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The Official Journal of China Anti-Cancer Association
Editor-in-Chief: XZ Wu, PhD
ISSN 2413-3973
1Traditional Medicine Research (TMR) is a peer-reviewed open access journal managed by TMR Publishing Group. TMR is dedicated to protecting and developing all types of traditional medicines, including traditional Chinese medicine, Persian medicine, Ayurveda, Siddha, minority medicine, etc., using the latest achievements in modern science. TMR emphasizes the historical origin and developmental pipeline of the research objective and encourages authors to analyze the theoretical significance underlying a study and the application of traditional medicine in clinical practice. To focus on a specific area, each issue is published as a special issue. In addition to editorial, review, article and letter, the following topics are welcome. News column follows important current medical, policy, and archaeological events in the field of traditional medicine, and the comment column discusses the progress of latest and salient research. ... More

Traditional Medical Systems More

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Acupuncture

Moxibustion

Cupping

Exercise Therapy

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Traditional Literatures More

Before 221 B.C. · Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing
Before 221 B.C. · Huang Di Nei Jing
Third century · Shang Han Lun
Third century · Jin Gui Yao Lue
284 A.D.-354 A.D. · Zhou Hou Bei Ji Fang
652 A.D. · Qian Jin Fang
1025 A.D. · The Canon of Medicine
1078 A.D. · Tai Ping Hui Min He Ji Ju Fang
Twelfth century · rGyud bzhi (The Four Tantras)
1740 A.D. · Wai Ke Zheng Zhi Quan Sheng Ji

Current Issue     02 March 2020, Volume 5 Issue 2 Previous Issue   
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News
Traditional Chinese medicine for novel coronavirus pneumonia treatment: main force or supplement?
Mi Li, Xue Yang, Kai Li, Yi-Qiang Xie
1Traditional Medicine Research. 2020, 5 (2): 62-64.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMR20200204158
Abstract ( 2528 )   HTML ( 55 )     PDF (456KB) ( 559 )  
The National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China and the National Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine of the People's Republic of China issued a diagnosis and treatment plan (trial version 4th) for novel coronavirus pneumonia on January 27, 2020, providing specific recommendations for the treatment and prevention of the infection using TCM. Academician Zhang Boli, the President of the Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, stated the following in an interview with Xinhua News Agency: “Chinese medicine plays an all-round role throughout the treatment of novel coronavirus pneumonia, but I still advocate integrated Chinese and Western medicine” . However, interestingly, on the same day, the famous The New York Times put forward a contrasting view on the use of TCM for the treatment of this infection. The report quoted the opinion of Dominic Dwyer, a medical virologist at the University of Sydney, who said, “There has never been a good antiviral agent, so that means that people would try things that have some effect. But there’s no evidence of significant benefits with any antiviral drugs or TCM” .
Special Issue on Annual Advances
Traditional Chinese medicine for treatment of coronavirus disease 2019: a review
Huan-Tian Cui, Yu-Ting Li, Li-Ying Guo, Xiang-Guo Liu, Lu-Shan Wang, Jian-Wei Jia, Jia-Bao Liao, Jing Miao, Zhai-Yi Zhang, Li Wang, Hong-Wu Wang, Wei-Bo Wen
1Traditional Medicine Research. 2020, 5 (2): 65-73.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMR20200222165
Abstract ( 4365 )   HTML ( 116 )     PDF (543KB) ( 1615 )  

Highlights

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has recently become a public health concern worldwide. The use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) may have substantial impact on COVID-19. In this review, we summarize the disease pathogenesis, clinical outcomes, and current applications of TCM for the treatment of COVID-19.

Traditionality

The pathogenesis and clinical symptoms related to severe respiratory disease were described many years ago in TCM texts. The ancient book of TCM Huang Di Nei Jing (Inner Canon of Huangdi) was written during the Western Han Dynasty of China (dated approximately 99 B.C.E.-26 B.C.E.); the text recorded a plague that could transmit disease from human-to-human with symptoms that were similar to those described for COVID-19. Three additional texts, notably Shang Han Za Bing Lun (Treatise on Cold Damage Diseases) written by Zhang Zhongjing (200 C.E.-210 C.E.), Wen Yi Lun (Theory of Plague) and Wen Re Lun (Translated Theory of Warm) written by Wu Youke (1642 C.E.), recorded therapies and formulas that were effective at treating infectious diseases; among them, the classical prescription Da Yuan Yin and the use of human variolation were considered as means to prevent smallpox. Currently, the use of TCM has resulted in remarkable improvement and alleviation of symptoms in COVID-19 patients.

