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05 November 2018, Volume 3 Issue 6 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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Special Issue on Network Pharmacology
When a child is sick, can acupuncturing his/her mother cure a child's illness?
Editor Group of TMR
Traditional Medicine Research. 2018, 3 (6)  
Abstract ( 551 )     PDF (131KB) ( 81 )  

Recently, an article entitled Exploring Quantum Entanglement and Acupuncture has attracted widespread attention from medical practitioners and the media. This article was published in the November 2017 issue of Chinese Acupuncture Journal. The paper points out that according to the coupling relationship of quantum entanglement theory and transcending space-time, there must be a phenomenon of quantum entanglement between parents and their children and relatives with blood relationship. In response to the reaction this article has produced, author’ affiliation, Beijing University of Traditional Chinese Medicine Dongzhimen Hospital issued a statement, stating that the paper reflects the author's personal opinions and thoery based on relevant principals and phenomenon, from which further experimentation and proof is required. It is not the final clinical research report, nor is it instructive for clinical medicine.  

Acupuncture is a kind of traditional Chinese medical physiotherapy. Its clinical effectiveness has been confirmed in clinical practice. However, the material foundation and principle of action in acupuncture and moxibustion still has no unified understanding in the medical community. This article, On Quantum Entanglement and Acupuncture, attempts to introduce the phenomenon of physics quantum mechanics into the field of acupuncture and moxibustion, and explore the mechanism of acupuncture treatment. It is unfortunate, that this article has led to widespread controversy in China, causing serious doubt of acupuncture treatment from modern medical doctors and physicists.

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The role of Si-Jun-Zi decoction in the management of gastric precancerous lesions and its mechanism
Xiong-Zhi Wu
1Traditional Medicine Research. 2018, 3 (6): 258-259.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMR201814091
Abstract ( 731 )   HTML ( 20 )     PDF (809KB) ( 267 )  
Gastric cancer remains one of the most common and aggressive malignant tumors worldwide. The occurence of gastric cancer experiences a cascade of multistep gastric carcinogenesis, starting from inflammation, metaplasia, and ultimately to dysplasia and carcinoma. Patients with gastric precancerous lesions, mainly including intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia, are more prone to suffer from gastric adenocarcinoma [1]. Therefore, early prevention and treatment regarding gastric precancerous lesions is an important way to reduce the risk of occurence of gastric cancer. 
  At present, the therapy of gastric precancerous lesions main contains H. pylori eradication, the application of cyclooxgenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor or antioxidants, and/or endoscopic mucosal resection. However, their clinical outcome is limited because they does not appear to reverse intestinal metaplasia but may only slow down the progression to neoplasia [2, 3]. In most cases, “wait and see” strategy, that is, survailing or monitoring the progression of precancerous conditions and lesions, remains the most important guidline in the management of gastric precancerous lesions. 
  Si-Jun-Zi (SJZ) decoction, a famous herbal formula originated from Chinese medicine ancient book Taiping Huimin Heji Jufang in 1078 A.D. - 1085 A.D., Song Dynasty of China, has been used to treat digestive diseases for hundreds of years. Clinical studies showed that SJZ decoction could reverse gastric precancerous lesions and had the potential to prevent gastic cancer [4-6]. Due to its multi-compound and multi-target manner, SJZ decoction shows great potential in the prevention of this complex disease. However, at present, the active components and the mechanism of its favorably therapeutic effects, especially the mechanisam from multi-target network level, has not been totally understood. 
  In recent years network pharmacology has become a popular methodology for the reasearch of Chinese herbal formular. The network pharmacology approach could provide a novel approach for thoroughly exploring the active components and molecular mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of Chinese herbal formular with the aid of Big Database, including the active compounds screening, compound targets of herbal formular, disease targets of GPL, GO and KEGG pathway enrichment and network construction. 
To read more about Si-Jun-Zi decoction, see this artical please: A network pharmacology approach to investigate the mechanisms of Si-Jun-Zi decoction in the treatment of gastric precancerous lesions. Link: https://www.tmrjournals.com/tmr/EN/10.12032/TMR201814087

Modernization of Traditional Medicine
Recent advances in network pharmacology applications in Chinese herbal medicine
Jian Hao, Shi-Jun Li
Traditional Medicine Research. 2018, 3 (6): 260-272.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMR201814086
Abstract ( 1279 )   HTML ( 53 )     PDF (875KB) ( 488 )  

