1Traditional Medicine Research
(TMR) is a peer-reviewed open access journal managed by TMR Publishing Group. TMR is dedicated to protecting and developing all types of traditional medicines, including traditional Chinese medicine, Persian medicine, Ayurveda, Siddha, minority medicine, etc., using the latest achievements in modern science. TMR emphasizes the historical origin and developmental pipeline of the research objective and encourages authors to analyze the theoretical significance underlying a study and the application of traditional medicine in clinical practice. To focus on a specific area, each issue is published as a special issue. In addition to editorial, review, article and letter, the following topics are welcome. News column follows important current medical, policy, and archaeological events in the field of traditional medicine, and the comment column discusses the progress of latest and salient research.
The current study applied network pharmacology analysis and molecular docking method to study the potential mechanisms of Chai-Ling decoction (CLD), an empirical formula derived from the classic ancient prescription Xiao-Chai-Hu (XCH) decoction and Wu-Ling-San (WLS), on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Traditionality The classic ancient prescription XCH and WLS decoctions originated from the ancient book of Chinese medicine Shang Han Za Bing Lun (Treatise on Cold Damage Disorders, 200-210 C.E.), written by Zhang Zhongjing. Previous studies have demonstrated that XCH can alleviate fever, cough, and fatigue, which were the primary clinical outcomes of COVID-19. Besides, WLS decoction has shown apparent effects on attenuating gastrointestinal symptoms. CLD, derived from a modification of XCH and WLS decoctions, is used to treat the early-stage of COVID-19 in the Prevention and Treatment Guidelines of Damp-Heat Syndrome of “Taiyin” Lung (respiratory system in the theory of traditional Chinese medicine) Epidemic Disease (coronavirus pneumonia). However, the mechanisms of action of CLD in COVID-19 remain unclear.
Background: Chai-Ling decoction (CLD), derived from a modification of Xiao-Chai-Hu (XCH) decoction and Wu-Ling-San (WLS) decoction, has been used to treat the early-stage of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the mechanisms of CLD in COVID-19 remain unknown. In this study, the potential mechanisms of CLD in COVID-19 were preliminarily investigated based on network pharmacology and molecular docking method. Methods: Initially, the active components and targets of CLD were screened based on Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform and PharmMapper database. The targets of COVID-19 were obtained from GeneCards database. The protein-protein interaction network was established using STRING database to analyze the key targets. Gene Oncology (GO) analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis were also conducted to evaluate the pathways related to the targets of CLD on COVID-19. Moreover, the compound-target-pathway network was established using Cytoscape 3.2.7. Subsequently, the molecular docking method was performed to select the active compounds with high binding affinity on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which is the key target of SARS-CoV-2 in entering target cells. The possible binding sites were also visualized by a three-dimensional graph. Results: Network pharmacology analysis showed that there were 106 active components and 160 targets of CLD. Additionally, 251 targets related to COVID-19 were identified, and 24 candidates of CLD on COVID-19 were selected. A total of 283 GO terms of CLD on COVID-19 were identified, and 181 pathways were screened based on GO and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analyses. CLD might alleviate the inflammatory response and improve lung injury to treat COVID-19 through interleukin 17 signaling, T helper cell 17 differentiation, tumor necrosis factor signaling, and hypoxia inducible factor-1 signaling. Besides, molecular docking indicated that beta-sitosterol, kaempferol, and stigmasterol were the top three candidates in CLD with the highest affinity to SARS-CoV-2 and ACE2. Conclusion: Our study identifies the potential mechanisms of CLD on COVID-19 and beta-sitosterol, kaempferol, and stigmasterol may be the key compounds that exert antiviral effects against SARS-CoV-2.
Lu Yang, Yu-Ting Li, Jing Miao, Li Wang, Hui Fu, Qin Li, Wei-Bo Wen, Zhai-Yi Zhang, Rui-Wen Song, Xiang-Guo Liu, Hong-Wu Wang, Huan-Tian Cui
By modulating cerebrovascular function, PNS can reduce the deposition of amyloid plaques and exhibit the role of neuroprotection in a preventive strategy, possibly via targeting the vascular related proteins such as platelet activating factor receptor and vasopressin V1a receptor.
