Loading...

Current Issue

05 May 2018, Volume 3 Issue 3 Previous Issue    Next Issue
For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
Special Issue of Separation and Pharmacological Effects of TCM
Is Colla Corii Asini just boiled donkey skin?
Editor Group of TMR
Traditional Medicine Research. 2018, 3 (3)  
Abstract ( 1014 )     PDF (151KB) ( 108 )  

The preparation of Chinese medicine, exploration of the bioactive component, and underlying mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) have always been regarded as a research hotspot and have attracted increasing attention of both scholars and clinical doctors. However, on February 18, 2018, the official Micro-blog of the National Health and Family Planning Commission's 12320 Public Health Hotline released an article stating that Ejiao (Colla Corii Asini) was merely boiled donkey skin. Soon the post was deleted and the 12320 Public Health Hotline apologized on behalf of the official Micro-blog. This topic has caused great controversy in China. Some experts and scholars believe that Ejiao (Colla Corii Asini) has the effect of enriching blood and nourishing Yin, while others indeed believe that Ejiao (Colla Corii Asini) is simply boiled donkey skin and that there is no difference between donkey skin and pig skin or cow skin.

Accordingly, the China Association of TCM discussed the issue for the first time. Shuting Fang, the head of the China Association of TCM, said, “Ejiao (Colla Corii Asini) was first recorded in the ancient book Shennongbencaojing in the Qin and Han Dynasty of China (221 B.C.–25 A.D.); there were 303 ancient books in the field of TCM recording the application of Ejiao (Colla Corii Asini), and more than 3200 ancient prescriptions were related to the application of Ejiao (Colla Corii Asini).” He also said, “the processing technology of Ejiao (Colla Corii Asini) is rather complicated—it is not as simple as boiling donkey skin. A large number of pharmacological and clinical studies have shown that Ejiao (Colla Corii Asini) has great potential to enrich blood and nourish Yin, and Ejiao (Colla Corii Asini) has been used widely in the therapy of gynecological disease, respiratory disease, and even malignant tumor.” 

Ejiao (Colla Corii Asini) is produced in Dong’e county, China and has been considered an article of tribute to the imperial family from the Han Dynasty (202 B.C. - 220 A.D.) to the Qing Dynasty (the 17th century). The preparation of Ejiao (Colla Corii Asini) involves more than fifty processes, all of which are manual operations, including hair removal, skin melting, decoction, etc. Even after 6-7 years, the operator just barely “skins the surface”. Chinese Pharmacopoeia noted that Ejiao (Colla Corii Asini) clearly had the functions of enriching blood and nourishing Yin. Furthermore, according to the statistics of CNKI, a famous literature database in China, there are as many as 5707 articles regarding Ejiao (Colla Corii Asini); among them, nearly 20 scholarly papers were published abroad and covered a range of topics that include clinical effects, mechanism of action, and historical record.

Here, the present special issue regarding separation and pharmacological effects of TCM focuses on the effective substances within Chinese herbs and their mechanisms of action.

Editor Group of TMR

Modernization of Traditional Medicine
Screening for cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitors from natural compounds of Radix Glycyrrhizae using computer simulation
Ming Yang, Yi Jin, Li-Ping Yang
1Traditional Medicine Research. 2018, 3 (3): 115-130.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMR201811070
Abstract ( 1258 )   HTML ( 37 )     PDF (1193KB) ( 533 )  
Highlights

Besides the well-known components which possess the glucocorticoids-like anti-inflammatory effect of Chinese herb Gancao (Radix Glycyrrhizae), there are still other components which possess the NSAIDs-like anti-inflammatory effect and their underling mechanism is related to the inhibition on COX-2.

Editor’s Summary

Chinese herb Gancao (Radix Glycyrrhizae) possesses both the steroid-like and non-steroid anti- inflammatory effects, which reflects the multi- targets characteristics of the role of Chinese herb in the treatment of disease.