Abstract

Since late December in 2019, the coronavirus disease 2019 has received extensive attention for its widespread prevalence. A number of clinical workers and researchers have made great efforts to understand the pathogenesis and clinical characteristics and develop effective drugs for treatment. However, no effective drugs with antiviral effects on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 have been discovered currently. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has gained abundant experience in the treatment of infectious diseases for thousands of years. In this review, the authors summarized the clinical outcome, pathogensis and current application of TCM on coronavirus disease 2019. Further, we discussed the potential mechanisms and the future research directions of TCM against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2.


Traditionality
The pathogenesis and clinical symptoms related to severe respiratory disease were described many years ago in TCM texts. The ancient book of TCM Huang Di Nei Jing (Inner Canon of Huangdi) was written during the Western Han Dynasty of China (dated approximately 99 B.C.E.–26 B.C.E.); the text recorded a plague that could transmit disease from human-to-human with symptoms that were similar to those described for COVID-19. Three additional texts, notably Shang Han Za Bing Lun (Treatise on Cold Damage Diseases) written by Zhang Zhongjing (200 C.E.–210 C.E.), Wen Yi Lun (Theory of Plague) and Wen Re Lun (Translated Theory of Warm) written by Wu Youke (1642 C.E.), recorded therapies and formulas that were effective at treating infectious diseases; among them, the classical prescription Da Yuan Yin and the use of human variolation were considered as means to prevent smallpox. Currently, the use of TCM has resulted in remarkable improvement and alleviation of symptoms in COVID-19 patients.
Annual advances of integrative pharmacology in 2019
Ke-Wu Zeng, Ming-Yao Gu
1Traditional Medicine Research. 2020, 5 (2): 74-82.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMR20200214163
Abstract ( 287 )   HTML ( 3 )     PDF (518KB) ( 62 )  

Highlights

This review covered pharmacological reports of studies conducted during 2019 using traditional medicine and herb-derived active natural products. Pharmacological reports using active natural products that targeted cancers were the predominant hot topics. Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, together with diabetes and metabolic diseases, are ongoing research areas for traditional medicine. Moreover, inflammation and infectious disease are also attracting more attention by researchers.

Traditionality

This annual integrative pharmacology review analyzed the pharmacological studies of traditional medicine in different diseases during 2019, which is able to provide a comprehensive description of the hot spot and ongoing research areas.

Abstract

Representative studies concerning the pharmacology of traditional medicine and active herbal products have been summarized over the past 12 months. This annual integrative pharmacology review encompasses research articles published during 2019 on the bioactive compounds and extracts used in traditional medicine. Reports highlighting the pharmacology progress of traditional medicine were specifically introduced, including artemisinin for cancer cell sensibility and induction to ferroptosis, rutin for neuroinflammation suppression, Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma for gut microbiota regulation against obesity, green tea and Pu-erh tea for metabolic syndrome, and marine-derived oligosaccharide (GV-971) from brown algae for anti-dementia. Moreover, novel TCM molecular targets and pharmacological mechanisms were trialed against different human diseases, including cancers, cardiovascular, cerebrovascular diseases, diabetes, and metabolic diseases. Notably, herb-derived bioactive products have become important treatment alternatives for cancer research in 2019. Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, together with diabetes and metabolic diseases, are ongoing research areas for traditional medicine. Moreover, inflammation and infectious disease are also attracting more attention by researchers, which might have been influenced by seasonal influenza or HIV/Ebola viral infections. Further traditional medicine investigations are required in neurodegenerative diseases, depression, and mental diseases. Taken together, the findings of the integrative pharmacology review in 2019 provide a vast number of novel lead compounds or drug candidates for future clinical agent development and also details a novel series of attractive therapeutic targets and molecular mechanisms for human diseases.


