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05 September 2018, Volume 3 Issue 5 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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Special Issue on Ethnic and Regional Medicine
The concept of vaccines first came from Chinese medicine
Editor Group of TMR
Traditional Medicine Research. 2018, 3 (5)  
Abstract ( 410 )     PDF (173KB) ( 73 )  

On July 15, 2018, the State Drug Administration of China issued a notice stating that the production records for freeze-dried human rabies vaccine manufactured by Changchun Changsheng Biotechnology Co., Ltd., could be faked. The company’s vaccine is again the subject of quality concerns after a November 2017 disclosure that the vaccine titer index did not meet requirements. This newest incident has aroused widespread concern, and both children’s parents and the media have expressed their opinions.

It is well-known that the vaccine is a product of modern medicine. It was born at the hands of the famous European microbiologist Louis Pasteur, who discovered the anti-epidemic effects of the “vaccine” through bacterial cultivation in the 1880s. After several efforts, Pasteur successively overcame rabies, cholera, and gangrene, making milestone contributions to human progress.

However, a medical scientist in ancient China explored the mechanisms of vaccines as early as 1700 years ago. He was Ge Hong, the famous Taoist teacher in the DongJin Dynasty of China. His book, Zhouhoubeijifang, reported on rabies and proposed the following therapeutic method: after being bitten by a dog, kill it, and put the brain of this mad dog on the wound to prevent the onset of rabies. This can be considered the inception of the vaccine concept. 

The mechanism for disease prevention by a vaccine is induction of the body’s immune system to produce antibodies when a small amount of the attenuated pathogen is injected into the body; these antibodies will then protect against the corresponding pathogen. Louis Pasteur’s vaccine was also derived from the brain of a sick rabbit and shared similarities with Ge Hong’s treatment. Unfortunately, in an age in which science and technology productivity were at an extremely low level, Ge Hong’s discovery remained only a personal experience, as it was impossible to produce the vaccine at that time. It is amazing that Ge Hong formulated this concept in 300 A.D., more than 1,500 years earlier than Louis Pasteur. 

Chinese medicine has made an important contribution to the development of vaccines. Ethnic medicines worldwide have their own characteristics that warrant further exploration of the historical record, as well as the aid of modern science and technology.

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Is Thunder-Fire moxibustion effective in the treatment of adenomyosis combined with infertility?
Xiong-Zhi Wu
1Traditional Medicine Research. 2018, 3 (5): 214-214.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMR201813085
Abstract ( 742 )   HTML ( 11 )     PDF (136KB) ( 238 )  

Adenomyosis is defined as the presence of endometrial glands and stroma within the myometrium. It can seriously endanger a woman’s quality of life, causing infertility, dysmenorrhea, and chronic pelvic pain. The definitive treatment for adenomyosis is hysterectomy. However, this option does not benefit patients who wish to preserve their fertility [1]. Although medical treatments are effective in improving clinical symptoms, there are limited data to support medical effectiveness in improving the chances of pregnancy.

   Thunder-Fire moxibustion, a type of special moxibustion therapy, has significant efficacy in the treatment of pain and Yinzheng (a symptom of Chinese medicine, with the clinical characteristics of chills, cold limbs, loose stools or diarrhea, etc.). Thunder-Fire moxibustion may originated in the Taoist magic arts before the Yuan Dynasty (1271 A.D.–1368 A.D.) and matured in the middle of the Ming Dynasty (1368 A.D.–1644 A.D.) (Taoism is a Chinese native religion that arose in the Donghan Dynasty of China; magic arts constitute an extremely important part of the Taoist and aim to remain healthy) [2]. Today, Thunder-Fire moxibustion remains in use, and physicians have employed it to treat adenomyosis. The pathology of adenomyosis is considered cold stagnation and blood stasis. Its clinical characteristics sharing some similarity with those of Yinzheng of Chinese medicine. Thunder-Fire moxibustion warms and disperses cold evil, as well as activates blood circulation and relieves pain [3-7]. However, the underlying mechanism of Thunder-Fire moxibustion remains unknown and few articles touch on the level of modern medical mechanism. Penetration and transmission of the heating effect, infrared rays, pharmacochemical and physical factors, and different channels and acupoints produced by the burning moxa stick containing Chinese herbs may be responsible for its efficacy [8].

