1Traditional Medicine Research
(TMR) is a peer-reviewed open access journal managed by TMR Publishing Group. TMR is dedicated to protecting and developing all types of traditional medicines, including traditional Chinese medicine, Persian medicine, Ayurveda, Siddha, minority medicine, etc., using the latest achievements in modern science. TMR emphasizes the historical origin and developmental pipeline of the research objective and encourages authors to analyze the theoretical significance underlying a study and the application of traditional medicine in clinical practice. To focus on a specific area, each issue is published as a special issue. In addition to editorial, review, article and letter, the following topics are welcome. News column follows important current medical, policy, and archaeological events in the field of traditional medicine, and the comment column discusses the progress of latest and salient research.
This study summarizes the current progress in antiaging research with respect to both modern medicine and traditional Chinese medicine and demonstrates that the antiaging properties of these medicines are effective based on pharmacological experiments and clinical applications.
The earliest Chinese medicine book, Huangdi Neijing (Yellow Emperor's Canon of Internal Classic; 221 B.C.E.–220 C.E.), recorded the process of human aging approximately 2,000 years ago. More than 1,700 years ago, the oldest traditional Chinese materia medica, Shennong Bencaojing (Shennong’s Classic of Materia Medica; 25–220 C.E.), clarified the use of traditional Chinese medicines such as Renshen (Ginseng radix et rhizoma) and Huangqi (Astragali radix) in improving health and prolonging lifespan. In addition, certain physical activities and therapies based on the theory of traditional Chinese medicine have been developed to maintain health, and most of these activities and therapies have been proved to be effective through thousands of years of clinical practice and are being used to date.
Delaying the onset of aging is considered an important tool for dealing with the global crisis of the aging population. Accordingly, several antiaging studies have been conducted using strategies of modern medicine and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). In this review, we summarize the current state of antiaging research related to both modern medicine and TCM and provide suggestions for further research. Various theories related to the aging process have been proposed, including the free radical theory, mitochondrial DNA damage theory, telomere theory, cross-linking theory, and intestinal flora theory, and a number of antiaging chemical treatments have been developed using modern medicine. These theories and achievements have resulted in major advancements in antiaging research. TCM is based on practical experience and has a long history with unique advantages in antiaging research. Some antiaging practices such as moderate diet consumption, acupuncture, Tai Chi (a traditional Chinese martial art that can relax the nerves to slow down the aging process), and Wuqin Xi (a traditional Chinese exercise to strengthen the body) have been adopted to maintain health. Several TCMs and prescriptions, particularly those related to medicine food homology, have been used in antiaging treatment, and their antiaging properties have been demonstrated to be effective based on pharmacological experiments and clinical applications.
The present study collected the clinical researches regarding acupuncture for postoperative nausea and vomiting in the recent decade and explored the selection rules based on data mining technology, to give scientific guide and evidence to clinical researchers.
The acupoints selection principles for nausea and vomiting was initially documented in the book Huangdi Neijing (Yellow Emperor's Canon of Internal Classic) (221 B.C.E.–220 C.E.), valuably inspiring doctors of later generations. As revealed from the book Zhenjiu Jiayi Jing (A-B Classic of Acupuncture and Moxibustion) of Mi Huangpu in 282 C.E., nausea and vomiting displayed associations with the Zangfu (the general name of human internal organs in traditional Chinese medicine theory) and 18 core acupoints to treat nausea and vomiting were developed. In the 1950s, JF Xu adopted acupuncture at Neiguan (PC 6), Tianshu (ST 25) and chewed ginger to achieve nausea and vomiting treatment. In 1997, National Institutes of Health confirmed the role of acupuncture to treat nausea and vomiting. The mechanism of acupuncture may display associations with the enhancing effect on gastric motility and suppressing effect on temporary lower esophageal sphincter relaxation. The acupoints selection refers to the fundamental step of the effect, whereas the selection rules for postoperative nausea and vomiting remain unclear.
Background: Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) refers to a problem commonly occurring after surgery. Acupuncture is considered a critical complementary alternative therapy for PONV. The acupoints selection critically determines the efficacy of acupuncture, whereas the selection rules remain unclear. The objective of the present study was to delve into the principles of acupoints selection for PONV using data mining technology. Methods: The clinical trials assessing the acupuncture effect for PONV were searched with the use of computer in PubMed, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Chinese Biomedical Database; the time span was confined as 2009–2019. The database of acupuncture prescriptions for PONV was built using Excel 2016; the description and association were analyzed by IBM SPSS modeler 18. Result: Eighty-three relevant literatures were screened out. The number of specific acupoints took up 72.5% of all acupoints; specific acupoints exhibited the frequency taking up 91.30% of the total frequency. As revealed from the result, Neiguan (PC 6), Zusanli (ST 36), Hegu (LI 4), and Zhongwan (CV 12) were most frequently applied, suggesting the tightest associations. Most acupoints were taken from the stomach meridian and pericardium meridian. The common acupoints were concentrated in the lower limbs, chest, as well as abdomen. Conclusion: Data mining acts as a feasible method to identify acupoints selection and compatibility characteristics. As suggested from our study, the acupoints selection for PONV prioritizes specific acupoints and related meridians. The selection and combination of acupoints comply with the theory of traditional Chinese medicine.
Li-Sha Liu, Jian Huo, Xiu-Li Yuan, Yi Lan, Jing-Yuan Zhang, Hong-Mei Zhong, Yu Wang, Yun-Sheng He
This review provides new scientific evidence for abortifacient medicinal plants mentioned in traditional Persian medicine and discloses their underlying abortifacient mechanisms.
