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05 July 2017, Volume 2 Issue 3 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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Special Issue of Health Care and Rehabilitation
News and Comments: War of the century between Tai Chi and mixed martial arts 
Jian Hao, Dan Chen
1Traditional Medicine Research. 2017, 2 (3): 1-.  
Abstract ( 270 )     PDF (149KB) ( 153 )  

War of the century between Tai Chi and mixed martial arts

On April 27th, the match about a retired mixed martial arts (MMA) boxer Xu Xiaodong knocking out Tai Chi "master" Wei Lei within 20 seconds in Chengdu, China aroused for the national question about the Chinese Kung Fu Tai Chi.
  This fight started with a personal grudge. Xu Xiaodong, a 38-year-old MMA coach and promoter, was angry with 41-year-old Wei Lei, head of the Lei style of Tai Chi, after Wei posted Xu's personal contact information online last year. Meanwhile, Xu frequently proclaimed in his online video that traditional Chinese martial arts are useless in real combat, which provoking the hand-to- hand encounter for life or death between Wei and Xu. 
  It was finished after Wei was knocked to the ground within 20 seconds. The war of the century has sparked a heated debate on whether Tai Chi, or traditional Chinese martial arts, is weaker than MMA at home and abroad. Many people question the practical combat of Tai Chi. Some anti-Tai Chi people even think that Tai Chi has no benefit to health care. 
  The current issue of Traditional Medicine Research focuses on the studies of traditional medicine in the health care and rehabilitation of chronic diseases.

The effects of traditional medicine in health care: placebo or body-mind therapy?

Chronic diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD), diabetes and scapulohumeral periarthritis present a special challenge to clinicians because of high incidence, lethality and disability which directly result in the  economical and family burden. The current special issue of “health care and rehabilitation” mainly focuses on the area of traditional medicine therapy to chronic diseases. The following six papers cover three different methods of traditional medicine therapy including drug therapy, non-drug therapy and manipulation therapy.

   The role of Tai Chi in the field of health care and rehabilitation has always been controversial. The review by Yang Hu, et al. summarized the studies concerning the body-mind effects and the potential clinical applications of Tai Chi on the patients with chronic diseases. Although cooking is the non-pharmacological therapy in western countries with positive effect on AD, the study about the effects of Chinese food cooking, an important element of traditional Chinese culture, on AD is very few.

   The article by Hiroyasu Satoh explores the modulation by anti-oketsu formulations in Kampo medicine of human arterial stiffness. Zhuang nationality mainly distributed in Guangdong, Yunnan and Guizhou provinces in China. The theory of Zhuang medicine maintains that the pathological basis of scapulohumeral periarthritis is the formation of clustered nodules, which was first recorded in Neijing, a book published in Xihan Dinasty of China ( the third century B.C.). Ge-Lang Huang, et al. tells us that combined point pressure and hot ironing of clustered nodules provide effective treatments to patients with scapulohumeral periarthritis.

   The earliest record of ancient literature about fire needle was in Lingshu, which was published in warring state period of China (475B.C. - 221B.C.). The research by Yan Li, et al. shows us that fire needle is capable to repair the spinal cord injury via program neural stem cells toward the differentiation of neurons. Litchi, a food with high sugar, is forbidden in patient with diabetes. It is incredible that saponin from seed of Litchi chinensis Sonn can prevent the progress of glomerular sclerosis of diabetic nephropathy.

Dan Chen

Editor of TMR Publishing Group




                       

 


Editorial
Tai Chi: a new star for the administration of chronic diseases?
Hu Yang, Zhang Hao-Ran, Wu Xiong-Zhi
Traditional Medicine Research. 2017, 2 (3): 118-124.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMR201707047
Abstract ( 433 )   HTML ( 30 )     PDF (439KB) ( 409 )  
Highlights

The current evidences regarding the effects of Tai Chi on the cardiovascular system, respiratory system, nervous system, musculoskeletal disorders, rheumatism, and cancer were summarized.