Traditionality

This annual integrative pharmacology review analyzed the pharmacological studies of traditional medicine in different diseases during 2019, which is able to provide a comprehensive description of the hot spot and ongoing research areas.

Toxicological advances of traditional medicine in 2019
Yuan Yao, Gen-Bei Wang, Shu-Li Man, Long Ma, Wen-Yuan Gao
1Traditional Medicine Research. 2020, 5 (2): 83-89.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMR20200214161
Abstract ( 166 )   HTML ( 4 )     PDF (416KB) ( 101 )  

Highlights

The paper reviewed researches concerning toxicology of traditional medicine (TM) and active natural products during the past 12 months, and find that liver, kidney and heart are the mainly toxic target organs of TM. In addition, the drug safety for the maternal and child began to be focused on in 2019, and safety assessment of Aconitum carmichaeli Debx, Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. f., Strychnos nux-vomica L., Fallopia multiflora (Thunb.) Harald, etc. is still hot issue.

Traditionality

This annual review summarized the new toxicology study technology, common evaluated models, toxic target organs, safety evaluation of TM in different kinds of people and popular research issues and herbs in 2019. Compared to 2018, many counties like Australia, Germany and UK start to pay attention to the safety evaluation of TM.

Abstract

There were many researches concerning toxicology of traditional medicine (TM) and active natural products during the past 12 months. This annual toxicology review summarized target organs of TM like liver, kidney and heart. Safety medication of TM has been concerned to different kinds of people, including infants, children, pregnancy and the postnatal period. Besides rodents, zebrafish embryoes have been regarded as common models to evaluate the safety of TM. New technologies in toxicology focus on rapidly screening and identification of toxins in TM. Multispectral optoacoustic tomography imaging the precise location of TM-induced liver injury with 3D information and integrating serum exosomal microRNA and liver microRNA profiles are used to explain the mechanism of TM-induced hepatotoxicity. Taken together, study on the toxicity mechanism of other target organs, drug safety in elders, new models and methods should be paid attention to in the prevention of TM toxicology in the future.


Traditionality

This annual review summarized the new toxicology study technology, common evaluated models, toxic target organs, safety evaluation of TM in different kinds of people and popular research issues and herbs in 2019. Compared to 2018, many counties like Australia, Germany and UK start to pay attention to the safety evaluation of TM.


Annual advances in traditional medicine for tumor therapy in 2019
Xue Yang, Xin-Yuan Luan
1Traditional Medicine Research. 2020, 5 (2): 90-107.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMR20200214164
Abstract ( 145 )   HTML ( 8 )     PDF (938KB) ( 109 )  

Highlights

The paper reviewed the research progress of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and traditional medicine in other countries used as tumor therapies in 2019. The anti-tumor effects of Chinese herbal medicine-derived phytochemicals, such as polyphenols, polysaccharides, saponins, and alkaloids were the new research targets for 2019. The anti-tumor effects of TCM formula such as Sijunzi decoction and Xiaopi formula have attracted the most attention in the past year.

Traditionality

This annual review summarized the research progress of several traditional medicines used as tumor therapies in 2019. Studies of tumors treated with TCM are popular worldwide and obtain the most attention. In addition to TCM, we also focused on the anti-tumor studies of other traditional medicines, including traditional African medicine, traditional Korean medicine, traditional Japanese medicine, etc.

Abstract

Today, the treatment of tumors remains a difficult problem. Traditional medicine has been used to treat cancer in different countries worldwide. However, while traditional medicine is popular globally, it is not yet accepted by Western medicine as some of the ingredients and the mechanism of action for the therapeutic effect have not been fully elucidated. Thus, scholars studying traditional medicine in the treatment of cancer have strived to solve this problem. In this review, we summarized the research progress of several traditional medicines used as tumor therapies in 2019 from the PubMed database. Studies of tumors treated with traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) are popular worldwide and obtain the most attention, which attracts more researchers to this field. The anti-tumor effects of Chinese herbal medicine-derived phytochemicals, such as polyphenols, polysaccharides, saponins, and alkaloids were the new research targets for 2019. The anti-tumor effects of TCM formula such as Sijunzi decoction, and Xiaopi formula have attracted the most attention in the past year. In addition to TCM, we also focused on the anti-tumor studies of other traditional medicines, including Thai traditional medicine, traditional medicine in Sri Lanka, traditional African medicine, traditional Korean medicine, and traditional Japanese medicine.


