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1Traditional Medicine Research  2019, Vol. 4 Issue (1): 25-32    DOI: 10.12032/TMR201915096
Modernization of Traditional Medicine     
The effect of hot intermittent cupping on pain, stiffness and disability of patients with knee osteoarthritis
Amir Poorgheysar1, Moosa Sajjadi2,*(), Habib Shareinia2, Moghadam Hosein Mohammdzadeh3, Amin Nouroozi1
1Nursing Department, Student Research Committee, Gonabad University of Medical Sciences, Gonabad, Iran.
2Department of Medical-Surgical Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Social Development & Health Promotion Research Center, Gonabad University of Medical Sciences, Gonabad, Iran. ;
3School of Medicine, Gonabad University of Medical Sciences, Gonabad, Iran.
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Highlights

This study shows that cupping therapy is effective in improving disability, stiffness and pain in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

Editor’s Summary

Taking into account the side effects and complications resulted from many anti-inflammatory chemical drugs, cupping therapy is prone to become an effective and safe way for patients with knee osteoarthritis.

Abstract

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hot intermittent cupping on pain, stiffness and inability of patients with knee osteoarthritis (KO). Methods: The present study was a clinical trial, which was performed on 38 patients with KO referring to Gonabad Rheumatology Specialty Clinic. Based on permutation block method, the research units were divided into cupping therapy and control groups. For the cupping therapy group, four sessions of cupping therapy were performed every four days. To collect data, the form of demographic information, Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and the Western Ontario and McMaster (WOMAC) osteoarthritis scale were used, and the data were analyzed by SPSS software v. 16 using descriptive statistics and independent t-test, paired t-test, Chi-square test and Fishers exact test with a significance level of P < 0.05. Results: Findings showed that there was no significant difference between the cupping therapy and control groups in terms of demographic characteristics and they were homogeneous. Findings indicated that, based on VAS, the mean pain intensity in the left (P < 0.001) and the right knees (P < 0.001), as well as based on WOMAC, stiffness (P = 0.006), pain intensity (P < 0.001) and disability (P < 0.001) in the cupping therapy group significantly decreased compared to the control group. Conclusion: Findings showed that hot intermittent cupping therapy reduced the pain intensity, stiffness and disability in patients with KO.



Key wordsDisability evaluation      Hot intermittent cupping therapy      Knee osteoarthritis      Pain      Stiffness     
Published: 04 January 2019
Corresponding Authors: Sajjadi Moosa     E-mail: sajjadi1975@gmail.com
Cite this article:

Amir Poorgheysar, Moosa Sajjadi, Habib Shareinia, Moghadam Hosein Mohammdzadeh, Amin Nouroozi. The effect of hot intermittent cupping on pain, stiffness and disability of patients with knee osteoarthritis. 1Traditional Medicine Research, 2019, 4(1): 25-32. doi: 10.12032/TMR201915096

URL:

https://www.tmrjournals.com/tmr/EN/10.12032/TMR201915096     OR     https://www.tmrjournals.com/tmr/EN/Y2019/V4/I1/25