Editor’s Summary

Tai Chi integrates deep diaphragmatic breathing with body movements to achieve a harmonious balance between the body and mind.

Abstract

Tai Chi Quan (Tai Chi), a traditional Chinese martial art, has become increasingly popular in western countries. Tai Chi integrates deep diaphragmatic breathing with body movements to achieve a harmonious balance between the body and mind, which facilitates the flow of internal energy (Qi). An increasing number of studies have reported that Tai Chi significantly benefits aerobic capacity, muscular strength, balance, and psychological well-being. In addition, Tai Chi offers unique advantages for physical fitness and the treatment of chronic diseases. This paper reviews the existing literatures on Tai Chi, introduces its health-promotion effects and the potential clinical applications, and summarizes recent studies that prove Tai Chi is safe and effective for patients with neurological diseases, rheumatological diseases, musculoskeletal diseases, cardiovascular diseases, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and cancers. After reviewing the literatures in this field, we conclude that the long-term results of practicing Tai Chi may benefit the cardiovascular system, motor system, respiratory system, and nervous system. However, the potential role and mechanism of Tai Chi has not yet been determined. Further studies with long follow-up periods are necessary to meet the standards of clinical applications.

Review
Cooking activity for patients with Alzheimer’s disease: a review
Gong Shang-Qun, Cui Chu-Yun, Zhang Hui, Meng Fan-Jie
Traditional Medicine Research. 2017, 2 (3): 125-129.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMR201707048
Abstract ( 309 )   HTML ( 7 )     PDF (229KB) ( 239 )  
Highlights

This review finds that cooking activity has become a hopeful non-pharmacological therapy in patients with Alzheimer’s disease, which providing evidence for its clinical application of cooking.

Editor’s Summary

Compared with western cooking, as an important element of traditional culture, cooking activity of Chinese food is special. However, the study about cooking activity of Chinese food on Alzheimer’s disease is very few.

Abstract

As a degenerative nervous system disease, Alzheimer’s disease (AD), can damage memory and cognitive function.Cooking activity, aninstrumental activity of daily life, is one of the non-pharmacological therapies with positive effect on AD. Here, we review theeffectiveness of cooking activity on AD. This paper shows that cookingactivity can not only improve patient’s emotional state and alleviate the conduct disorder,but alsoease the burden of professional caregiver. Cooking activity also has certain positive effects on patient’s cognition, autonomy and memory function. Now, as one of the instrumental activities of daily life, cooking activity has developed as a useful tool in the intervention trials, serious game, virtual reality training and assessment of daily living activities.

Ethnic and Regional Medicine
Modulation by anti-oketsu formulations in Kampo medicine of human arterial stiffness
Satoh Hiroyasu
Traditional Medicine Research. 2017, 2 (3): 130-138.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMR201707049
Abstract ( 411 )   HTML ( 5 )     PDF (502KB) ( 263 )  
Highlights

“Oketsu” syndrome is the stagnation and disturbance of microcirculation. This paper focuses on the effect of traditional herbal medicine (Kampo medicine in Japan) on human cardiovascular function. These findings show that the anti-oketsu formulations can exert the ameliorative action for oketsu persons via decreasing augmentation index and central arterial blood pressure.

Editor’s Summary

Tokishakuyakusan (TS, Dang-Gui-Shao-Yao-San), Kamishoyosan (KS, Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San), Keisibukuryogan (KB, Gui-Zhi-Fu-Ling-Wan) and Tokakujokito (TJ, Tao-He-Cheng-Qi-Tang) decoctions are the classical ancient formulas used for blood stasis. TS, KB and TJ decoctions first appeared in Shanghan Lun, which was published in the third century A.D. (Eastern Han Dynasty of China). KS decoction first appeared in Zhengzhi Zhunsheng, which was published in 1602 A.D. (Ming Dynasty of China).