Network pharmacology is a new discipline based on the theory of systems biology and network analysis of biological systems to design the drugs. It comprehensively observes the intervention and influence of drugs on the disease network, and reveals the mystery of multi-molecular drugs synergistically acting on disease. These concepts reflect the ideas of multi-component, multi-target and system regulation, and have many similarities with the research ideas of traditional Chinese medicine, which focuses on syndrome differentiation and treatment, emphasizes the overall understanding of the etiology and pathogenesis. Network pharmacology can be used to predict and identify the target and active component of traditional herbal medicine, to clarify the mechanism of action, to scientifically explain the rules of the prescription, to explore the rules of real-world prescription, to discover new indications and new active compounds, and to study drug relocation, etc. The applications of network pharmacology in traditional herbal medicine were systematically summarized to demonstrate the significant value in these areas.

A network pharmacology approach to investigate the mechanisms of Si-Jun-Zi decoction in the treatment of gastric precancerous lesions
Liang-Jun Yang, Dao-Rui Hou, Ya Li, Zhi-Peng Hu, Yong Zhang
Traditional Medicine Research. 2018, 3 (6): 273-285.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMR201814087
Abstract ( 1592 )   HTML ( 59 )     PDF (1672KB) ( 826 )  

Highlights

The Si-Jun-Zi decoction may exert a therapeutic effect on gastric precancerous lesions by intervening in the mucosal inflammation, cell apoptosis process, and cell proliferation.

Editor’s Summary

Gastric mucosal inflammation has the potential to promote the proliferation of gastric mucosal epithelial cells and inhibit their apoptosis. However, Si-Jun-Zi decoction may exert a therapeutic effect on these process via the multi-target network level.

Abstract

Objective: To find out the potential mechanisms of Si-Jun-Zi (SJZ) decoction in the treatment of gastric precancerous lesions (GPL). Methods: A network pharmacology approach was used to analyze the active compounds, drug targets and interacting pathways of SJZ decoction in treating GPL. The compounds and predicted targets of SJZ decoction were screened from TCMSP, and the disease targets were obtained from GeneCards. The therapeutic mechanisms of action of the SJZ decoction were analyzed by gene ontology (GO) enrichment, Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes pathway enrichment analyses. Results: The results show that 111 compounds and 90 targets were obtained in this work. These targets were further mapped to 654 GO biological process terms and 21 remarkably pathways. Active compounds, targets, and pathways were used to construct a compound-target network, a target-pathways network, and an integrated GPL pathway. These results indicated that SJZ decoction may treat the dysfunctions of GPL mainly from intervening in the mucosal inflammation, cell apoptosis process, and cell proliferation. Conclusion: This work provided a novel approach to understand the pathogenesis of GPL and revealed the therapeutic mechanisms of SJZ decoction, which facilitate the modernization of herbal medicine for complex diseases in the future.

Analysis of the action mechanism of Fang Ji Huang Qi decoction in treating rheumatoid arthritis by network pharmacology
Yang Hu, Dan Chen
Traditional Medicine Research. 2018, 3 (6): 286-294.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMR201814088
Abstract ( 802 )   HTML ( 10 )     PDF (635KB) ( 362 )  

Highlights

The present study preliminarily verified the basic pharmacological action and its mechanism of Fang Ji Huang Qi decoction in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

Editor’s Summary

The method of network pharmacology not only preliminarily demenstrated the use of Fang Ji Huang Qi decoction in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, but also suggested its potential application in the treatment of cancer.

Abstract

Objective: To explore the pharmacological action mechanism of Fang Ji Huang Qi decoction (FHD) in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by network pharmacology. Methods: The chemical compositions and functional targets of the TCM were retrieved using the systematic pharmacological analysis platform TCMSP, and the gene name of each target protein was obtained from the UniProtKB network platform. The targets of RA were queried through the CTD database. The protein-protein interaction network was constructed in the STRING database, and the network visualization analysis was performed in Cytoscape. The Gene Ontology and Kyoto Gene and Genomic Encyclopedia pathways enrichment analyses of key target proteins were performed using the DAVID data platform. Results: A total of 472 drug active ingredients were screened from the TCMSP database. Seventy-five disease targets from the CTD database were screened. The compound-target network map contained further screened out 98 components and corresponding 75 targets. The key compounds included quercetin and kaempferol. The key targets were prostaglandin G/H synthase 2 and nitric oxide synthase 2. The protein-protein interaction network consisted of 75 proteins, of which 37 were key proteins, including tumor protein 53, JUN and interleukin-6. There were 260 Gene Ontology entries, of which 246 were biological processes. Fifty-five Kyoto Gene and Genomic Encyclopedia pathways were enriched, mainly the cancer pathway, NOD-like receptor signaling pathway, and Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, which are involved in the action mechanism of FHD. Conclusion: The results of this study preliminarily verified the basic pharmacological action mechanism of FHD in the treatment of RA, laying a foundation for elucidating its mechanism of action.