Abstract

Objective: To explore the molecular basis of the effects of Gancao (Radix Glycyrrhizae, GC) on inflammation through the inhibition of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2). Methods: The Discovery Studio 4.5 System was used to predict the physicochemical properties of GC molecular compounds. The Ligand Profiler was used to screen for natural GC components that could combine with the COX-2 pharmacophores. The AutoDock Vina 1.1.2 software was used for the molecular docking of the natural GC components with the COX-2 protein. Results: The aromatics were the closest to the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in terms of the three properties, namely molecular weight, molecular surface area, and molecular solubility, followed by the flavonoids; whereas the terpenoids/saponins differed most from the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in terms of the three properties; and the aliphatics were inconsistent. One hundred and eighteen small molecules were obtained through the pharmacophore screening using GC. The molecular binding energy (MBE) results demonstrated that the MBE value of the flavonoids/aromatics, obtained from their binding with the COX-2 protein, was lower than that obtained from their binding with the substrate, metabolism of arachidonic acid, whereas the MBE value of the aliphatics/terpenoids, obtained from their binding with the COX-2 protein, was higher than that obtained from their binding with the substrate, arachidonic acid. Finally, further filtration, based on the physicochemical properties and the molecular binding energies of the small molecules, was carried out. Forty-two natural GC components, including 35 flavonoid and 7 aromatic constituents, with low binding energies and potential inhibitory effects on COX-2, were screened. Conclusion: Using the three-step program, pharmacophore screening, molecular docking, and physicochemical properties analysis, we screened out 35 flavonoid molecules and 7 aromatic molecules, which may be potential COX-2 inhibitors, from GC. Two of the 35 flavonoid molecules (licochalcone A and glabridin) have been confirmed in the laboratory to have inhibitory effects on COX-2. Our findings provide a material basis for the development of non-steroidal GC drugs.

The protective effect of Dendrobium officinale polysaccharides on photoaging fibroblasts by scavenging reactive oxygen species and promoting the expression of TGF-β1
Rui Tang, Qia-Qia Li, Di Wang, Jing Chen, Jin-Hua Huang, Qing-Hai Zeng
1Traditional Medicine Research. 2018, 3 (3): 131-139.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMR201811071
Abstract ( 1678 )   HTML ( 17 )     PDF (893KB) ( 492 )  

Highlights

Dendrobium officinale polysaccharides has the protective effect of on photoaging human skin fibroblasts via removing ROS induced by UVB, inhibiting the secretion of MMP-1 and increasing the expression of TGF-β1.

Editor’s Summary

Tiepishihu (Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo) was first recorded in Shennongbencaojing in the Qin and Han Dynasty of China (221 B.C.-25 A.D.).

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to explore the protective effect of Dendrobium officinale polysaccharides (DOP) on photoaging human skin fibroblasts and its specific mechanism of action. The photoaging fibroblast model was established by ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation. The toxic effects of different concentrations of DOP were detected using MTT. Senescent cells were detected using a β-galactosidase kit. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells were detected using a flow cytometer. The expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), type I collagen C-terminal peptide (CICP), and transforming growth factor β-1 (TGF-β1) in spent culture medium was detected by ELISA. The results showed that the low concentration of DOP (20, 40, 80 μg/mL) had no cytotoxicity on fibroblasts. After 60 mJ/cm2 UVB irradiation, the number of aging β-gal-positive cells increased, the levels of CICP and TGF-β1 in spent culture medium decreased, while the levels of MMP-1 and ROS increased. After administration of DOP on photoaging fibroblasts, the number of aging β-gal-positive cells decreased, the levels of ROS and MMP-1 decreased, and the levels of TGF-β1 and CICP increased. This experiment suggests that DOP has the effect of removing ROS induced by UVB, regulating the balance of collagen production and degradation, and protecting photoaging human skin fibroblasts.