   Here, a clinical investigation into 120 cases evaluated the clinical efficacy of Thunder-Fire moxibustion combined with ovulation monitoring in the treatment of adenomyosis combined with infertility. Moxibustion at Guanyuan (CV4) and Qihai (CV6) points with Thunder-Fire moxibustion abdominal array could increase the pregnancy rate for patients with adenomyosis, as well as improve dysmenorrhea and related traditional Chinese medicine syndromes. To read more about Thunder-Fire moxibustion, see this article: Evaluating the clinical efficacy of Thunder-Fire moxibustion combined with ovulation monitoring in the treatment of adenomyosis combined with infertility. Link: http://www.tmrjournals.com/tmr/EN/10.12032/TMR2018
13083

Ethnic and Regional Medicine
Bioactive molecules in Siddha Polyherbal Nilavembu Kudineer alleviating symptoms of Dengue/Chikugunya
Rubeena Mattummal, Divya Kallingilkalathil Gopi, Sathiya Rajeshwaran Parameswaran, Sunil Kumar Koppala Narayana
Traditional Medicine Research. 2018, 3 (5): 215-229.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMR201813080
Abstract ( 1672 )   HTML ( 41 )     PDF (365KB) ( 524 )  

Highlights

The current study aims at exploring the bioactive molecules in Siddha Polyherbal Nilavembu Kudineer alleviating symptoms of Dengue/ Chikugunya.

Editor’s Summary

Nilavembu Kudineer is one of the thirty-two types of internal medicines described in the ancient Siddha system of medicine in south India which reduces fever and relieves body aches.

Abstract

Dengue is the most prevalent arthropod-borne viral diseases in terms of morbidity and mortality in the recent decade with the classic symptoms of high fever, headache as well as muscle and joint pain. Nilavembu Kudineer (NK) is one among the 32 types of internal medicines described in the ancient Siddha system of medicine in south India which reduces fever and relieves body aches. NK, a polyherbal formulation made up of eight traditional herbs in equal parts, is also recommended for prevention and management of all types of viral infections including Dengue/Chikugunya. Exploration of bioactive compounds in the plants is the primary step for the standardization and bioactivity screening of plants and formulations. So the current study aims at recording the chemical constituents and medicinal activities of each ingredient of NK. The anti-pyretic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and immunostimulant effects of NK have been attributed to more than one ingredient in NK. The medicinal property of the NK can be also attributed to the combined effect of all phytochemicals present in these eight herbs. The current study encompasses the various chemicals and the activities of individual herbs but a thorough stereoscopic and chromatographic investigation is required to trace out the major phytochemical entities which are retained once the NK is prepared by the traditional methods.

Can hip abduction reduce the risk of femoral head necrosis deteriorated into osteoarthritis? A 3D finite element analysis
Guang-Quan Zhou, Hong-Lai Zhang
Traditional Medicine Research. 2018, 3 (5): 230-236.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMR201813081
Abstract ( 564 )   HTML ( 10 )     PDF (2737KB) ( 238 )  

Highlights

The present computational biomechanical analysis suggest that enhanced lower extremity abduction motion can effectively reduce collapse risk and interrupt the disease pathway of femoral head necrosis deteriorated into osteoarthritis.

Editor’s Summary

Femoral head necrosis is called Gushi, which was first recorded in Huangdineijing published on Xihan Dynasty of China (the third century B.C.). This study provided an unique biomechanical insight into the beneficial effects of lower extremity abduction motion in the treatment of femoral head necrosis.

