Is naturopathic medicine necessarily safe?
Traditional Medicine Research. 2019, 4 (4): 173-173.
Recently, an article by a Danish doctor, titled “Chinese herbal remedy found to contain steroids and antifungals” was published in the journal Lancet [
1]. He described a patient with early-onset guttate psoriasis who had been prescribed the Chinese herbal ointment Shenfucao by a doctor in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The Danish doctor suspected that the ointment contained hormones. Subsequently, he sent Shenfucao to Sweden for testing and found that it contained clobetasol propionate and antifungal drugs including ketoconazole and miconazole. However, these ingredients were not mentioned on the drug label. In addition, according to the financial channel of China Central Television, in April 2018, an "old Chinese doctor" in Changzhou, Jiangsu province, China, claimed to have an ancestral ointment recipe that produced immediate effects. However, the test results showed that the ointments contained western medicine ingredients, along with prohibited ingredients, such as morphine.
Acupuncture preconditioning protects against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury mediated apoptosis through miR-214/NCX1 activation: a hypothesis
Traditional Medicine Research. 2019, 4 (4): 178-183.
This review provides evidences for the recommendation of acupuncture preconditioning at Neiguan (PC6) point in coronary heart disease patients as a non-pharmacological therapeutic method to activate the miR-214/NCX1 pathway.
The concept of acupuncture preconditioning is described in the ancient book of
Fan Wang Fang (Eastern Jin Dynasty of China). It refers to the application of acupuncture before the occurrence of disease or when the disease is relatively mild. According to the record of the ancient book of Huang Di Nei Jing (Qin Han Period of China, 475 B.C.-221 B.C.), acupuncture at Neiguan (PC6) point can prevent and treat angina pectoris in coronary heart disease (CHD). The WHO also recommends acupuncture as one of the alternative and complementary therapies for the prevention and treatment of angina pectoris in CHD. Abstract
Early reperfusion of ischemic cardiac tissue is usually the best option to improve clinical outcome of angina pectoris, especially of acute myocardial infarction. However, myocardial reperfusion may cause an abnormal increase of intracellular Ca
2+-mediated cardiomyocyte death and consequent loss of cardiac function, which is referred to myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Recently, the microRNA-214 (miR-214)/Na +/Ca 2+ exchanger (NCX) 1 co-expression is a key factor in cellular protection against myocardial apoptosis for myocardial I/R injury. Once activated, miR-214/NCX1 axis can inhibit several Ca 2+ downstream signaling effectors that mediate cell death simultaneously. Studies have shown that acupuncture preconditioning has a protective effect on myocardial I/R injury, but its mechanism deserves further research. It has been proved that acupuncture preconditioning for ischemic myocardium successfully inhibit multiple Ca 2+ handling related microRNAs that mediate cell death pathways, and miR-214 is one of its targets. In terms of clinical practice, coronary heart disease (CHD) patients benefit a lot from this intervention. However, there is barely no study correlating acupuncture preconditioning to the miR-214/NCX1 co-expression in patients with CHD. This review aims to discuss whether there is some evidence to justify a recommendation of acupuncture preconditioning in CHD patients as a non-pharmacological therapeutic method to activate the miR-214/NCX1 co-expression network model.
Development and validation of the perioperative recovery scale for integrative medicine
Traditional Medicine Research. 2019, 4 (4): 184-194.
This study develops and validates a scale for perioperative recovery with integrative medicine. It is acceptable for patients in the perioperative period undergoing treatment by either Chinese or integrative medicine, and has good psychometric properties.