Network pharmacology-based approach to investigate the mechanisms of Yiyi Fuzi Baijiang Powder in the treatment of malignant tumors
Shang-Jin Song, Ren-Jie Xu, Li-Juan Xiu, Xuan Liu, Xiao-Qiang Yue
Traditional Medicine Research. 2018, 3 (6): 295-306.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMR201814089
Abstract ( 670 )   HTML ( 20 )     PDF (3721KB) ( 377 )  

Highlights

Yiyi Fuzi Baijiang Powder has the potentials to treat inflammation, pain and cancer by regulating neuroactive ligand-receptor interactions, the TNF signaling pathway, and the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway.

Editor’s Summary

This study supports Zhang Zhongjing’s original intention to treat intestinal carbuncle with ancient prescription Yiyi Fuzi Baijiang Powder, but also provides a scientific basis for its treatment in the malignant tumors.

Abstract

Objective: To systematically investigate the main active components, targets, target-related diseases and action mechanism of Yiyi Fuzi Baijiang powder (YFBP) of Zhang Zhongjing, a Chinese physician of Eastern Han Dynasty of China (3 century A.D.) using the method of network pharmacology. Methods: The active components of YFBP were identified from several databases (TCMSP, TCM Database@Taiwan and TCMID). The potential active compounds were screened based on oral bioavailability and drug-like index in the TCMSP database. DrugBank, TCMSP, and TCMID database searches were performed to predict target-related diseases. Biological functions and KEGG pathway outcomes of all potential targets were analyzed using the DAVID database. Results: A total of 24 active compounds of YFBP, 133 related targets, and 305 potential related diseases were obtained. These results showed that YFBP may treat inflammation, pain, and cancer. The functional enrichment analysis indicated that YFBP probably exerts its therapeutic effects by regulating neuroactive ligand-receptor interactions, the TNF signaling pathway, and the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway. Conclusion: This study provides preliminary confirmation that YFBP has the great potentials to treat inflammation, pain, and tumors, which supports Zhang Zhongjing’s original intention to treat intestinal carbuncle with ancient prescription YFBP, but also provides a scientific basis for its treatment in the malignant tumors.

Hypotheses of Traditional Medicine
Camel milk could be helpful in the treatment of asthma
Mohammad Ravaghi, Mahdi Yousefi, Seyed Mousalreza Hosseini, Saeed Zibaee, Zohreh Feyzabadi, Roshanak Salari
Traditional Medicine Research. 2018, 3 (6): 307-312.   https://doi.org/10.12032/TMR201814090
Abstract ( 2010 )   HTML ( 25 )     PDF (443KB) ( 469 )  

Highlights

This paper proposed a hypothesis that camel milk could be helpful in the treatment of asthma.

Editor’s Summary

Food is a double-edged sword of health. On the one hand, cow milk could lead to the occurence of asthma. On the other hand, camel milk could be used to treat asthma via its effects of immunoregulation, antiinflammation and antioxygenation.

Abstract

Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease with excessive irritability and airway narrowing and inflammation plays an important role in it. There are 300 million asthmatic people in the world currently. Main treatments for asthma include two groups of bronchodilators and inflammation controllers. Researches was continued in order to reach new treatments to reduce drug side effects and treatment-resistant cases or the types associated with weak treatment response. Today, World Health Organization recommends the application of traditional medicine especially in underdeveloped countries because of insufficient health resources and spread of diseases. Iranian traditional medicine (ITM) or Persian medicine is one of the oldest comprehensive traditional medicines with thousands years history which could help us to manage different diseases. The aim of this hypothesis is to investigate the camel milk as a complementary treatment of asthma because this chronic disease is sometimes resistant or response weakly to the treatment. In this article, the administration of camel milk in lung inflammatory diseases was studied by searching the PubMed and Scopus scientific databases. The results of this study indicated that camel milk due to having anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and anti-oxidant effects could decrease the levels of inflammatory factors such as tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-17 (IL-17), IL-6, IL-1B and transforming growth factor-β1 in a human and animal samples with inflammatory diseases. Besides, based on ITM, camel milk was used in treatment patients with asthma. But, clinical studies are needed to validate the effectiveness of camel milk in asthma and its mechanisms.

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