Panax notoginseng is known as Sanqi in Chinese and it is described to removing blood stasis (poor blood circulation) for promoting tissue regeneration in traditional Chinese medicine. Physician Li Shizhen stated in Bencao Gangmu (Compendium of Materia Medica, composed during the year of 1552 to 1578) that "Sanqi is a herb referred to the blood phase of the yang-ming meridian and jue-yin meridians (two of the twelve meridians in traditional Chinese medicine that are mainly used to run energy and blood, connect internal and external organs, and communicate with each other), it can be used in all diseases related with vascular". Panax notoginseng saponins is the main active compound extracted from the root of Panax notoginseng, which can promote blood circulation and angiogenesis. A bench of clinical trials has been administrated for the treatment of panax notoginseng saponins in hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage and ischemic stroke.
Background: Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) is extracted from Sanqi (Panax notoginseng), which is a valuable herb and has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of cerebrovascular diseases and pain. PNS has been proved to promote blood circulation and angiogenesis by inhibiting platelet aggregation. In our previous study, PNS accompanied with geniposide can prevent Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, the efficacy of PNS and its potential mechanism in AD remain unclear. Methods: Amyloid precursor protein/presenilin-1 (APP/PS1) transgenic (Tg) mice were used as AD-like animal models. Wild-type mice and APP/PS1 transgenic were administrated with saline solution while mice in PNS treatment group were administrated with PNS at a dosage of 17 mg/kg/day for three months. Morris water maze (MWM) was applied to evaluate the spatial learning and memory and step-down test was used to evaluate the cognitive function. 1% Thioflavin-S staining was used to calculate the average number amyloid plaques in cortex and hippocampus. CD31 staining was detected to observe the density of cerebrovascular in hippocampus areas and CD105 staining was further detected to evaluate angiogenesis. Laser Doppler PeriFlux 5000 was further measured the change of cerebrovascular blood flow. ChemDraw was used to draw the molecular structures of five main ingredients of PNS. AlzPlatform were used to estimate the potential targets of PNS. Results: By a bench of behavioral tests, PNS showed a better tendency in proving cognitive functions. In addition, the amyloid plaques in both cortex and hippocampus were significantly reduced after PNS intervention (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001 respectively). Furthermore, the density of cerebrovascular in the hippocampus areas was increased under PNS administration (P < 0.001), which accompanied with angiogenesis in dentate gyrus areas and cerebrovascular blood flow promotion (P < 0.05). By AlzPlatform docking serve, we screened five major ingredients of PNS—R1, Rd, Rb1, Re and Rg1. These screening data suggested that vascular related proteins could be the one of potential targets of PNS, such as platelet activating factor receptor and vasopressin V1a receptor. Conclusion: By modulating cerebrovascular function, PNS can reduce the deposition of amyloid plaques and exhibit the role of neuroprotection in a preventive strategy.
In this study, researchers reviewed the pharmacological effects of Artemisia absinthium Linn.(AAL),an herbal medicine from the Asteraceae family used for solving digestive problems, specifically parasites and intestinal worms, by concentrating on the gastrointestinal (GI) effects. Then the traditional Persian medicine (TPM) applications of this herb were compared to recent studies.
ALL, commonly known as wormwood and absinthe, is a species of Artemisia genus that belongs to Asteraceae. The name ALL is termed from the ancient Greek Artemisia, which means “the Goddess” and absinthium, which means “unenjoyable” or “without sweetness.” The name “wormwood” refers to the plant’s anthelmintic effects, which were recognized by the ancient Egyptians. The first documented medical use of wormwood dates back to the Ebers Papyrus, an ancient Egyptian medical text (1552 B.C.E.), which is recognized as the oldest preserved medical document. Wormwood syrup exhibits a hot and dry temperament and has been repeatedly used for the treatment of digestive diseases. TPM textbooks such as Avicenna's Canon of Medicine, Kholase-Al-Hekmat(Summary of Wisdom)by Aghili Khorasani, and Al-Shamil fi al-Tibb(Comprehensive Medicine)by Ibn al-Nafis have reported numerous GI indications for wormwood. Pharmacological studies have also confirmed a number of TPM GI benefits of wormwood.
