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05 March 2018, Volume 3 Issue 2 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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Special Issue of Literature Research about TCM
News and comments: The 2018 Sjöberg Prize awarded for the unique treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia
Editor Group of TMR
1Traditional Medicine Research. 2018, 3 (2)  
Abstract ( 791 )     PDF (163KB) ( 106 )  

In February 2018, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences decided to award the 2018 Sjöberg Prize to Zhu Chen (Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China), Anne Dejean (Institute Pasteur, Paris, France), and Hugues de Thé (College de France, Paris, France) for their work on the clarification of molecular mechanisms and the development of a revolutionary treatment for acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Before the emergence of all-trans retinoic acid and arsenic trioxide, APL was thought to be one of the deadliest forms of cancer. Now, the five-year survival rate of this disease can reach more than 90% with the help of these two drugs. At the same time, these three scientists revealed the molecular mechanism underlying these drugs’ actions.

    As early as in the 1980s, many scientific studies had confirmed the curative effect of arsenic trioxide on APL. However, the idea of using arsenical compounds is rooted in the Jinguiyaolue, an ancient book published in the Eastern Han Dynasty of China (third century A.D.). The book recorded that Shengmabiejia Soup was used to treat Yin-Yang toxin, whose clinical symptom is similar to that of APL. Xionghuang (Realgar), one of the Chinese herbs in the Shengmabiejia Soup, can be oxidized to arsenic trioxide in the air after heating to a certain temperature. This chemical change has been proved by a scientific method. Tu Youyou, the 2015 Nobel laureate in physiology or medicine, also said, “In the process of artemisinin discovery, the ancient literature inspired me at the most critical moment of the study.” Inspired by the Zhouhoubeiji Recipe, the first aid manual in China, Tu Youyou discovered artemisinin, an active ingredient from the Chinese herb Qinghao (Herba Artemisiae Annuae), which exhibited protective effects against infection with Plasmodium falciparum.

     This special issue of literature research about traditional Chinese medicine will focus on the importance of literature in the study of traditional Chinese medicine.

Review
History of recurrent miscarriage in traditional Chinese medicine literature
Li-Lin Yang, Jie Gao, Hai-Wang Wu, Song-Ping Luo
Traditional Medicine Research. 2018, 3 (2): 62-69.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMR201810065
Abstract ( 1542 )   HTML ( 25 )     PDF (470KB) ( 570 )  

Highlights

This report reviews the etiology, pathogenesis, treatment, and prevention of recurrent miscarriage discussed in the traditional Chinese medicine literature and lists the pharmacological studies that evaluated traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions for recurrent miscarriage.

Editor’s Summary

The first cases of recurrent miscarriage as a fertility abnormality were reported in Chanjing, written during the Nanbei Dynasty of China (420 A.D. - 589 A.D.).

Abstract

Recurrent miscarriage (RM) as a gynecological disorder was recognized by traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) practitioners long before the age of modern medicine. TCM physicians reported and recorded RM in the canonical TCM literature, which dates back more than 1500 years. The first cases of RM as a fertility abnormality were reported in Chanjing, which was written during the Nanbei Dynasty of China (420 A.D. - 589 A.D.). Some prescriptions for the treatment of RM are still actively used by modern TCM practitioners. In addition, many recent pharmacological and clinical studies have focused on the TCM therapy for RM. To identify the new therapeutic targets for RM and further promote the interest in treating RM with TCM, we reviewed the etiology, pathogenesis, treatment, and prevention of RM discussed both in the TCM literature and in contemporary pharmacological and clinical studies.

Clinical evidence and potential mechanisms of Chinese medicines for the treatment of diabetic retinopathy
Jian Huo, Ke-Yu Zhu, Qian Yang, Wen Liu, Jun-Guo Duan
Traditional Medicine Research. 2018, 3 (2): 70-81.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMR201810066
Abstract ( 951 )   HTML ( 11 )     PDF (567KB) ( 536 )  

Highlights

This article summarizes the application of Chinese medicines and their mechanisms of action in the treatment of diabetic retinopathy.