Traditionality

This annual review summarized the research progress of several traditional medicines used as tumor therapies in 2019. Studies of tumors treated with TCM are popular worldwide and obtain the most attention. In addition to TCM, we also focused on the anti-tumor studies of other traditional medicines, including traditional African medicine, traditional Korean medicine, traditional Japanese medicine, etc.

Annual advances of Chinese minority traditional medicine in 2019
Shao-Hui Wang
1Traditional Medicine Research. 2020, 5 (2): 108-121.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMR20200214162
Abstract ( 99 )   HTML ( 2 )     PDF (584KB) ( 58 )  

Highlights

The annual review summarizes the research pertaining to different Chinese minority traditional medicine (CMTM) published in 2019. The focus of these studies is on the pharmacological effects and mechanisms of the ethnodrug and prescriptions/therapies used in ethnic areas.

Traditionality

CMTM is an important part of traditional Chinese medicine. It exhibits characteristics of nationality, region, and tradition. Tibetan medicine first appeared around 500 B.C.E. At the end of the 8th century C.E., the development of “Si Bu Yi Dian (Four Medical Tantras)” by the Tibetan medicine scientist Yutuo Ningma Yundan Gongbu provided a theoretical foundation for Tibetan medicine. Before the 7th century C.E., Mongolian medicine was in its infancy. In the 16th century C.E., Mongolian medicine assimilated several classical medical theories and useful experiences from Tibetan, Han, and other nationalities. This eventually leads to the development of a Mongolian medical theory system with Mongolian characteristics. Uyghur medicine has arduously developed over a period of more than 2,500 years. The origin of Uyghur medicine traces back to the ancient Neolithic period in the Western Regions. At the beginning of the 12th century, the Uyghur medicine scientist Alaodin Mohanmude Hetianni wrote the “Zubdatul Kawanil Ilaj (Zhi Liao Jing Hua, Healing Essences)” and “TibbiFitki (Fa Yi, Forensics)”. The copy of this handwritten work is circulating to this day.

Abstract

Traditional medicine systems practiced by various ethnic minorities represent an important part of traditional Chinese medicine. The past 12 months have witnessed extensive research pertaining to different Chinese minority traditional medicine (CMTM). The annual CMTM review evaluates research published during 2019 in different CMTM including Tibetan medicine, Uyghur medicine, Mongolian medicine, Korean medicine and Zhuang medicine. Research in the field of Tibetan medicine focused on pharmacology, pharmacy, plant sciences, medicinal chemistry and integrated complementary medicine and the top three countries were China, USA and India. Research in Uyghur medicine mainly pertained to chemistry, pharmacology, pharmacy, and food science technology and the publications were mainly from China. Research in Mongolian medicine mainly pertained to pharmacology, pharmacy, analytical chemistry, biochemistry, molecular biology and experimental research; the publications were mainly from China and Mongolia. In short, research related to traditional medicine of various ethnic minorities was mainly conducted in China and the neighboring countries. The research focus for each minority medicine is essentially on the effects and mechanisms of action of the active ingredients of the ethnodrugs and the special prescriptions or therapies. The generated evidence will facilitate further developments in this field.


Traditionality
CMTM is an important part of traditional Chinese medicine. It exhibits characteristics of nationality, region, and tradition. Tibetan medicine first appeared around 500 B.C.E. At the end of the 8th century C.E., the development of “Si Bu Yi Dian (Four Medical Tantras)” by the Tibetan medicine scientist Yutuo Ningma Yundan Gongbu provided a theoretical foundation for Tibetan medicine. Before the 7th century C.E., Mongolian medicine was in its infancy. In the 16th century C.E., Mongolian medicine assimilated several classical medical theories and useful experiences from Tibetan, Han, and other nationalities. This eventually leads to the development of a Mongolian medical theory system with Mongolian characteristics. Uyghur medicine has arduously developed over a period of more than 2,500 years. The origin of Uyghur medicine traces back to the ancient Neolithic period in the Western Regions. At the beginning of the 12th century, the Uyghur medicine scientist Alaodin Mohanmude Hetianni wrote the “Zubdatul Kawanil Ilaj (Zhi Liao Jing Hua, Healing Essences)” and “TibbiFitki (Fa YiForensics)”. The copy of this handwritten work is circulating to this day.