Abstract

Objective: In traditional herbal medicine (Kampo medicine in Japan), “sho” is diagnosed by the traditional assessments of clinical conditions. Among a variety of the shos, there is an “oketsu” syndrome, which is a stagnation and disturbance of microcirculation. The prompt effects of four anti-oketsu formulations in Kampo medicine on cardiovascular functions were compared in oketsu and non-oketsu persons. Methods: The arterial pulse wave from radial artery is formed by the combination with ejection and reflection pulses. An augmentation index (AI), a ration of the ejection and reflection pulses, indicates a degree of arteriosclerosis. For both seventy-six students with oketsu and thirty-seven students with non-oketsu, Kampo formulations overcoming oketsu of Tokishakuyakusan (TS, Dang-Gui-Shao-Yao-San), Kamishoyosan (KS, Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San), Keisibukuryogan (KB, Gui-Zhi-Fu-Ling-Wan) and Tokakujokito (TJ, Tao-He-Cheng-Qi-Tang) were taken once, and then, the cardiovascular functions including blood pressure, heart rate, central arterial blood pressure (CBP) and AI were examined for 60 min. Results: At 40-60 min after an intake, these formulations decreased the AI almost by 6-18% (n = 76), by 18.3±3.1% (P < 0.01, n = 15) with TJ. Simultaneously, the CBP was reduced by 9.0±1.8% (P < 0.05, n = 23) with KS and by 9.1±2.0% (P < 0.05, n = 15) with TJ. On the other hands, non-oketsu group had less or no effect by any kinds of the formulations. Conclusion: The anti-oketsu formulations can exert the ameliorative action for oketsu persons via decreasing AI and CBP.

Clinical effects of digital acupoint pressure combined with hot ironing for scapulohumeral periarthritis in Zhuang medicine
Zhou De-Wen, Zhou Kai, Guo Li, Lu Yan, Huang Ge-Lang
Traditional Medicine Research. 2017, 2 (3): 139-143.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMR201707050
Abstract ( 382 )   HTML ( 13 )     PDF (483KB) ( 417 )  
Highlights

Digital acupoint pressure combined with hot ironing could significantly reduce the pain of shoulder and improve the joint function of shoulder.

Editor’s Summary

Acupoint pressure combined with hot ironing is a special treatment for scapulohumeral periarthritis in Zhuang nationality, one of the minority nationalities of China.

Abstract

Objective: To observe the clinical effect of digital acupoint pressure combined with hot ironing of Zhuang medicine in the therapy of scapulohumeral periarthritis. Methods: 160 patients with scapulohumeral periarthritis were randomly divided into the treatment group and control group with 80 patients in each group. The treatment group was treated with digital acupoint pressure combined with hot ironing of Zhuang medicine. The control group was treated with intermediate frequency therapy apparatus. All the treatments were given once a day for 4 weeks, Then the effective rate as well as the scores of shoulder pain and joint inflammation,were calculated. Results: The shoulder pain score of the treatment group was 3.49±0.98, while that of control group was 5.33±1.26 (P < 0.05). The shoulder joint inflammation score in the treatment group was higher than that of the control group (73.24±7.20 vs 60.71±10.46, P < 0.05). these results suggested that 4 weeks of treatments improved the shoulder function. Moreover, the effective rate of the treatment group was higher than that of the control group (86.25% vs 63.75%). Conclusion: Digital acupoint pressure combined with hot ironing in Zhuang medicine could relieve joint pain of patients with scapulohumeral periarthritis and improve their shoulder mobility.

Special Therapy of Traditional Medicine
Effects of saponin from the seed of Litchi chinensis Sonn on TGF-β1, FN and SOCS-1 in renal tubular epithelial cells under high glucose
Nie Hai-Yang, Chen Rui, Zhang Hong-Na, Pan Zhi
Traditional Medicine Research. 2017, 2 (3): 144-148.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMR201707051
Abstract ( 334 )   HTML ( 17 )     PDF (541KB) ( 222 )  
Highlights

Saponin from the seed of Litchi chinensis Sonn reduces the apoptosis of renal tubular epithelial cells and the secretion of TGF-β1 and FN.