Editor’s Summary

More and more Chinese formulaes have been used by China FDA for the prevention and treatment of diabetic retinopathy. And their mechanisms of action have gained increasing attention around the world.

Abstract

Diabetic retinopathy is one of the main causes of visual impairment and blindness on a global scale. At present, the limitations of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents, steroids, laser photocoagulation, and vitreous surgery have led to a growing awareness of the role of Chinese medicines in the treatment of diabetic retinopathy. This review first describes the ingredients and characteristics of the formulae including Chinese herbal formulaes, Chinese patent drugs and ancient processed drugs and summarizes the application of Chinese medicines and their mechanisms of action in the treatment of diabetic retinopathy. Due to the complexity of Chinese medicines, in-depth mechanisms, side effects of herb, and drug interactions need to be elaborated in future research. Chinese medicines have the potencial to protect the residual eyesight and delay the progression of disease, thereby offering a beneficial, exploitable option in the treatment/prevention of diabetic retinopathy.

A systematic summary of natural compounds in Radix Glycyrrhizae
Ming Yang, Yi Jin, Li-Ping Yang
Traditional Medicine Research. 2018, 3 (2): 82-94.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMR201810067
Abstract ( 1089 )   HTML ( 22 )     PDF (1144KB) ( 1030 )  

Highlights

This study provides a basis for further study on molecular mechanisms of anti-inflammatory, phlegm-expelling, cough- and pain-relieving activities of Gancao (Radix Glycyrrhizae).

Editor’s Summary

Gancao (Radix Glycyrrhizae) was first recorded in Shennongbencaojing, which was published in the third century A.D. (Han Dynasty of China).

Abstract

Objective: To accumulate data from studies on the compounds identified from Gancao (Radix Glycyrrhizae, GC), and then systematically summarize and classify these compounds according to their structural characteristics. Methods: Five databases (CNKI, VIP, Wanfang data, CBM, and Pubmed) were used to search for studies on the chemical structure of compounds from GC. The retrieval time of the respective databases was from their inception to March 2016. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, the papers were carefully screened, and the data were extracted. Results: A total of 653 compounds from GC were collated from 252 articles, including flavonols (n = 201) belonging to 10 subgroups, terpenes and saponins (n = 167), coumarins (n = 30) belonging to 3 subgroups, aliphatics (n = 206), aromatics (n = 35), and others (n = 14). The flavones, represented by liquiritin and liquiritigenin, were the most reported compounds isolated from GC, followed by terpenes and saponins such as glycyrrhizic acid and glycyrrhetinic acid. Conclusion: The more than 600 natural compounds in GC may be responsible for GC’s anti-inflammatory, phlegm-expelling, cough- and pain-relieving activities.

Review
Pharmacological intervention of traditional Chinese medicine for the quality of life in patients with colorectal cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Wen-Qi Huang, Zhu Yang, Dong-Xin Tang, Feng-Xi Long, Li Luo, Bing Yang, Juan Li, Jie Chen
Traditional Medicine Research. 2018, 3 (2): 95-105.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMR201810068
Abstract ( 1668 )   HTML ( 10 )     PDF (1017KB) ( 442 )  

Highlights

Though exerting no influence in recent clinical response, traditional Chinese medicine significantly improve KPS scores, reduce the toxicity after chemotherapy, and improve the overall quality of life in patients with CRC.

Editor’s Summary

As one of the palliative and adjuvant therapies, the usage of traditional Chinese medicine should be paid enough attention in patients with CRC who were at an advanced stage or metastasis.