2019-nCoV

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  • Network pharmacology studies on the effect of Chai-Ling decoction in coronavirus disease 2019 
    ...
    Highlights
    The current study applied network pharmacology analysis and molecular docking method to study the potential mechanisms of Chai-Ling decoction (CLD), an empirical formula derived from the classic ancient prescription Xiao-Chai-Hu (XCH) decoction and Wu-Ling-San (WLS), on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Traditionality The classic ancient prescription XCH and WLS decoctions originated from the ancient book of Chinese medicine Shang Han Za Bing Lun (Treatise on Cold Damage Disorders, 200-210 C.E.), written by Zhang Zhongjing. Previous studies have demonstrated that XCH can alleviate fever, cough, and fatigue, which were the primary clinical outcomes of COVID-19. Besides, WLS decoction has shown apparent effects on attenuating gastrointestinal symptoms. CLD, derived from a modification of XCH and WLS decoctions, is used to treat the early-stage of COVID-19 in the Prevention and Treatment Guidelines of Damp-Heat Syndrome of “Taiyin” Lung (respiratory system in the theory of traditional Chinese medicine) Epidemic Disease (coronavirus pneumonia). However, the mechanisms of action of CLD in COVID-19 remain unclear.


    Abstract

    Background: Chai-Ling decoction (CLD), derived from a modification of Xiao-Chai-Hu (XCH) decoction and Wu-Ling-San (WLS) decoction, has been used to treat the early-stage of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the mechanisms of CLD in COVID-19 remain unknown. In this study, the potential mechanisms of CLD in COVID-19 were preliminarily investigated based on network pharmacology and molecular docking method. Methods: Initially, the active components and targets of CLD were screened based on Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform and PharmMapper database. The targets of COVID-19 were obtained from GeneCards database. The protein-protein interaction network was established using STRING database to analyze the key targets. Gene Oncology (GO) analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis were also conducted to evaluate the pathways related to the targets of CLD on COVID-19. Moreover, the compound-target-pathway network was established using Cytoscape 3.2.7. Subsequently, the molecular docking method was performed to select the active compounds with high binding affinity on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which is the key target of SARS-CoV-2 in entering target cells. The possible binding sites were also visualized by a three-dimensional graph. Results: Network pharmacology analysis showed that there were 106 active components and 160 targets of CLD. Additionally, 251 targets related to COVID-19 were identified, and 24 candidates of CLD on COVID-19 were selected. A total of 283 GO terms of CLD on COVID-19 were identified, and 181 pathways were screened based on GO and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analyses. CLD might alleviate the inflammatory response and improve lung injury to treat COVID-19 through interleukin 17 signaling, T helper cell 17 differentiation, tumor necrosis factor signaling, and hypoxia inducible factor-1 signaling. Besides, molecular docking indicated that beta-sitosterol, kaempferol, and stigmasterol were the top three candidates in CLD with the highest affinity to SARS-CoV-2 and ACE2. Conclusion: Our study identifies the potential mechanisms of CLD on COVID-19 and beta-sitosterol, kaempferol, and stigmasterol may be the key compounds that exert antiviral effects against SARS-CoV-2.

    ...
    Lu Yang, Yu-Ting Li, Jing Miao, Li Wang, Hui Fu, Qin Li, Wei-Bo Wen, Zhai-Yi Zhang, Rui-Wen Song, Xiang-Guo Liu, Hong-Wu Wang, Huan-Tian Cui
  • The neuroprotective role of Panax notoginseng saponins in APP/PS1 transgenic mice through the modulation of cerebrovascular 
    ...

    Highlights

    By modulating cerebrovascular function, PNS can reduce the deposition of amyloid plaques and exhibit the role of neuroprotection in a preventive strategy, possibly via targeting the vascular related proteins such as platelet activating factor receptor and vasopressin V1a receptor.

