti-scorpion venom effects.

Traditionality

Eryngium genus is one of the medicinal herbs mentioned in several Persian medicine references by the name of “Qaracaane”. It contains 274 accepted species that are distributed all around the world especially in Europe, Africa, America and Australia. Ten species of Eryngium have been identified in Iran including E. caeruleum M.B. (syn: E. caucasicum Trautv.), E. creticum Lam., E. bungei Boiss., E. billardieri F. Delaroche. (syn: E. kotschyi Boiss.), E. glomeratum Lam. (syn: E. parviflorum Sm.), E. bornumulleri Nab., E. pyramidale Boiss. & Husson., E. noeanum Boiss., E. wanaturi Woron. (syn: E. woronowii Bordz.), and E. thyrsoideum Boiss. These species are distributed in all regions of Iran and especially are abundant in the northern provinces such as Gilan and Mazandaran.

Abstract

Objective: Eryngium with the 274 accepted species, is the largest genus of Apiaceae family which are distributed all over the world and have been used in traditional remedies to manage various ailments in different nations. Ten species of Eryngium have been identified in Iran including E. caeruleum M.B. (syn: E. caucasicum Trautv.), E. creticum Lam., E. bungei Boiss., E. billardieri F. Delaroche. (syn: E. kotschyi Boiss.), E. glomeratum Lam. (syn: E. parviflorum Sm.), E. bornumulleri Nab., E. pyramidale Boiss. & Husson., E. noeanum Boiss., E. wanaturi Woron. (syn: E. woronowii Bordz.), and E. thyrsoideum Boiss. The aim of the present research is to review pharmacological activity, and phytochemical constituents as well as ethnobotany and traditional uses of Iranian species of Eryngium. Materials and methods: Electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct (ISI Web of Knowledge) and Embase library were comprehensively searched for research on Eryngium. The search period was from 1966 to October 2018. The related articles were selected according to the inclusion and exclusion criterias in our study. Results: A total of 57 papers were enrolled in analyses. The findings showed that Iranian species of Eryngium, had a noticeable diverse of traditional medicinal uses and also broad range of pharmacological activities as well as various phytochemical compounds. Some remarkable biological and pharmacological activities of these species have been demonstrated in present scientific studies, including antimicrobial, cytotoxic and anticancer, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antinociceptive activities as well as antioxidant, antidiabetic, anti-snake and anti-scorpion venom effects. Conclusion: Iranian Eryngium species have enormous potential for prospective preparation of herbal medicinal products and are good candidates for discovering new drugs.



Key words Eryngium      Iranian species      Pharmacological activities      Phytochemical compositions      Traditional and ethnopharmacological uses     
Published: 04 May 2019
Corresponding Authors: Nargess Sadati Lamardi Seyedeh     E-mail: n_sadati@sina.tums.ac.ir
Cite this article:

Masoumeh Ghajarieh Sepanlou, Mehran Mirabzadeh Ardakani, Mannan Hajimahmoodi, Sima Sadrai, Gholam-Reza Amin, Naficeh Sadeghi, Seyedeh Nargess Sadati Lamardi. Ethnobotanical and traditional uses, phytochemical constituents and biological activities of Eryngium species growing in Iran. 1Traditional Medicine Research, 2019, 4(3): 148-159. doi: 10.12032/TMR20190412114

URL:

https://www.tmrjournals.com/tmr/EN/10.12032/TMR20190412114     OR     https://www.tmrjournals.com/tmr/EN/Y2019/V4/I3/148