Polysaccharide extracts of Cirsium japonicum protect rat H9c2 myocardial cells from oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide
Zheng-Bo Tao, Li-Yan Xiong, Li-Hui Wang, Chuan Zhang
1Traditional Medicine Research. 2018, 3 (3): 140-147.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMR201811072
Abstract ( 747 )   HTML ( 12 )     PDF (667KB) ( 356 )  

Highlights

The current study found that the polysaccharide extract of Daji (Cirsium japonicum) have a favorable therapeutic effect against oxidative stress and the underlying mechanism might be involved with MAPK pathway.

Editor’s Summary

Daji (Cirsium japonicum) have been traditionally utilized by the Tibetan and Mongolian people since the Tang Dynasty of China (618 A.D. - 907 A.D.).

Abstract

Daji (Cirsium japonicum) has been applied against gastric disorders, lung diseases, and cardiovascular problems in the traditional Chinese medicinal system. The present study was to investigate the protective effects of Daji (Cirsium japonicum) polysaccharide extracts (CJP) against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) shock in rat H9c2 myocardial cells. First, CJP was isolated by hot water extraction and ethanol precipitation; it was then characterized by high performance liquid chromatography and infrared spectrum analysis. Rat H9c2 cells were subjected to H2O2 treatment to establish a cell injury model. The 3- (4,5- dimethylthiazol- 2-yl)-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay showed that CJP pretreatment significantly ameliorated the H2O2 injury in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the cell apoptosis induced by H2O2 was markedly inhibited by CJP pretreatment, whereas the cleavage level of caspase-3, -8, and -9 was reduced. In addition, the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway might be involved in the protective effect of CJP on myocardial cells. Therefore, we conclude that polysaccharide extracts of Daji (Cirsium japonicum) protect rat H9c2 myocardial cells from oxidative stress induced by H2O2.

Study of dual-directional regulatory effect of Banxia (Pinellia ternata) and Huanglian (Coptis chinensis) drug pair on gastrointestinal movement of mice
Yue Ji, Jun-Chen Li, Jing-Yan Meng, Xue-Rou Yan, Jian-ang Li, Qing-Yun Zhao, Kang Yang, Chun- Liu
1Traditional Medicine Research. 2018, 3 (3): 148-156.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMR201811073
Abstract ( 1056 )   HTML ( 10 )     PDF (678KB) ( 411 )  

Highlights

Banxia (Pinellia Ternate) and Huanglian (Coptis chinensis) drug pair has dual-directional regulatory effects on gastrointestinal movement in mice with atropine or neostigmine induced functional dyspepsia by modulating GAS, VIP, and SS levels in the intestine.

Editor’s Summary

Banxia (Pinellia ternata) and Huanglian (Coptis chinensis) drug pair was derived from Banxiaxiexin soup, which was first recorded in the Shanghanlun composed by Zhang Zhongjing in the third century (Eastern Han Dynasty of China).