Abstract

Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate biomechanical behavior changes of femoral head necrosis (FHN) by increasing lower extremity abduction (LEA) angle, offering scientific basis on choosing the LEA procedure for the exact classifications. Methods: Thirty computational models were constructed and used to simulate six different abducent angles with five different progresses of FHN. The initial model was validated by the bony density distribution in X-rays images and the photograph of the cadaver bone in cross-section. The stress transfer path (STP) of each model was analyzed and the contact stresses were assessed. Results: During the midstance phase, STP of type A showed strong similarities with the healthy level; STP distribution was from the top of the femoral head to the calcar; the damage area of STP of type B was approximately 25% of the healthy. While STPs in both type C1 and C2 were broken off. As the increase of the abduction angle, STP of type B transformed into type A, STP of type C1 transformed into type B. STP of type C2 transformed into type C1. There was no significant difference in contact stress between the four settings of FHN and normal femoral head. Conclusions: We found computational biomechanical technique to be a sensitive and useful method for distinguishing the biomechanical difference of FHN during abduction gait. These results showed that LEA motion could effectively reduce collapse risk and interrupt the disease pathway of FHN deteriorated into osteoarthritis. Furthermore, our findings indicated that the LEA procedure was suitable for type A, B and C1, while type C2 of FHN involved surgical intervention might get a better clinical outcome.

Clinical efficacy of combined skin acupuncture and external washing therapy of Zhuang nationality medicine in the treatment of chronic eczema
Zu-Ling Jiang, An Huang, Gui-Yan Deng, Jing Xu, Jing Tang, Feng-Zhen Liang
Traditional Medicine Research. 2018, 3 (5): 237-242.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMR201813082
Abstract ( 786 )   HTML ( 15 )     PDF (441KB) ( 312 )  

Highlights

The clinical efficacy of combined skin acupuncture and external washing therapy of Zhuang nationality medicine in the treatment of chronic eczema was superior to that of mometasone furoate cream.

Editor’s Summary

Two exquisite bronze needles which were early used in skin acupuncture of Zhuang nationality medicine, belonging to the period between the Western Zhou dynasty to the Spring and Autumn Period (1046 B.C. - 476 B.C.), were discovered at an archaeological site in a tomb.

Abstract

Objective: To evaluate the clinical efficacy of combined skin acupuncture and external washing therapy of Zhuang nationality medicine in the treatment of chronic eczema. Methods: One hundred and twenty patients with chronic eczema were randomly divided into an experimental group (60 cases) and a control group (60 cases). The experimental group was treated with skin acupuncture combined with external washing therapy, and the control group was treated with externally applied mometasone furoate cream. The patients’ symptoms and total severity were scored and analyzed before and after the 4-week treatment. The symptoms scored included: erythema, papule/hard swelling, epidermal exfoliation, mossy lesion, exudation/scab, and pruritus. Clinical efficacy and adverse reactions were compared before and after the 4-week treatment. Results: Scores for the different kinds of skin derogation, pruritus symptoms, the eczema area, and severity index (EASI) were all reduced after the treatments. Pruritus symptoms and EASI scores in the experimental group were lower than those of the control group (P < 0.05). The total effective rate in the experimental group was 81.03%, which was much higher than the 61.11% in the control group (Z = -2.391, P = 0.017). Conclusion: The clinical efficacy of combined skin acupuncture and external washing therapy of Zhuang nationality medicine in the treatment of chronic eczema was better than that of mometasone furoate cream.

Evaluating the clinical efficacy of Thunder-Fire moxibustion combined with ovulation monitoring in the treatment of adenomyosis combined with infertility
Hua Wang, Yan Chen, Yong Yin, Chun-Hua Cao, Sai-Li Wang, Qin Wang, De-Xi Peng, Chun-Jian Zhu, Lin-Wei Chen
Traditional Medicine Research. 2018, 3 (5): 243-250.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMR201813083
Abstract ( 1562 )   HTML ( 17 )     PDF (334KB) ( 351 )  

Highlights

Thunder-Fire moxibustion with ovulation monitoring significantly improved the pregnancy rate of patients diagnosed with adenomyosis- associated infertility.