Editor’s Summary

The seed of Litchi chinensis Sonn was first recorded as herb in Bencaogangmu in Ming Dynasty of China (1518 A.D. - 1593 A.D.). This study suggests that saponin from the seed of Litchi chinensis Sonn can be used to prevent the progress of glomerular sclerosis of diabetic nephropathy.

Abstract:

Objective: To investigate the effect of saponin from the seed of Litchi chinensis Sonn (SLS) on the growth and apoptosis of human kidney epithelial cells (HKC) cultured in high glucose. Methods: HKC were cultured in DMEM/F12 medium supplemented with 30 mmol/L glucose and treated with or without SLS. In the normal group, isometric DMEM/F12 medium with 5.5mmol/L glucose was added. The secretion of TGF-β1 and fibronectin (FN) were detected by ELISA. Cell apoptosis was detected by the method of Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining. Western blot was used to detect the level of suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 (SOCS-1). Results: The result of ELISA showed that the secretion of TGF-β1 and FN was decreased in SLS groups compared with those in 30 mmol/L glucose treated group (P < 0.05). There were more cells apoptosis in 30 mmol/L glucose treated group than that in the normal group (P < 0.01). Compared with the 30 mmol/L glucose treated group, the apoptosis of HKC were significantly decreased in SLS groups (P < 0.01). Western blot showed that the level of SOCS-1 in high glucose + SLS group was decreased (P < 0.01), compared with the high glucose group. Conclusion: SLS can reduce the secretion of TGF-β1 and FN in HKC by reducing the deposition of extracellular matrix. SLS also significantly reduced the apoptosis of HKC by inhibiting the level of SOCS-1. These results suggest the roles of SLS in preventing the progress of glomerular sclerosis.

Fireneedle up-regulates the expression of ERK1/2 in neural stem cells
Xu Jia-Chun, Zhao Zhi-Heng, Cheng Su-Li, Wang Xue, Jiao Zhao-Hua, Cai Zhi-Min, Zhou Zhen, Liu Bao-Hong, Li Yan
Traditional Medicine Research. 2017, 2 (3): 149-154.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMR201707052
Abstract ( 304 )   HTML ( 7 )     PDF (558KB) ( 181 )  
Highlights

Fire needlerepairs the spinal cord injury via promoting neural stem cells differentiate into neurons.

Editor’s Summary

The earliest record of ancient literature about fire needle was in Lingshu, which was published in warring state period of China (475 B.C. - 221 B.C.).

Abstract

Objective: To explore the effect of fire needle on the expression of ERK1/2 of neural stem cells (NSCs) obtained from rats with spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods: Sixty SD female rats were randomly divided into 5 groups, including 5 in the blank group, 5 in the sham operation group, 25 in the model group, and 25 in the fire needle treated group. Rats in the model group and the fire needle treated group were further divided into the 1d group, the 3d group, the 7d group, the 10d group and the 14d group, respectively. Modified Allen’s method was applied to build SCI model, and serum in the abdominal aorta was collected at the indicated time and placed into NSCs culture dishes for 72h. RT-PCR was applied to detect the expression of ERK1/2. Results: According to the Basso, Beattie & Bresnahan scale (BBB scale), rats in the model group and the fire needle treated group scored 0 at first day, suggesting a success of modeling after treatment. The scores of the fire needle group were significantly higher than those in the model group (P < 0.05). Compared with sham operation group, the expression of ERK1 and ERK 2 in model group and fire needle group were significantly decreased at day 1 (P < 0.05), and lasted for 3d (P < 0.05). At day 7 and day 10, the expressions of ERK1 and ERK2 in the fire needle group were significantly higher than those in the model group (both P < 0.05). Conclusion: Fire needle could up-regulate the expression of ERK1 and ERK2of NSCsfrom SCI rats.

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