The first ancient Persian document that mentions abortifacient herbal drugs is the Avesta, the holy book of Zoroastrians, in 600 B.C., which mentions some abortifacient drugs such as Shaēta (gold, a yellow liquid or some type of plant) and Ghnâna (a deadly medicine). Subsequently, Al-Qanun Fi Al-Tibb(The Canon of Medicine), one of the most comprehensive pharmacopeias in the field of medicine written by Avicenna in the 11th century, and Makhzan Al-adviyah(The Storehouse of Medicaments), one of the largest pharmacopeias of traditional Persian medicine written by Aghili in the18th century, record additional abortifacient properties for some herbal drugs, such as Ruta graveolens and Nigella sativa.
Background: Miscarriage or spontaneous ending to a pregnancy takes place at the early stages of pregnancy without intervention. Pregnant women may use medicinal herbs to relieve some of the symptoms of pregnancy as they believe that all herbs are safe. Some abortion-inducing herbs were mentioned by the famous Iranian philosophers, Avicenna and Aghili, in documents of traditional Persian medicine titled Al-Qanun Fi Al-Tibb(The Canon of Medicine, written by Avicenna in the 11thcentury) and Makhzan Al-adviyah(The Storehouse of Medicaments, written by Aghili in the18th century). Methods: Electronic databases such as PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library and Web of Science were searched to find new scientific evidence that these plants are toxic during pregnancy. Data was collected from 1831 to 2019. Results: Twenty-one plants were found to be abortive according to Al-Qanun Fi Al-Tibb (The Canon of Medicine) and Makhzan Al-adviyah(The Storehouse of Medicaments). Scientific research has shown that these plants possess abortifacient effects by the mechanisms of toxic alkaloids, uterine stimulants, and emmenagogue that interferes with implantation and results in fetus toxicity. These studies included in vivo or in vitro studies. Some of these plants showed abortifacient effects by more than one mechanism. Ruta graveolens, Nigella sativa, Curcuma longa, Lupinus termis, Apium graveolens, Mentha longifolia,and Peganum harmala possess uterine stimulant properties. Ruta graveolens, Juniperus sabina, Cicer arietinum, Piper longum, Artemisia absinthium,and Citrullus colocynthis interfere with implantation. Ruta graveolens, Nigella sativa, Curcuma longa, Tanacetum parthenium, Piper longum, Laurus nobilis, Apium graveolens, Mentha longifolia, and Cinnamomum iners exhibit emmenagogue effects. Lupinus termis, Delphinium staphisagria, Laurus nobilis, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Zataria multiflora,and Artemisia absinthium contain toxic alkaloids and possess teratogenic effects.Conclusion:The results of this study of traditional Persian medicine resources have been confirmed with new scientific evidence. Therefore, pregnant women should avoid consuming herbs without knowledge of their safety.
Kaempferol and quercetin are found to be the two main compounds of classical prescription of traditional Chinese medicine named Danggui Buxue decoction with the highest network regulation, which can inhibit the transformation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts and reduce the expression of fibrosis markers α-smooth muscle actin, collagen 1, fibronectin.
Danggui Buxue decoction (DBD), a classical prescription in traditional Chinese medicine composed of Huangqi (Radix Astragali) and Danggui (Radix Angelicae Sinensis) in a ratio of 5:1, originates from the Chinese medicine ancient book entitled Neiwai Shangbian Huolun written by the famous medical scientist Li Dongyuan in 1247 C.E. At present, there are many researchers who try to study the biological activity of individual chemical components in DBD and the mechanism of action of whole formula. Some studies have shown that DBD has effect on fibrosis of heart, liver and kidney and has protective effect on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats by reducing alveolar inflammation and fibrosis.
Backgroud: Danggui Buxue decoction (DBD), a classical prescription in traditional Chinese medicine, has been found to have protective effect on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats by reducing alveolar inflammation and fibrosis. However, the biological activity of individual chemical components and mechanism of action of whole formula are not clear. Methods: Potential targets of active ingredients of DBD were collected through Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform and SymMap database. Target genes related to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis were obtained from the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man database, Therapeutic Targets Database and Gkb database. Then, the common targets were obtained by overlapping the potential targets of active ingredients in DBD and diseases related targets. The selected targets were subjected to Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes signaling pathway and Gene Ontology analysis, and the network map of active component-target-pathway was established using Cytoscape 3.7.1 software. The active components of DBD with most targets were selected for fibrosis-related marker verification. The mRNA and protein expression of fibrosis markers, α-smooth muscle actin, collagen 1 and fibronectin, were detected in TGF-β1-induced fibroblast cell line after treatment with the active components. Results: The 14 active ingredients, such as quercetin and kaempferol, were screened from DBD. It acts on 26 targets like estrogen receptor 2 and prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2, and mainly involves 38 signaling pathways such as cell inflammation and autophagy. Kaempferol and quercetin are the two compounds with the highest network regulation, which can inhibit the transformation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts and reduce the expression of fibrosis markers α-smooth muscle actin, collagen 1 and fibronectin. Conclusion: The integration mode of multi-component, multi-target, multi-channel and mechanism of DBD in the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis are predicted by means of network pharmacology. Our study could indicate the direction of further anti-fibrotic mechanism research.
Cai-Ping Zhao, Hang Li, Xiao-Hong Liu, Shuang Liang, Xue-Lei Liu, Xin-Rong Li, Yi Luo, Mei-Ling Zhu