Editor’s Summary

Thunder-Fire moxibustion stemmed from the Taoism magic arts before the Yuan Dynasty of China (1271 A.D.-1368 A.D.) and took shape in the middle of the Ming Dynasty of China (1368 A.D.-1644 A.D.).

Abstract

This study evaluated the clinical efficacy of Thunder-Fire moxibustion combined with ovulation monitoring for the treatment of adenomyosis-associated infertility. A series of 120 patients diagnosed with uterine adenomyosis and infertility and cold coagulation blood stasis syndrome in traditional Chinese medicine (with the clinical manifestations of premenstrual or menstrual lower abdomen cold pain, pain reduction with heat application, and cold extremities) were randomized equally to treatment group with Thunder-Fire moxibustion and ovulation monitoring as well as control group with ovulation monitoring only. Treatment continued for six menstrual cycles. The pregnancy rate of the treatment group was significantly increased with the control group (50.0% vs. 23.3%, P = 0.021). Dysmenorrhea and the traditional Chinese medicine syndrome in the treatment group improved significantly compared with the control group (3.87 ± 2.03 vs. 5.70 ± 1.01, P = 0.002 and 7.33 ± 4.11 vs. 10.52 ± 2.33, P = 0.006, respectively), and there was also significant between-group differences in serum cancer antigen 125 (55.45 ± 14.65 vs. 63.34 ± 11.41, P = 0.031). However, the average uterus diameters in the treatment and control groups were not significantly different (67.13 ± 7.59 vs. 69.89 ± 5.30, P = 0.137). Thunder-Fire moxibustion with ovulation monitoring improved the pregnancy rate of patients diagnosed with adenomyosis-associated infertility.

Rat model for study of the essence of spleen deficiency and dampness in Chinese medicine
Xiao-Chun Han, Xu-Ming Ji, Lin Liu, Shuang Zhang, Li Sun, Qiu-Jian Feng, Shi-Jun Wang
Traditional Medicine Research. 2018, 3 (5): 251-257.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMR201813084
Abstract ( 1686 )   HTML ( 14 )     PDF (1006KB) ( 419 )  

Highlights

Spleen deficiency is often accompanied by dampness. Cytokines, immunoglobulins, and gastrointestinal hormones play major roles in the pathogenesis of spleen deficiency and dampness.

Editor’s Summary

The two TCM syndromes “spleen deficiency” and “dampness” were cause and effect to each other.

Abstract

Objective: To explore the essence of spleen deficiency and dampness in Chinese medicine by successfully constructing a rat model with this syndrome. Methods: Rat models with the syndrome of dampness and spleen deficiency were established with the use of a high-fat, low-protein diet and excessive fatigue induced by loaded swimming. A total of 25 common clinical serological markers were tested. The T test, rank test, and partial least squares regression-discriminant analysis were used to analyze the data. Results: Total protein, albumin, motilin, interferon-γ, interleukin-2, immunoglobulin A, immunoglobulin G, and complement 3 levels in the model rats were lower than those in the control group (P = 0.029, P = 0.032, P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P < 0.001, respectively). The serum creatinine, total cholesterol, aldosterone, antidiuretic hormone, gastrin, interleukin-4, somatostatin, atrial natriuretic peptide, and vasoactive intestinal peptide levels in the model group were higher than those in the control group (P < 0.001, P = 0.015, P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P < 0.001, respectively). There was no statistical difference between the two groups in aspartate transaminase, alanine aminotransferase, globulin, albumin/globulin, blood urea nitrogen, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein. The model animal syndrome used two important variables in analysis with partial least squares regression-discriminant analysis. At the same time, the two dimensions were difficult to distinguish for each biological index. Conclusion: Spleen deficiency is often associated with dampness. The index that represents spleen deficiency can also represent dampness. Cytokines, immunoglobulins, and gastrointestinal hormones play a major causative role in both spleen deficiency and dampness.

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