One of the most extensively used herbs in traditional Persian medicine (TPM) used in the treatment of gastrointestinal (GI) disorders, is the plant Artemisia absinthium Linn.(AAL). It also has a wide range of activities such as analgesic and anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-fungal, and anti-bacterial activities, hepatoprotective, and neuroprotective activities in addition to having gastroprotective effects. This article is a review comparing TPM resources with new medicines. This review investigates this herb in major TPM sources and strives to extrapolate the exact function it serves in the digestive tract and compares the collected information on the function of AAL with information found in new medical resource databases such as ISI, Pubmed, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Scientific Information Database. AAL from the Asteraceae family of TPM, known as Afsentin, was used in the treatment of GI weaknesses, stomach pains, swellings, intestinal parasites, diarrhea, and vomiting. AAL increased appetite, so it was used for insect repellents and insecticide. Recent studies have indicated that the effects of this plant improved the symptoms of Crohn's disease and played a role in reducing inflammatory factors. It also has strong anti-parasitic, anti-insect, hepatoprotective, and antioxidant effects. Given the widespread use of AAL as a traditional medicine currently in use in different countries, particularly in the treatment of GI diseases, further clinical studies that focus on the therapeutic qualities of this plant are required in the future.
The purpose of this paper is to review the medical system and measures of prevention and control instituted for the plague that occurred during the late Ming Dynasty (1551–1644 C.E.), with the aim of providing guidance for the prevention and control of plague in the present day.
Early records of plague in Chinese medicine can be traced back to the Shang Dynasty (1600–1046 B.C.E). In the late Eastern Han Dynasty (184–220 C.E.), natural disasters and wars led to a wide breakout of plague. Deeply touched by the suffering of people under the plague, the famous doctor Zhang Zhongjing (150–219 C.E.) recorded many classical ancient prescriptions in his medical monograph Shanghanlun (Treatise on Exogenous Febrile Disease) (219 C.E.). Subsequently, as a result of imperial corruption, natural disasters, and frequent wars, the plague that occurred during the late Ming Dynasty was the second greatest plague in Chinese history after the outbreak of plague at the end of the Han Dynasty. During the many struggles that occurred during the plague, a group of great medical experts emerged and devised a series of prevention and control measures, which have the potential to play a key role in the prevention and control of plague today.
The plague of the late Ming Dynasty (1551–1644 C.E.) was long lasting, affected a wide range of the population, and had serious consequences. The purpose of this study is to review the medical system in place at the time and the measures instituted to prevent and control the plague during the late Ming Dynasty. Information on the history of the Ming Dynasty (1368–1644 C.E.), local chronicles, and related research literature were consulted and analyzed in terms of duration, geographical area, and other dimensions of the epidemic. Because of the abnormal climate, wide range of natural disasters, and the impact of war, the epidemic spread over a wide area during the late Ming Dynasty. The government’s epidemic prevention measures were affected by war and other factors, resulting in poor control of the outbreak. However, in terms of the medical system in place during the Ming Dynasty, some of the thinking and methods of prevention and control of the plague were historical and progressive. Some outstanding physicians such as Wu Youke (1582–1652 C.E.) appeared during this period. His theory of plague prevention and control had a profound influence on the formation and development of pestilence deterrence in later generations. In the late Ming Dynasty, rich experiences and measures of prevention and control were accumulated in the struggle against the plague. These methods and experiences also have a significant, positive guiding influence on the prevention and control of plague in the present day.
Qiu-Hua Li, Yue-Hai Ma, Ning Wang, Ying Hu, Zhao-Zhe Liu