Eryngium species Part used Method of extraction/ yield (%) The main components
Eryngium caeruleum M.B. (syn: Eryngium caucasicum Trautv.) Aerial parts- pre-flowering stage Hydrodistillation (3 h) Cyclobuta, dicyclooctene, hexadecahydro (47.03%), n-hexadecanoic acid (11.16%), linoleic (5.41%), limonene (4.23%), cis-α-bisabolene (2.14%) [23].
Arial parts-during the flowering stage Hydrodistillation (3 h)/ 0.3 Limonene (60.5%) and δ-3-carene (13.0%) [21]
Aerial parts Hydrodistillation (5 h)/ 0.65 Limonene (56.7%), β-sesquiphellandrene (8.9%), α-pinene (6.5%) and δ-2-carene (5.9%) [28]
Leaves and stems Hydrodistillation (4 h) Vegetative stages in May (leaves):
Coastal plants,
3-Hexyne (46.1%), β-sesquiphellandrene (20.4%) and limonene (10.7%)
Hill slope plants,
5-Methyl-2-pyrimidone (53.4%), limonene (12.8%) and 6-acetoxy-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrrolizin (12.4%) [24]
Vegetative phase in June (Leaves):
Coastal plants,
4 (5)-Acetyl-1H-imidazole (63.6%), thymol (13.9%) and β-sesquiphellandrene (10.0%)
Hill slope plant,
β-Sesquiphellandrene (44.3%), limonene (20.1%) and trans-β-farnesene (14.1%)
Generative phase in July (stem):
Coastal plants,
5-Methyl-2-pyrimidone (74.9%), 4-(1,5-dimethylhex- 4-enyl) cyclohex-2-enone (15.8%) and β-sesquiphellandrene (2.9%)
Hill slope plant,
β-Sesquiphellandrene (25.8%), 5-methyl-2-pyrimidone (18.7%) and limonene (11.8%)
E.billardieri (syn. E. kotschyi Boiss.) Aerial parts (at full flowering stage) Hydrodistillation (4 h)/ 0.6 α-Muurolene (42.0%), β-gurjunene (17.0%), δ-cadinene (6.2%) and valencene (5.7%) [30]
E.bungei Boiss. Seed Hydrodistillation (4 h) Chrysanthenyl acetate (20.0%), spathulenol (17.2%), endo-isofenchol (10.8%) and α-pinene (5.1%) [27]
Aerial parts Hydrodistillation (5 h)/ 0.98 Cumin alcohol (55.3%), terpinolene (14.6%), carvacrol (8.9%) and limonene (7.5%) [26]
Aerial parts (flowering stage) Hydrodistillation (3.5 h)/ 0.18 Borneol (44.4%), isobornyl formate (14.7%), isoborneol (9.2%), 1,8-cineol (9.1%) and camphor (7.9 %) [25]
Microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (at 700 W for 50 min) Yomogi alcohol (14.3%), terpinolene (14.2%), cumin alcohol (13.6%), borneol (12.4%), Z-β-ocimene (10.6%) and sabinene (6.2%)
Headspace SPME GC-MS analysis Borneol (22.1%), camphor (11.1%), terpinolene (8.1%), carvacrol (7.5%) and yomogi alcohol (5.2%)
Aerial parts Hydrodistillation (5 h)/ 0.63 P-cymen-7-ol (55.3%), terpinolene (14.6%), carvacrol (8.9%), limonene (7.5%), sabinene (3.9%) [29]
E. creticum Lam. Stems (flowering stage) Hydrodistillation (2-3.5 h)/0.18 Bornyl acetate (28.4%), camphor (17.8%), α-pinene (12.1%), germacrene D (9.4%), borneol (8.6%) and α-thujene (4.2%) [13]
Aerial parts (flowering stage) Direct thermal desorption method Hexanal (52.9%), heptanal (13.9%), 3,4-dimethylhex-1-ene (8.95%), 2-butylfuran (2.79%), α-pinene (2.5%) [46]
E. glomeratum L. Aerial parts
(flowering stage)
Hydrodistillation (4 h)/0.73 Cis-chrysanthenyl acetate (27.3%), 14-hydroxy-a-muurolene (19.6%), α-bisabolol (12%), germacrene D (4.6%), α-pinene (4.2%) and β-eudesmol (2.9%) [1]
Roots (flowering stage) Hydrodistillation (4 h)/0.11 β-Oplopenone (20%), di epicedrenoxide (15.9%), γ-selinene (15.6%), germacrene D (5.1%), 9-hydroxyisolongifolene (4.1%), isolongifolene epoxide (3.4%) and c-eudesmol (3.4%) [1]
Table 1 Essential oil analysis of Eryngium species growing in Iran
Figure 1 Chemical structures of essential oil analysis reported from Eryngium species growing in Iran

(1)Yomogi alcohol, (2) N-hexadecanoic acid, (3) 3-Hexyne, (4) 4-(1,5-Dimethylhex-4-enyl) cyclohex-2-enone, (5) Hexanal, (6) Heptanal, (7) 3,4-Dimethylhex-1-ene, (8) Limonene, (9) (Z)-β-ocimene, (10) α-Pinene, (11) Sabinene, (12) Terpinolene, (13) δ-3-Carene, (14) α-Thujene, (15) Borneol, (16) Isoborneol, (17) Endo-isofenchol, (18) Carvacrol, (19) Thymol, (20) Cumin alcohol (ρ-Cymen-7-ol), (21) 1,8-Cineole, (22) Camphor, (23) Chrysanthenyl acetate, (24) Isobornyl formate, (25) Bornyl acetate, (26) δ-Cadinene, (27) Trans-β-farnesene, (28) β-Sesquiphellandrene, (29) Cis-α-bisabolene, (30) α-Muurolene, (31) 14-Hydroxy-α-muurolene, (32) β-Gurjunene, (33) Valencene, (34) Germacrene D, (35) γ-Selinene, (36) Spathulenol, (37) α-Bisabolol, (38) β-Eudesmol, (39) γ-Eudesmol, (40) 9-Hydroxy isolongifolene, (41) 4-(1, 5-Dimethylhex-4-enyl) cyclohex-2-enone, (42) β-Oplopenone, (43) Di-epi-cedrenoxide, (44) Isolongifolene epoxide, (45) 5-Methyl-2-pyrimidone, (46) 6-Acetoxy-2, 3-dihydro-1H-pyrrolizin, (47) 4 (5)-Acetyl-1H-imidazole, (48) 2-Butylfuran.

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