As early as 610 A.D., the ancient book of Chinese medicine named
Zhu Bing Yuan Hou Lun, recorded the application of traditional Chinese medicine after surgical operation. It said patients with intestinal rupture caused by trauma could only drink porridge within 20 days after intestinal anastomosis. If the patients ate too much after the surgery, he might suffer from stomachache. Morever, taking Qianxie Powder (a Chinese medicine prescription consisting of iron scraps, Cornu Cervi, etc.) helped to relieve the pain. Wai Ke Zheng Zong published in Ming Dynasty of China (1617 A.D.) also recorded that Hui Xiang Cao powder (a Chinese medicine prescription consisting of Foeniculum vulgare and Alpinia Rhizoma.) was used for the treatment of postoperative analgesia, and Crinis Carbonisatus was used for postoperative hemostasis. Abstract
Purpose: The aim of this study is to develop and validate a scale for perioperative recovery with integrative medicine. Methods: The procedures for developing the scale included a review of both modern and ancient literature, other perioperative scales or questionnaire references, an expert consultation, and interviews with patients and surgeons following standard procedures. Primary face and content validity were assessed through a small-scale patient survey of 50 patients. A final evaluation based on the patient survey was conducted among 354 patients (age range 16-75) from the same hospital. This included testing the perioperative recovery scale for integrative medicine (PRSIM) for scaling properties, reliability, validity and responsiveness. Results: The PRSIM, a 20-item scale, was modified from an initial version transcript which included 122 items. The 20 items in the PRSIM covered five domains: direct influence, indirect influence, activity, mental function and general health perceptions. Five factors extracted from an exploratory factor analysis demonstrated a desirable model fit. A confirmatory factor analysis further indicated that the PRSIM had a good fit with the same sample. A data analysis of the PRSIM with 349 patients showed that it had good internal consistency (α> 0.7), test-retest reliability (ICC > 0.4) and split half reliability (α= 0.66). Conclusions: The PRSIM can serve as a valuable instrument for assessing patient perioperative recovery in integrative medicine. It is acceptable for patients in the perioperative period undergoing treatment by either Chinese or integrative medicine, and has good psychometric properties.
Study on multi-target mechanism of
Radix et Rhizoma Rhei (Dahuang) and Semen Persicae (Taoren) on adhesion intestinal obstruction based on network pharmacology
Traditional Medicine Research. 2019, 4 (4): 195-204.
This study demonstrated that mechanism of
Radix et Rhizoma Rhei (Dahuang) and Semen Persicae (Taoren) drug pair in the treatment of adhesion intestinal obstruction may be related to activate immune effect, decrease the expression levels of inflammatory cytokines, accelerate apoptosis of intestinal macrophages/T lymphocytes, and antagonize inflammatory reaction and tissue fibrosis to repair the intestinal mucosal barrier. Traditionality
Radix et Rhizoma Rhei (Dahuang) (RERR) and Semen Persicae (Taoren) (SP) are the core drug pair commonly used in the treatment of adhesion intestinal obstruction. RERR and SP drug pair comes from the classical prescriptions of Chinese medicine including Didang soup and Taohe Chengqi decoction in Shanghanlun (an ancient book of Chinese medicine published in the 3rd Century A.D.) and Biejia Jian pills, Dahuang Shuchong pill, and Dahuang Mudan decoction in Jingui Yaolue (an ancient book of Chinese medicine published in the 3rd Century A.D.).
Objective: To explore the mechanism of action of Radix et Rhizoma Rhei (Dahuang) (RERR) and Semen Persicae (Taoren) (SP) on adhesive intestinal obstruction (AIO). Methods: The main targets of the active ingredients of RERR and SP were filtered based on the traditional Chinese medicine system pharmacology analysis platform. Cytoscape 3.2.1 was applied to build the ingredient-target network of RERR and SP for AIO. Results: Fifteen active components were predicted from the RERR and SP herb pair, such as aloe-emodin, catechin, rhein, gibberellin (GA) 119, GA120 and GA121. These components were applied to 59 targets mainly involved in many biological processes such as signal transduction, anti-apoptosis, and inflammatory response involved in activating the immune effect. Conclusion: This study proposes the system pharmacology method and identifies the potent combination therapeutic mechanism of RERR and SP for AIO. This strategy will provide a new insight to the study of herb combinations.
Effects of Da-Cheng-Qi decoction on enteroparalysis and serum inflammatory cytokines in patients with severe acute pancreatitis
Traditional Medicine Research. 2019, 4 (4): 205-212.