    Traditionality

    Panax notoginseng is known as Sanqi in Chinese and it is described to removing blood stasis (poor blood circulation) for promoting tissue regeneration in traditional Chinese medicine. Physician Li Shizhen stated in Bencao Gangmu (Compendium of Materia Medica, composed during the year of 1552 to 1578) that "Sanqi is a herb referred to the blood phase of the yang-ming meridian and jue-yin meridians (two of the twelve meridians in traditional Chinese medicine that are mainly used to run energy and blood, connect internal and external organs, and communicate with each other), it can be used in all diseases related with vascular". Panax notoginseng saponins is the main active compound extracted from the root of Panax notoginseng, which can promote blood circulation and angiogenesis. A bench of clinical trials has been administrated for the treatment of panax notoginseng saponins in hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage and ischemic stroke.

    Abstract

    Background: Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) is extracted from Sanqi (Panax notoginseng), which is a valuable herb and has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of cerebrovascular diseases and pain. PNS has been proved to promote blood circulation and angiogenesis by inhibiting platelet aggregation. In our previous study, PNS accompanied with geniposide can prevent Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, the efficacy of PNS and its potential mechanism in AD remain unclear. Methods: Amyloid precursor protein/presenilin-1 (APP/PS1) transgenic (Tg) mice were used as AD-like animal models. Wild-type mice and APP/PS1 transgenic were administrated with saline solution while mice in PNS treatment group were administrated with PNS at a dosage of 17 mg/kg/day for three months. Morris water maze (MWM) was applied to evaluate the spatial learning and memory and step-down test was used to evaluate the cognitive function. 1% Thioflavin-S staining was used to calculate the average number amyloid plaques in cortex and hippocampus. CD31 staining was detected to observe the density of cerebrovascular in hippocampus areas and CD105 staining was further detected to evaluate angiogenesis. Laser Doppler PeriFlux 5000 was further measured the change of cerebrovascular blood flow. ChemDraw was used to draw the molecular structures of five main ingredients of PNS. AlzPlatform were used to estimate the potential targets of PNS. Results: By a bench of behavioral tests, PNS showed a better tendency in proving cognitive functions. In addition, the amyloid plaques in both cortex and hippocampus were significantly reduced after PNS intervention (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001 respectively). Furthermore, the density of cerebrovascular in the hippocampus areas was increased under PNS administration (P < 0.001), which accompanied with angiogenesis in dentate gyrus areas and cerebrovascular blood flow promotion (P < 0.05). By AlzPlatform docking serve, we screened five major ingredients of PNS—R1, Rd, Rb1, Re and Rg1. These screening data suggested that vascular related proteins could be the one of potential targets of PNS, such as platelet activating factor receptor and vasopressin V1a receptor. Conclusion: By modulating cerebrovascular function, PNS can reduce the deposition of amyloid plaques and exhibit the role of neuroprotection in a preventive strategy.

    ...
    Yan Tan, Chen-Chen Song, Zi-Hui Xu, Fang He, Ya-Li Zhang, Ya-Lei Wang, Xue Wang, Liang-Qin Wan, Xu Wang, Ling-Ling Qin, Tong-Hua Liu, Qian Hua
  • Gastrointestinal effects of Artemisia absinthium Linn. based on traditional Persian medicine and new studies 
    ...
    Highlights
    In this study, researchers reviewed the pharmacological effects of Artemisia absinthium Linn. (AAL), an herbal medicine from the Asteraceae family used for solving digestive problems, specifically parasites and intestinal worms, by concentrating on the gastrointestinal (GI) effects. Then the traditional Persian medicine (TPM) applications of this herb were compared to recent studies.
    Traditionality
    ALL, commonly known as wormwood and absinthe, is a species of Artemisia genus that belongs to Asteraceae. The name ALL is termed from the ancient Greek Artemisia, which means “the Goddess” and absinthium, which means “unenjoyable” or “without sweetness.” The name “wormwood” refers to the plant’s anthelmintic effects, which were recognized by the ancient Egyptians. The first documented medical use of wormwood dates back to the Ebers Papyrus, an ancient Egyptian medical text (1552 B.C.E.), which is recognized as the oldest preserved medical document. Wormwood syrup exhibits a hot and dry temperament and has been repeatedly used for the treatment of digestive diseases. TPM textbooks such as Avicenna's Canon of MedicineKholase-Al-Hekmat (Summary of Wisdom) by Aghili Khorasani, and Al-Shamil fi al-Tibb (Comprehensive Medicine) by Ibn al-Nafis have reported numerous GI indications for wormwood. Pharmacological studies have also confirmed a number of TPM GI benefits of wormwood. 



