The paper reviewed researches concerning toxicology of traditional medicine (TM) and active natural products during the past 12 months, and find that liver, kidney and heart are the mainly toxic target organs of TM. In addition, the drug safety for the maternal and child began to be focused on in 2019, and safety assessment of Aconitum carmichaeli Debx, Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. f., Strychnos nux-vomica L., Fallopia multiflora (Thunb.) Harald, etc. is still hot issue.
This annual review summarized the new toxicology study technology, common evaluated models, toxic target organs, safety evaluation of TM in different kinds of people and popular research issues and herbs in 2019. Compared to 2018, many counties like Australia, Germany and UK start to pay attention to the safety evaluation of TM.
There were many researches concerning toxicology of traditional medicine (TM) and active natural products during the past 12 months. This annual toxicology review summarized target organs of TM like liver, kidney and heart. Safety medication of TM has been concerned to different kinds of people, including infants, children, pregnancy and the postnatal period. Besides rodents, zebrafish embryoes have been regarded as common models to evaluate the safety of TM. New technologies in toxicology focus on rapidly screening and identification of toxins in TM. Multispectral optoacoustic tomography imaging the precise location of TM-induced liver injury with 3D information and integrating serum exosomal microRNA and liver microRNA profiles are used to explain the mechanism of TM-induced hepatotoxicity. Taken together, study on the toxicity mechanism of other target organs, drug safety in elders, new models and methods should be paid attention to in the prevention of TM toxicology in the future.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has recently become a public health concern worldwide. The use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) may have substantial impact on COVID-19. In this review, we summarize the disease pathogenesis, clinical outcomes, and current applications of TCM for the treatment of COVID-19.
The pathogenesis and clinical symptoms related to severe respiratory disease were described many years ago in TCM texts. The ancient book of TCM Huang Di Nei Jing (Inner Canon of Huangdi) was written during the Western Han Dynasty of China (dated approximately 99 B.C.E.-26 B.C.E.); the text recorded a plague that could transmit disease from human-to-human with symptoms that were similar to those described for COVID-19. Three additional texts, notably Shang Han Za Bing Lun (Treatise on Cold Damage Diseases) written by Zhang Zhongjing (200 C.E.-210 C.E.), Wen Yi Lun (Theory of Plague) and Wen Re Lun (Translated Theory of Warm) written by Wu Youke (1642 C.E.), recorded therapies and formulas that were effective at treating infectious diseases; among them, the classical prescription Da Yuan Yin and the use of human variolation were considered as means to prevent smallpox. Currently, the use of TCM has resulted in remarkable improvement and alleviation of symptoms in COVID-19 patients.
Since late December in 2019, the coronavirus disease 2019 has received extensive attention for its widespread prevalence. A number of clinical workers and researchers have made great efforts to understand the pathogenesis and clinical characteristics and develop effective drugs for treatment. However, no effective drugs with antiviral effects on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 have been discovered currently. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has gained abundant experience in the treatment of infectious diseases for thousands of years. In this review, the authors summarized the clinical outcome, pathogensis and current application of TCM on coronavirus disease 2019. Further, we discussed the potential mechanisms and the future research directions of TCM against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2.
The annual review summarizes the research pertaining to different Chinese minority traditional medicine (CMTM) published in 2019. The focus of these studies is on the pharmacological effects and mechanisms of the ethnodrug and prescriptions/therapies used in ethnic areas.
CMTM is an important part of traditional Chinese medicine. It exhibits characteristics of nationality, region, and tradition. Tibetan medicine first appeared around 500 B.C.E. At the end of the 8th century C.E., the development of “Si Bu Yi Dian (Four Medical Tantras)” by the Tibetan medicine scientist Yutuo Ningma Yundan Gongbu provided a theoretical foundation for Tibetan medicine. Before the 7th century C.E., Mongolian medicine was in its infancy. In the 16th century C.E., Mongolian medicine assimilated several classical medical theories and useful experiences from Tibetan, Han, and other nationalities. This eventually leads to the development of a Mongolian medical theory system with Mongolian characteristics. Uyghur medicine has arduously developed over a period of more than 2,500 years. The origin of Uyghur medicine traces back to the ancient Neolithic period in the Western Regions. At the beginning of the 12th century, the Uyghur medicine scientist Alaodin Mohanmude Hetianni wrote the “Zubdatul Kawanil Ilaj (Zhi Liao Jing Hua, Healing Essences)” and “TibbiFitki (Fa Yi, Forensics)”. The copy of this handwritten work is circulating to this day.
Traditional medicine systems practiced by various ethnic minorities represent an important part of traditional Chinese medicine. The past 12 months have witnessed extensive research pertaining to different Chinese minority traditional medicine (CMTM). The annual CMTM review evaluates research published during 2019 in different CMTM including Tibetan medicine, Uyghur medicine, Mongolian medicine, Korean medicine and Zhuang medicine. Research in the field of Tibetan medicine focused on pharmacology, pharmacy, plant sciences, medicinal chemistry and integrated complementary medicine and the top three countries were China, USA and India. Research in Uyghur medicine mainly pertained to chemistry, pharmacology, pharmacy, and food science technology and the publications were mainly from China. Research in Mongolian medicine mainly pertained to pharmacology, pharmacy, analytical chemistry, biochemistry, molecular biology and experimental research; the publications were mainly from China and Mongolia. In short, research related to traditional medicine of various ethnic minorities was mainly conducted in China and the neighboring countries. The research focus for each minority medicine is essentially on the effects and mechanisms of action of the active ingredients of the ethnodrugs and the special prescriptions or therapies. The generated evidence will facilitate further developments in this field.