Abstract

Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of various traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) approaches on the quality of life in patients with colorectal cancer. Methods: In this study, we systematically performed the screening of randomized controlled trials from Cochrane Library, Pubmed, Embase, Medline, and Web of Science. The data were extracted by two reviewers independently, and then risk assessment was performed. All the analyses were conducted using Review Manager 5.3. Results: A total of 18 eligible studies containing 1312 patients were included. Experimental group were treated with TCM combined with Western medicine or TCM alone (N = 688) and control group were treated with Western medicine treatment alone (N = 624). The results showed that the recent clinical efficiency between the two groups was not statistically significant (P = 0.06). KPS scores of the experimental group were higher than those in the control group [P < 0.001, WMD = 9.60, 95%CI = (5.62, 13.57)]. The toxicity comparison showed that the occurrence of toxicities, such as leucopenia, thrombocytopenia, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, and neurotoxicity in the experimental group was lower than that in the control group [P < 0.001, OR = 0.31, 95%CI = (0.19, 0.50)], [P = 0.003, OR = 0.49, 95%CI = (0.31, 0.78)], [P < 0.001, OR = 0.30, 95%CI = (0.16, 0.54)], [P < 0.001, OR = 0.40, 95%CI = (0.27, 0.58)], and [P < 0.001, OR = 0.43, 95%CI = (0.30, 0.61)]. The immunological test comparison demonstrated that the immunological parameters (CD3, CD4, and CD4/CD8) showed higher values in the experimental group than those in the control group [P < 0.001, MD = 5.55, 95%CI = (4.83, 6.28)], [P < 0.0001, MD = 6.75, 95%CI = (5.25, 8.26)], and [P = 0.001, MD = 0.26, 95%CI = (0.10, 0.41)]. Conclusions: TCM did not show significant recent clinical efficiency. However, treatment with TCM showed increase in KPS scores in patients with colorectal cancer, alleviation of toxicity associated with chemotherapy, regulation of autoimmunity, and improvement in the quality of life of patients.

Meta-analysis of neostigmine injections given at the Zusanli (ST 36) acupoint in the treatment of postpartum urinary retention
Yan-Li Chen, Yun-Rui Jin, Yi-Hua Fan, Qiang Zhang
Traditional Medicine Research. 2018, 3 (2): 106-114.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMR201810069
Abstract ( 1071 )   HTML ( 11 )     PDF (468KB) ( 417 )  

Highlights

Neostigmine injections at the Zusanli (ST 36) acupoint have beneficial effects in treating postpartum urinary retention.

Editor’s Summary

Acupoint injection is a developing method, which started in the 1950s, that combines acupuncture and medicine. This method enhances the effects of acupoint and medicine and reduces side-effects, leading to the use of this booming method in clinical practice.

Abstract

Objective: We aimed to determine the effect of neostigmine injections given at the Zusanli (ST 36) acupoint when treating postpartum urinary retention. Methods: We conducted a systematic review to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving neostigmine injections given at the Zusanli (ST 36) acupoint for treating postpartum urinary retention. We searched the Cochrane Library, Pubmed, Web of Science, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, Vip Database, and Chinese Biomedical Literature Database from the creation of the database to December 30, 2016. Bias risk assessment was performed using Revman 5.3 software from Cochrane based on the criteria set out in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions, version 5.1.0. Results: Thirteen studies were included with 627 participants in the treatment group and 584 participants in the control group. (1) Overall response rate: neostigmine injections given at the Zusanli (ST 36) acupoint have a better curative effect than injections given in muscle, odds ratio (OR) = 8.74, 95% confidence interval (CI) [5.83, 13.10], Z = 10.49 (P < 0.001); (2) Comparison of effects at different dosages: (i) 0.5 mg of neostigmine Zusanli (ST 36) acupoint injection group has better effect than 1 mg of neostigmine intramuscular injection group, OR = 15.84, 95% CI [5.74, 43.72],Z = 5.34 (P < 0.001), (ii) 0.5 mg of neostigmine injection given at the Zusanli acupoint has a better curative effect than 0.5 mg of neostigmine injection given in muscle , OR = 7.30, 95% CI [3.47, 15.34], Z = 5.24 (P < 0.001); (iii) 1 mg of neostigmine injection at the Zusanli (ST 36) acupoint has better efficacy than 1 mg of neostigmine injection in muscle, OR = 7.76, 95% CI [4.46, 13.52], Z = 7.25 (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Neostigmine injections at the Zusanli (ST 36) acupoint have beneficial effects in treating postpartum urinary retention. However, the low quality of the studies included in the meta-analysis raises questions over the reliability of the results. Further studies are still needed.

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