Cupping therapy group
(Mean ± SD)
Control group
(Mean ± SD)
P t
Age (y) 58 ± 7.59 58.05 ± 8.10 0.98 -0.02
Weight (kg) 75.72 ± 7.12 78.66 ± 6.33 0.19 -1.31
Height (cm) 168.94 ± 9.99 170.61 ± 10.03 0.62 -0.49
Osteoarthritis diagnosis date (year) 2.38 ± 0.5 2.44 ± 0.51 0.74 -0.32
Number (%) Number (%) P Chi square
Gender Male 7 (38.9) 8 (44.4) 0.73 0.11
Female 11 (61.1) 10 (55.6)
Marital status Married 15 (83.3) 18 (100) 0.07
Widowed 3 (16.7) 0 (0.00)
Education High school degree 10 (55.6) 6 (33.3) 0.36 2.00
Diploma 6 (33.3) 10 (55.6)
Bachelor of science 2 (11.1) 2 (11.1)
Job Public 1 (5.6) 2 (11.1) 0.92 0.47
Self-employed 3 (16.7) 3 (16.7)
Retired 4 (22.2) 3 (16.7)
House keeper 10 (55.6) 10 (55.6)
Physical activity Very much 2 (11.1) 2 (11.1) 0.98 1.77
Much 7 (38.9) 6 (33.3)
Average 8 (44.4) 9 (50.0)
Low 1 (5.6) 1 (5.6)
Complementary insurance + 11 (61.1) 7 (38.9) 0.18 2.62
- 7 (38.9) 11 (61.1)
Smoking + 4 (22.2) 4 (22.2) 1.00 > 0.001
- 14 (77.8) 14 (77.8)
Previous disease Nervous system 4 (22.2) 1 (5.6) 0.058 0.11
Cardiovascular system 2 (11.1) 4 (22.2)
Respiratory system 6 (33.3) 2 (11.1)
Digestive system 3 (16.7) 2 (11.1)
Other 3 (16.7) 3 (16.7)
Drugs used NSAID + 5 (27.8) 8 (44.4) 0.29 1.08
- 13 (72.2) 10 (55.6)
Nutritional supplements + 4 (22.2) 5 (27.8) 0.70 0.14
- 14 (77.8) 13 (72.2)
Antioxidants + 1 (5.6) 3 (16.7) 0.28 1.12
- 17 (94.4) 15 (83.3)
Analgesic + 10 (55.6) 8 (44.4) 0.50 0.44
- 8 (44.4) 10 (55.6)
Other + 2 (11.1) 2 (11.1) 1.00 > 0.001
- 16 (88.9) 16 (88.9)
Table 1 Comparison of the demographic characteristics in the two groups
Groups Variable Before intervention (Mean ± SD) After intervention (Mean ± SD) Paired t-test Independent t-test (after intervention)
P t P t
Cupping therapy group Right knee 8.27 ± 2.94 5.22 ± 1.35 P < 0.001 t = 5.94 P < 0.001 t = -4.40
Left knee 7.22 ± 1.16 5.05 ± 0.99 P < 0.001 t = 14.86 P < 0.001 t = -4.81
Control group Right knee 7.50 ± 1.09 7.16 ± 1.29 P = 0.01 t =2.91
Left knee 7.50 ± 1.61 7.22 ± 1.62 P = 0.02 t =2.55
Table 2 Comparison of pain intensity before and after the intervention in two groups
Groups Variable Before intervention (Mean ± SD) After intervention (Mean± SD) Paired t-test
P t
Cupping therapy group Pain 31.61 ± 4.17 23.55 ± 4.70 P < 0.001 t = 16.06
Stiffness 6.83 ± 0.98 4.49 ± 0.93 P < 0.001 t = 11.84
Disability 57.94 ± 7.57 41.94 ± 6.67 P < 0.001 t = 22.55
Control group Pain 28.38 ± 3.74 27.72 ± 3.57 P < 0.001 t = 2.91
Stiffness 6.11 ± 1.45 6.05 ± 1.30 P = 0.33 t = 1.00
Disability 52.33 ± 7.57 50.77 ± 7.22 P < 0.001 t = 7.16
Before intervention After intervention
P t P t
Independent t-test Pain P = 0.02 t = 2.43 P = 0.005 t = -2.99
Stiffness P = 0.09 t = 1.74 P = 0.006 t = -2.93
Disability P = 0.03 t = 2.22 P = 0.001 t = -3.81
Table 3 Comparison of the mean score of the osteoarthritis before and after the intervention in two groups
Variable Cupping therapy zgroup Control group Independent t-test
(Mean ± SD) (Mean ± SD) P t
Pain 8.05 ± 2.12 0.66 ± 0.48 P < 0.001 t = 14.36
Disability 16.00 ± 3.00 1.55 ± 0.92 P < 0.001 t = 19.49
Table 4 Comparison of mean differences of pain and disability scores in two groups
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