    Abstract

    One of the most extensively used herbs in traditional Persian medicine (TPM) used in the treatment of gastrointestinal (GI) disorders, is the plant Artemisia absinthium Linn. (AAL). It also has a wide range of activities such as analgesic and anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-fungal, and anti-bacterial activities, hepatoprotective, and neuroprotective activities in addition to having gastroprotective effects. This article is a review comparing TPM resources with new medicines. This review investigates this herb in major TPM sources and strives to extrapolate the exact function it serves in the digestive tract and compares the collected information on the function of AAL with information found in new medical resource databases such as ISI, Pubmed, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Scientific Information Database. AAL from the Asteraceae family of TPM, known as Afsentin, was used in the treatment of GI weaknesses, stomach pains, swellings, intestinal parasites, diarrhea, and vomiting. AAL increased appetite, so it was used for insect repellents and insecticide. Recent studies have indicated that the effects of this plant improved the symptoms of Crohn's disease and played a role in reducing inflammatory factors. It also has strong anti-parasitic, anti-insect, hepatoprotective, and antioxidant effects. Given the widespread use of AAL as a traditional medicine currently in use in different countries, particularly in the treatment of GI diseases, further clinical studies that focus on the therapeutic qualities of this plant are required in the future. 


    ...
    Hamide Khorram Pazhouh, Shokouhsadat Hamedi, Seyyed Musa-al-Reza Hosseini, Ali Taghipour, Behjat Javadi, Mohammadreza Noras
  • Overview of the plague in the late Ming Dynasty and its prevention and control measures 
    ...
    Highlights
    The purpose of this paper is to review the medical system and measures of prevention and control instituted for the plague that occurred during the late Ming Dynasty (1551–1644 C.E.), with the aim of providing guidance for the prevention and control of plague in the present day.
     
    Traditionality


    Early records of plague in Chinese medicine can be traced back to the Shang Dynasty (1600–1046 B.C.E). In the late Eastern Han Dynasty (184–220 C.E.), natural disasters and wars led to a wide breakout of plague. Deeply touched by the suffering of people under the plague, the famous doctor Zhang Zhongjing (150–219 C.E.) recorded many classical ancient prescriptions in his medical monograph Shanghanlun (Treatise on Exogenous Febrile Disease) (219 C.E.). Subsequently, as a result of imperial corruption, natural disasters, and frequent wars, the plague that occurred during the late Ming Dynasty was the second greatest plague in Chinese history after the outbreak of plague at the end of the Han Dynasty. During the many struggles that occurred during the plague, a group of great medical experts emerged and devised a series of prevention and control measures, which have the potential to play a key role in the prevention and control of plague today.


    Abstract

    The plague of the late Ming Dynasty (1551–1644 C.E.) was long lasting, affected a wide range of the population, and had serious consequences. The purpose of this study is to review the medical system in place at the time and the measures instituted to prevent and control the plague during the late Ming Dynasty. Information on the history of the Ming Dynasty (1368–1644 C.E.), local chronicles, and related research literature were consulted and analyzed in terms of duration, geographical area, and other dimensions of the epidemic. Because of the abnormal climate, wide range of natural disasters, and the impact of war, the epidemic spread over a wide area during the late Ming Dynasty. The government’s epidemic prevention measures were affected by war and other factors, resulting in poor control of the outbreak. However, in terms of the medical system in place during the Ming Dynasty, some of the thinking and methods of prevention and control of the plague were historical and progressive. Some outstanding physicians such as Wu Youke (1582–1652 C.E.) appeared during this period. His theory of plague prevention and control had a profound influence on the formation and development of pestilence deterrence in later generations. In the late Ming Dynasty, rich experiences and measures of prevention and control were accumulated in the struggle against the plague. These methods and experiences also have a significant, positive guiding influence on the prevention and control of plague in the present day.

    ...
    Qiu-Hua Li, Yue-Hai Ma, Ning Wang, Ying Hu, Zhao-Zhe Liu

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