This study demonstrated that Chinese herbal formula Da-Cheng-Qi decoction combined with the conventional treatment could effectively decrease the serum levels of CCL2, CRP, and IL-8, relieve enteroparalysis, and shorten the duration of hospitalization in patients with severe acute pancreatitis
Da-Cheng-Qi decoction (DCQD) is a famous Chinese herbal formula that includes
Radix et Rhizoma Rhei (Dahuang), Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis (Houpu), Fructus Aurantii Immaturus (Zhishi), and Natrii Sulfas (Mangxiao). The original record about DCQD can be traced back to the 3rd Century A.D. According to the description in Shanghan Lun, an ancient book of Chinese medicine published in Han Dynasty of China, DCQD had the effect of purging accumulation and clearing heat from the stomach and intestine. Abstract
Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of Da-Cheng-Qi decoction (DCQD) on enteroparalysis and levels of the serum inflammatory cytokines C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). Methods: A total of 48 patients diagnosed with SAP who hospitalized in First Affiliated Hospital of Henan Traditional Chinese Medicine University from May 1, 2016 to May 30, 2018 were randomly assigned to the control or treatment groups. Patients in the control group (n = 22) received conventional treatment and those in the treatment group (n = 26) received conventional treatment as well as additional DCQD for 10 days. The duration of abdominal pain and distension, the time when bowel sounds returned to normal, changes in the levels of serum amylase, lipase, C-reactive protein (CRP), CCL2 and IL-8, as well as acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) II scores of patients on days 1 and 10 were recorded and compared. Results: The duration of abdominal pain and distension, the time when bowel sounds returned to normal, the levels of blood amylase, lipase and CRP, and APACHE II scores of patients in the treatment group decreased significantly compared with those of patients in the control group. Though there were no statistical differences in serum CCL2 and IL-8 concentrations on day 1 between patients in these two groups, the levels of serum CCL2 and IL-8 in the treatment group were lower than those in the control group on day 10. Conclusion: DCQD may decrease the levels of CCL2, CRP, and IL-8 in patients with SAP, quickly relieve enteroparalysis, and shorten hospitalization duration.
Artificial tiger bone powder for improving the quality of life in elderly patients with fracture
Traditional Medicine Research. 2019, 4 (4): 213-221.
The early administration of artificial tiger bone powder after distal radius fracture promotes the healing of fracture, recovery of wrist joint function, and ultimately improve the quality of life in elderly patients.
Tiger bone has been used as a rare traditional medicinal product in ancient Chinese pharmacopoeia for hundreds of years. The earliest record about the usage of tiger bones as a medicine is in the ancient book of Chinese medicine
Ming Yi Bie Lu published in Han Dynasty of China (184 C.E.- 220 C.E.). After that, there were many traditional Chinese medicine ancient books recorded that tiger bone had the effect of analgesia, eliminating wind to dispersing cold and strengthening bone. Presently, however, tiger bone use has been banned internationally and in China as a protected species. The artificial tiger bone powder is extracted from non-protected animal bones by modern bionic technology, and has almost the same composition as natural tiger bone. Abstract
Objective: To investigate the application of artificial tiger bone powder on fracture healing time, wrist functional recovery and quality of life (QOL) in elderly patients with distal radius fracture. Methods: The study was a randomised controlled trials performed from January 2015 to December 2016 in a hospital. Elderly patients with distal radius fracture were divided into the treatment and the control groups by the random sealed envelope method. All patients were given splint or plaster fixation after manipulative reduction, and functional exercise, the treatment group was also given artificial tiger bone powder orally (trade name: Jintiange capsule), the control group was given an oral placebo in their appearance and usage identical with the treatment group. Prior to treatment and 6, 12 months after treatment, the wrist function was assessed by range of motion, including flexion-extension, radial-ulnar and pronation-supination, and the QOL was assessed by the Mos 36-item Short Form Health Survey. Each patient's fracture healing time was recorded. Results: Before treatment, there were no significant differences in wrist function and QOL between the two groups. At 6 and 12 months after treatment, the wrist function and QOL in the treatment group were better than those in the control group, the differences were statistically significant ( P < 0.05). The fracture healing time in the treatment group was shorter than that of the control group, and the difference was statistically significant ( P < 0.05). Conclusion: The early usage of artificial tiger bone powder for elderly patients with distal radius fracture can promote the healing of fracture, recovery of wrist joint function, and ultimately improve the QOL for elderly patients.