This review covered pharmacological reports of studies conducted during 2019 using traditional medicine and herb-derived active natural products. Pharmacological reports using active natural products that targeted cancers were the predominant hot topics. Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, together with diabetes and metabolic diseases, are ongoing research areas for traditional medicine. Moreover, inflammation and infectious disease are also attracting more attention by researchers.
This annual integrative pharmacology review analyzed the pharmacological studies of traditional medicine in different diseases during 2019, which is able to provide a comprehensive description of the hot spot and ongoing research areas.
Representative studies concerning the pharmacology of traditional medicine and active herbal products have been summarized over the past 12 months. This annual integrative pharmacology review encompasses research articles published during 2019 on the bioactive compounds and extracts used in traditional medicine. Reports highlighting the pharmacology progress of traditional medicine were specifically introduced, including artemisinin for cancer cell sensibility and induction to ferroptosis, rutin for neuroinflammation suppression, Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma for gut microbiota regulation against obesity, green tea and Pu-erh tea for metabolic syndrome, and marine-derived oligosaccharide (GV-971) from brown algae for anti-dementia. Moreover, novel TCM molecular targets and pharmacological mechanisms were trialed against different human diseases, including cancers, cardiovascular, cerebrovascular diseases, diabetes, and metabolic diseases. Notably, herb-derived bioactive products have become important treatment alternatives for cancer research in 2019. Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, together with diabetes and metabolic diseases, are ongoing research areas for traditional medicine. Moreover, inflammation and infectious disease are also attracting more attention by researchers, which might have been influenced by seasonal influenza or HIV/Ebola viral infections. Further traditional medicine investigations are required in neurodegenerative diseases, depression, and mental diseases. Taken together, the findings of the integrative pharmacology review in 2019 provide a vast number of novel lead compounds or drug candidates for future clinical agent development and also details a novel series of attractive therapeutic targets and molecular mechanisms for human diseases.
The paper reviewed the research progress of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and traditional medicine in other countries used as tumor therapies in 2019. The anti-tumor effects of Chinese herbal medicine-derived phytochemicals, such as polyphenols, polysaccharides, saponins, and alkaloids were the new research targets for 2019. The anti-tumor effects of TCM formula such as Sijunzi decoction and Xiaopi formula have attracted the most attention in the past year.
This annual review summarized the research progress of several traditional medicines used as tumor therapies in 2019. Studies of tumors treated with TCM are popular worldwide and obtain the most attention. In addition to TCM, we also focused on the anti-tumor studies of other traditional medicines, including traditional African medicine, traditional Korean medicine, traditional Japanese medicine, etc.
Today, the treatment of tumors remains a difficult problem. Traditional medicine has been used to treat cancer in different countries worldwide. However, while traditional medicine is popular globally, it is not yet accepted by Western medicine as some of the ingredients and the mechanism of action for the therapeutic effect have not been fully elucidated. Thus, scholars studying traditional medicine in the treatment of cancer have strived to solve this problem. In this review, we summarized the research progress of several traditional medicines used as tumor therapies in 2019 from the PubMed database. Studies of tumors treated with traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) are popular worldwide and obtain the most attention, which attracts more researchers to this field. The anti-tumor effects of Chinese herbal medicine-derived phytochemicals, such as polyphenols, polysaccharides, saponins, and alkaloids were the new research targets for 2019. The anti-tumor effects of TCM formula such as Sijunzi decoction, and Xiaopi formula have attracted the most attention in the past year. In addition to TCM, we also focused on the anti-tumor studies of other traditional medicines, including Thai traditional medicine, traditional medicine in Sri Lanka, traditional African medicine, traditional Korean medicine, and traditional Japanese medicine.
This review covers the research progress during 2018 for pharmacological studies on traditional medicine and active natural products. The pharmacological reports on traditional medicine against cancers and diabetes were still hot issues.
This annual integrative pharmacology review analyzed the different growth rates and progress of traditional medicine in different diseases, which is able to provide a comprehensive description of the hot spot and development.
A number of researches concerning pharmacology of traditional medicine and active natural products over the past 12 months have outlined the importance of reviewing the progress. This annual integrative pharmacology review evaluates researches published during 2018 in different diseases including cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, cancers, diabetes and metabolic diseases, and so on. The emphasis is on bioactive compounds and extracts from traditional herbs, as well as the novel molecular targets and mechanisms. Moreover, some traditional prescriptions in China and other geographical locations have also been included.
1. Liver and kidney are the mainly toxic target organs of traditional medicine.
2. Recently, zebrafish embryoes are popular to evaluate the safety of traditional medicine.
3. The safety assessment of Aconitum, Tripterygium, Strychnine, etc. is still hot issue.
This annual review summarized different analysis methods of toxicology research, common evaluated models, toxic target organs, toxic mechanisms, and popular research issues and herbs in 2018. China, India, USA and Morocco were ranked from the first to fourth important countries researching the toxicology of traditional medicine.
There were many researches concerning toxicology of traditional medicine (TM) and active natural products during the past 12 months. This annual toxicology review summarized different analysis methods of toxicology research, common evaluated models, toxic target organs, toxic mechanisms, and popular research issues and herbs in 2018. The emphasis was on hepatorenal toxicity induced by TM through cell apoptosis, metabolic disorder, oxidative stress, inflammatory damage, liver and renal fibrosis and even inducing carcinogenesis. Meanwhile, traditional herbs were listed in this review. Taken together, the herbs mentioned in this paper should be used with caution. Combination of TM, processing drugs, quality control and dose control can be used in the prevention of TM toxicology in the future.
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