Abstract

Objective: To evaluate the regulatory effects of Banxia (Pinellia ternata, P) and Huanglian (Coptis chinensis, C) drug pair, derived from Banxiaxiexin soup, on the gastrointestinal movement of mice with functional dyspepsia. Methods: Mice were treated with different proportions of the P and C drug pair (1:1, 3:1, and 4:1) for 10 days, and subsequently injected with atropine (ATR) or neostigmine (NEO). The effects of the different proportions of P and C were evaluated based on the alvine advance rate. In addition, we used the same modeling method used in the first experiment and administered P: C at ratio of 3:1 and at different doses respectively (4.68 g/L, 2.34 g/L, and 1.17 g/L), and tested levels of the gastrointestinal hormones, gastrin (GAS), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), and somatostatin (SS) in the small intestinal tissue using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: In the groups of NEO-induced mice, P:C at ratios of 1:1, 3:1, and 4:1 significantly reduced the alvine advance rate compared with the NEO model group (P = 0.003, P = 0.012 and P = 0.021, respectively). In the groups of ATR-induced mice, only P:1 at ratio of 3:1 significantly increased the alvine advance rate compared with the ATR model group (P = 0.007). After exposure to P: C at ratio of 3:1 and at different dose, the GAS level was lower in the low-, medium-, and high-dose NEO groups than that in the NEO model group (P = 0.001, P = 0.004, and P = 0.003, respectively). The VIP levels were higher in the medium-and high-dose NEO groups than that in the NEO model group (P = 0.004 and P = 0.002, respectively). In addition, the SS level increased in the NEO medium-dose group compared with that in the NEO model group (P = 0.002). The GAS level was higher in the ATR medium- and high-dose groups than in the ATR model group (P = 0.007 and P = 0.021, respectively). The VIP level was lower in the ATR low-, medium-, and high-dose than that in the ATR model group (P = 0.001, P = 0.001, and P = 0.001, respectively). Furthermore, the SS level was lower in the ATR medium- and high-dose groups than that in the ATR model group (P = 0.001 and P = 0.006). Conclusion: The PC drug pair bidirectionally adjusted the NEO- and ATR-induced functional dyspepsia in mice by modulating GAS, VIP, and SS levels in the intestine.

Ancient Formula Research
Effect of alternate-day-fasting combined with Lingguizhugan Decoction on blood lipid profiles of hyperlipidemic rats
Jun-Jie Zhang, Xian-Zhi He, Guo-Shun Peng, Zhen-Kun Wang, Bin Ke, Jian Qin
1Traditional Medicine Research. 2018, 3 (3): 157-165.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMR201811074
Abstract ( 772 )   HTML ( 8 )     PDF (395KB) ( 390 )  

Highlights

Lingguizhugan Decoction didn’t enhance the effect of alternate-day-fasting in the prevention of hyperlipidemia.

Editor’s Summary

Effects of Chinese herb combined with behavior therapy in the treatment of hyperlipidemia need further exploration.

Abstract

Objective: To explore the effects of alternate-day-fasting (ADF) therapy combined with Lingguizhugan Decoction (LD) on blood lipid profiles of hyperlipidemic rats. Methods: Rats were randomly assigned into high-fat-diet (HF) group and normal-diet (ND) group. Hyperlipidemic rats fed with high-fat-diet for 5 weeks were randomly divided into ADF group, alternate-day-fasting with LD (ALG) group and model control (MC) group. The rats in ALG and ADF group were deprived of food for 24 h every other day for 4 weeks. Rats in ALG group were administrated with LD at fasting day. After 4 weeks of ADF therapy, plasma TC, TG, LDL-c and HDL-c were measured in each group. Expression of miR-143 and PPAR-γ protein from adipose was also analyzed. Results: When compared with MC group, after 4 weeks of ADF or combined ADF and LD therapy, the body weight was evidently reduced in ADF and ALG groups (P = 0.028, P = 0.036 by wk 8). The levels of plasma TC and TG decreased in ADF group and ALG group, which were significantly lower than those in MC group (P < 0.001, P = 0.045; P < 0.001, P = 0.005). However, the body weight and level of TC and TG in ALG group showed non-statistical difference in comparison with ADF group (ALG vs. ADF, P > 0.05). Expression of miR-143 and PPAR-γ were higher in MC group than that in NC group (P < 0.001). Compared with MC group, expression of miR-143 and PPAR-γ were significantly decreased in ADF (P = 0.038, P = 0.015) and ALG (P = 0.007, P < 0.001) groups. When compared with ADF group, expression of miR-143 and PPAR-γ were significantly decreased in ALG (P = 0.041, P = 0.046) group. Conclusion: ADF therapy alone not only reduced blood lipids, but also inhibited miR-143 and PPAR-γ protein expression in visceral adipose tissue. However, LD couldn’t reduce the levels of blood lipid profiles more effectively than using ADF alone. Perhaps the effects of LD combined with ADF in the prevention of hyperlipidemia need further exploration.

2019-nCoV

TMR Data ExpandedMore